[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:
This study aimed to analyse data from two different studies (Phase II and Phase III) regarding the safety and efficacy of treatment with alum formulated glutamic acid decarboxylase GAD65 (GAD-alum), 30 months after administration to children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes (T1D).
The Phase II trial was a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study, including 70 children and adolescents which were followed for 30 months. Participants received a subcutaneous injection of either 20 µg of GAD-alum or placebo at baseline and one month later. During a subsequent larger European Phase III trial including three treatment arms, participants received two or four subcutaneous injections of either 20 µg of GAD-alum and/or placebo at baseline, 1, 3 and 9 months. The Phase III trial was prematurely interrupted at 15 months, but of the 148 Swedish patients, a majority completed the 21 months follow-up and 45 patients completed the trial at 30 months. Both studies included GADA-positive patients with fasting C-peptide ≥0.10 nmol/l. We have now combined the results of these two trials.
There were no treatment related adverse events. In patients treated with 2 GAD-alum doses, stimulated C-peptide AUC had decreased significantly less (9 m: p < 0.037; 15 m p < 0.032; 21 m p < 0.003 and 30 m p < 0.004) and a larger proportion of these patients were also able to achieve a peak stimulated C-peptide >0.2 nmol/l (p < 0.05), as compared to placebo.
Treatment with two doses of GAD-alum in children and adolescents with recent-onset T1D shows no adverse events and preserves residual insulin secretion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVEGAD formulated in aluminum hydroxide (GAD-alum) has previously been shown to induce preservation of residual insulin secretion in recent-onset type 1 diabetes, but recent phase II and III GAD-alum trials failed to reach primary outcomes. The European phase III study was therefore closed after 15 months, and only a minority of patients completed the 30 months of follow-up.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
This study was aimed to characterize cellular and humoral responses in the Swedish patients (n = 148) participating in the phase III trial, receiving four (4D) or two (2D) GAD-alum doses or placebo. Serum GAD65 antibody (GADA) levels, GADA IgG1-4 subclass distribution, cytokine secretion, and proliferative responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were analyzed.RESULTSThe GAD65-induced cytokine profile tended to switch toward a predominant Th2-associated profile over time both in the 2D and 4D group. The groups also displayed increased GADA levels and PBMC proliferation compared with placebo, whereas GADA IgG subclass distribution changed in 4D patients.CONCLUSIONS
Both 2D and 4D patients displayed GAD65-specifc cellular and humoral effects after GAD-alum treatment, but at different time points and magnitudes. No specific immune markers could be associated with treatment efficacy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65 formulated with aluminium hydroxide (GAD-alum) was effective in preserving insulin secretion in a Phase II clinical trial in children and adolescents with recent-onset type 1 diabetes. In addition, GAD-alum treated patients increased CD4(+) CD25(hi) forkhead box protein 3(+) (FoxP3(+) ) cell numbers in response to in-vitro GAD65 stimulation. We have carried out a 4-year follow-up study of 59 of the original 70 patients to investigate long-term effects on the frequency and function of regulatory T cells after GAD-alum treatment. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated in vitro with GAD65 for 7 days and expression of regulatory T cell markers was measured by flow cytometry. Regulatory T cells (CD4(+) CD25(hi) CD127(lo) ) and effector T cells (CD4(+) CD25(-) CD127(+) ) were further sorted, expanded and used in suppression assays to assess regulatory T cell function after GAD-alum treatment. GAD-alum-treated patients displayed higher frequencies of in-vitro GAD65 -induced CD4(+) CD25(+) CD127(+) as well as CD4(+) CD25(hi) CD127(lo) and CD4(+) FoxP3(+) cells compared to placebo. Moreover, GAD65 stimulation induced a population of CD4(hi) cells consisting mainly of CD25(+) CD127(+) , which was specific of GAD-alum-treated patients (16 of 25 versus one of 25 in placebo). Assessment of suppressive function in expanded regulatory T cells revealed no difference between GAD-alum- and placebo-treated individuals. Regulatory T cell frequency did not correlate with C-peptide secretion throughout the study. In conclusion, GAD-alum treatment induced both GAD65 -reactive CD25(+) CD127(+) and CD25(hi) CD127(lo) cells, but no difference in regulatory T cell function 4 years after GAD-alum treatment.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Clinical & Experimental Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabet. Med. 29, 1272–1278 (2012)
Aim The balance between T helper cell subsets is an important regulator of the immune system and is often examined after immune therapies. We aimed to study the immunomodulatory effect of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65 formulated with aluminium hydroxide (GAD-alum) in children with Type 1 diabetes, focusing on chemokines and their receptors.
Methods Blood samples were collected from 70 children with Type 1 diabetes included in a phase II clinical trial with GAD-alum. Expression of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and CCR4 was analysed on CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes after in vitro stimulation with GAD65 using flow cytometry, and secretion of the chemokines CCL2, CCL3 and CCL4 was detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cell supernatants with Luminex.
Results Expression of Th1-associated CCR5 was down-regulated following antigen challenge, together with an increased CCR4/CCR5 ratio and CCL2 secretion in GAD-alum-treated patients, but not in the placebo group.
Conclusion Our results suggest that GAD-alum treatment has induced a favourable immune modulation associated with decreased Th1/Tc1 phenotypes upon antigen re-challenge, which may be of importance for regulating GAD65 immunity.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Diabetic Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Plusieurs essais cliniques de vaccination à l’aide d’antigènes des cellules bêta tels que l’insuline et la GAD se sont révélés décevants chez les patients diabétiques de type 1. Il est donc important de comprendre les effets immunologiques induits par ces traitements afin d’améliorer les essais cliniques ultérieurs.
Patients et méthodes
Nous avons participé à l’analyse des réponses des anticorps et des lymphocytes T dirigés contre l’insuline et la GAD après traitement par ces deux antigènes dans le cadre de deux protocoles cliniques: un protocole australien de vaccination par insuline intra-nasale, sans adjuvant, administrée chez des patients diabétiques adultes non encore traités par insuline; et une vaccination sous-cutanée avec la GAD en présence de l’adjuvant alun chez des enfants diabétiques de type 1 suédois.
Le traitement par insuline intra-nasale n’a pas retardé la perte de fonction bêta-cellulaire résiduelle ni le passage à l’insulinothérapie chez les patients traités par rapport au groupe placebo. Toutefois, les analyses immunologiques ont révélé une induction efficace de la tolérance immunitaire vis-à-vis de l’insuline, au niveau de réponses des lymphocytes T ainsi que des réponses anticorpales. Le traitement par GAD-alun en sous-cutané chez les enfants diabétiques suédois a été associé à une meilleur préservation de la fonction bêta-cellulaire pour les patients traités précocement. Le traitement a induit aussi une augmentation des titres des anticorps anti-GAD associés à des réponses T productrices des cytokines de type Th1 (IFN-γ, TNF-α), Th2 (IL-5, IL-13) et T régulatrices (IL-10).
Ces résultats suggèrent que la formulation antigénique (sans ou avec adjuvant) et la voie de vaccination induisent des effets immunologiques différents. La présence de biomarqueurs de tolérance immunitaire ne s’associe pas à des bénéfices cliniques significatifs, suggérant la nécessité d’intervenir plus précocement ou d’associer plusieurs antigènes pour obtenir un effet de tolérance plus complet.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Diabetes & Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A phase II clinical trial with glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65 formulated with aluminium hydroxide (GAD-alum) has shown efficacy in preserving residual insulin secretion in children and adolescents with recent-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D). We have performed a 4-year follow-up study of 59 of the original 70 patients to investigate long-term cellular and humoral immune responses after GAD-alum-treatment. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were stimulated in vitro with GAD(65). Frequencies of naïve, central and effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were measured, together with cytokine secretion, proliferation, gene expression and serum GAD(65) autoantibody (GADA) levels. We here show that GAD-alum-treated patients display increased memory T-cell frequencies and prompt T-cell activation upon in vitro stimulation with GAD(65), but not with control antigens, compared with placebo subjects. GAD(65)-induced T-cell activation was accompanied by secretion of T helper (Th) 1, Th2 and T regulatory cytokines and by induction of T-cell inhibitory pathways. Moreover, post-treatment serum GADA titres remained persistently increased in the GAD-alum arm, but did not inhibit GAD(65) enzymatic activity. In conclusion, memory T- and B-cell responses persist 4 years after GAD-alum-treatment. In parallel to a GAD(65)-induced T-cell activation, our results show induction of T-cell inhibitory pathways important for regulating the GAD(65) immunity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of alum formulated glutamic acid decarboxylase GAD(65) (GAD-alum) treatment of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes after 4 years of follow-up. Seventy children and adolescents aged 10-18 years with recent onset type 1 diabetes participated in a phase II, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial. Patients identified as possible participants attended one of eight clinics in Sweden to receive information about the study and for an eligibility check, including a medical history. Participants were randomised to one of the two treatment groups and received either a subcutaneous injection of 20 mu g of GAD-alum or placebo at baseline and 1 month later. The study was blinded to participants and investigators until month 30. The study was unblinded at 15 months to the sponsor and statistician in order to evaluate the data. At follow-up after 30 months there was a significant preservation of residual insulin secretion, as measured by C-peptide, in the group receiving GAD-alum compared with placebo. This was particularly evident in patients with andlt; 6 months disease duration at baseline. There were no treatment-related serious adverse events. We have now followed these patients for 4 years. Overall, 59 patients, 29 who had been treated with GAD-alum and 30 who had received placebo, gave their informed consent. One patient in each treatment group experienced an episode of keto-acidosis between months 30 and 48. There were no treatment-related adverse events. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in fasting C-peptide concentration from baseline to 15 months after the prime injection for all participants per protocol set. In the GAD-alum group fasting C-peptide was 0.332 +/- 0.032 nmol/l at day 1 and 0.215 +/- 0.031 nmol/l at month 15. The corresponding figures for the placebo group were 0.354 +/- 0.039 and 0.184 +/- 0.033 nmol/l, respectively. The decline in fasting C-peptide levels between day 1 and month 1, was smaller in the GAD-alum group than the placebo group. The difference between the treatment groups was not statistically significant. In those patients who were treated within 6 months of diabetes diagnosis, fasting C-peptide had decreased significantly less in the GAD-alum group than in the placebo-treated group after 4 years. Four years after treatment with GAD-alum, children and adolescents with recent-onset type 1 diabetes continue to show no adverse events and possibly to show clinically relevant preservation of C-peptide. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00435981 The study was funded by The Swedish Research Council K2008-55X-20652-01-3, Barndiabetesfonden (The Swedish Child Diabetes Foundation), the Research Council of Southeast Sweden, and an unrestricted grant from Diamyd Medical AB. The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com:Johnny Ludvigsson, Maria Hjorth, Mikael Chéramy, Stina Axelsson, Mikael Pihl, G Forsander, N -O Nilsson, B-O Samuelsson, T Wood, J Aman, E Ortqvist and Rosaura Casas, Extended evaluation of the safety and efficacy of GAD treatment of children and adolescents with recent-onset type 1 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial, 2011, DIABETOLOGIA, (54), 3, 634-640.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-010-1988-1Copyright: Springer Science Business Mediahttp://www.springerlink.com/
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that two injections of 20 µg alum-formulated glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD(65)) (GAD-alum; Diamyd(®)) in children with recent-onset type 1 diabetes lead to preservation of residual insulin secretion. In vitro cytokine production at the 15 months' follow-up indicated immunomodulation. In the present study, we took advantage of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, cryopreserved during early follow-ups, to investigate whether the immunomodulatory effect of GAD-alum was apparent earlier after treatment, preceding the changes previously reported at 15 months.
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 70 type 1 diabetic children, randomly assigned GAD-alum (n = 35) or placebo (n = 35), that had been frozen at baseline (n = 27) and after 1 (n = 58), 3 (n = 67) and 9 (n = 66) months, were stimulated in vitro with GAD(65), tyrosine phosphatase-like protein IA-2 peptide, insulin peptide, GAD-alum, alum formulation or phytohaemagglutinin. Interleukin (IL)-5, -6, -10, -12, -13, -17, tumour necrosis factor and interferon-γ were measured in cell supernatants and serum samples using Luminex. Expression of FOXP3 and transforming growth factor-β was determined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.
Already 1 month after the first injection, GAD(65)-induced IL-5 and IL-13 together with FOXP3 were enhanced in GAD-alum-treated patients compared to those with placebo. The in vitro response at 3 and 9 months was characterized by a broader range of cytokines in the treated group. Notably, only the T-helper 2-associated cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 together with FOXP3 increased continuously over time.
Treatment with GAD-alum in type 1 diabetic children induced an early T-helper 2 immune enhanced response to GAD(65), followed by a wider spectrum of cytokines at 3 and 9 months.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes results from autoimmune destruction of insulin producing pancreatic β-cells. We have shown that treatment with alum-formulated glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD-alum) preserved residual insulin secretion and induced antigen-specific responses in children with recent onset type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to further investigate the immunomodulatory effect of GAD-alum, focusing on CD4(+)CD25(high) cells and their association to cytokine secretion. Samples obtained 21 and 30months after the initial injection of GAD-alum or placebo were included in the present study. GAD(65)-stimulation enhanced the percentage of CD4(+)CD25(high)FOXP3(+) cells, but reduced the percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+) cells, in samples from the GAD-alum treated group. Further, the GAD(65)-induced secretion of IL-5, -10, and -13 correlated with the expression of CD4(+)CD25(high)FOXP3(+) cells, but inversely with CD4(+)CD25(+) cells. These new data suggest that GAD-alum treatment induced GAD(65)-specific T cells with regulatory features.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Clinical Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 65-kD isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is a major autoantigen in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. This trial assessed the ability of alum-formulated GAD (GAD-alum) to reverse recent-onset type 1 diabetes in patients 10 to 18 years of age.
We randomly assigned 70 patients with type 1 diabetes who had fasting C-peptide levels above 0.1 nmol per liter (0.3 ng per milliliter) and GAD autoantibodies, recruited within 18 months after receiving the diagnosis of diabetes, to receive subcutaneous injections of 20 microg of GAD-alum (35 patients) or placebo (alum alone, 35 patients) on study days 1 and 30. At day 1 and months 3, 9, 15, 21, and 30, patients underwent a mixed-meal tolerance test to stimulate residual insulin secretion (measured as the C-peptide level). The effect of GAD-alum on the immune system was also studied.
Insulin secretion gradually decreased in both study groups. The study treatment had no significant effect on change in fasting C-peptide level after 15 months (the primary end point). Fasting C-peptide levels declined from baseline levels significantly less over 30 months in the GAD-alum group than in the placebo group (-0.21 vs. -0.27 nmol per liter [-0.62 vs. -0.81 ng per milliliter], P=0.045), as did stimulated secretion measured as the area under the curve (-0.72 vs. -1.02 nmol per liter per 2 hours [-2.20 vs. -3.08 ng per milliliter per 2 hours], P=0.04). No protective effect was seen in patients treated 6 months or more after receiving the diagnosis. Adverse events appeared to be mild and similar in frequency between the two groups. The GAD-alum treatment induced a GAD-specific immune response.
GAD-alum may contribute to the preservation of residual insulin secretion in patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes, although it did not change the insulin requirement. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00435981.)
Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · New England Journal of Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the role of the T cell-mediated autoimmune reaction in type 1 diabetes (T1D) is conclusive, studies including data from human circulating CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes subsets during the disease onset and posterior development are scarce. Further, chemokines and chemokine receptors are key players in the migration of pathogenic T cells into the islets of non-obese diabetic mice developing T1D, but few studies have investigated these markers in human T1D patients. We studied the expression of T helper 1 (Th1)- and Th2-associated chemokine receptors, and the two isoforms of CD45 leucocyte antigen on CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes from T1D and healthy children, as well as the secretion of chemokines in cell supernatants in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Our results showed increased expression of CCR7 and CD45RA and reduced CD45RO on CD8(+) cells among recent-onset T1D patients. The percentages of CD4(+) cells expressing CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3), CXCR6 and CCR5, and the secretion of interferon-gamma-induced protein-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha and MIP-1beta was lower among diabetics. Low expression of Th1-associated receptors and secretion of chemokines, together with an increased amount of CD8(+) cells expressing CD45RA and CCR7 in T1D patients therefore might represent suboptimal Th function in T1D, leading to impaired T cytotoxic responses or alternatively reflect a selective recruitment of Th1 cells into the pancreas.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are commonly used when assessing immune responses in clinical trials, both for practical reasons and to minimize interassay variation, as samples are often collected and studied over time. This study investigated the effect of cryopreservation on cytokine and chemokine secretion, and on expression of regulatory T-cell associated markers, in samples from children with type 1 diabetes. PBMC were cultured before and after cryopreservation either with GAD(65) or PHA. Secretion of cytokines (IL-5, -6, -10, -12, -13 -17, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha) and chemokines (IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta and RANTES) was analysed in cell supernatants using multiplex fluorochrome technique (Luminex). Expression of FOXP3 and TGF-beta mRNA was detected by multiplex real-time RT-PCR. Increased spontaneous secretion of IL-6, -10, -12, -13, IFN-gamma and MCP-1, and mRNA expression of FOXP3 and TGF-beta, was detected after cryopreservation. Stimulation with GAD(65) induced higher levels of IL-6, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and MIP-1alpha, whereas lower secretion was found for IL-10 and IL-13 in cryopreserved PBMC. Stimulation with PHA induced lower secretion of IP-10, MCP-1 and RANTES and FOXP3 mRNA expression after cryopreservation. Thus, cryopreserved PBMC were suitable to assess the immunological markers included in this study, even though their expression could differ from freshly handled cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. Several studies suggest an association between venous thromboembolism and the use of antipsychotic drugs, especially clozapine, but the biological mechanisms are unknown. It has been suggested that antipsychotic drugs enhance aggregation of platelets and thereby increase the risk of venous thrombosis. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of clozapine and its main metabolite, N-desmethyl clozapine, as well as olanzapine, risperidone and haloperidol, on platelet adhesion and aggregation and on plasma coagulation in vitro. 2. Blood was collected from healthy subjects free of medication. Platelet adhesion to different protein surfaces and aggregation were measured in microplates. The coagulation methods of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time were performed in platelet-poor plasma. 3. Clozapine was the only compound that increased platelet adhesion and aggregation and shortened APTT. The effect appeared at therapeutic concentrations and was significant but weak. 4. This weak effect of clozapine on haemostasis may explain, in part, the association of this compound and venous thromboembolism.
No preview · Article · Sep 2007 · Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology