[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rationale:
Myocardial diastolic stiffness and cardiomyocyte passive force (F(passive)) depend in part on titin isoform composition and phosphorylation. Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-II (CaMKII) phosphorylates ion channels, Ca(2+)-handling proteins, and chromatin-modifying enzymes in the heart, but has not been known to target titin.
To elucidate whether CaMKII phosphorylates titin and modulates F(passive) in normal and failing myocardium.
Methods and results:
Titin phosphorylation was assessed in CaMKIIδ/γ double-knockout (DKO) mouse, transgenic CaMKIIδC-overexpressing mouse, and human hearts, by Pro-Q-Diamond/Sypro-Ruby staining, autoradiography, and immunoblotting using phosphoserine-specific titin-antibodies. CaMKII-dependent site-specific titin phosphorylation was quantified in vivo by mass spectrometry using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture mouse heart mixed with wild-type (WT) or DKO heart. F(passive) of single permeabilized cardiomyocytes was recorded before and after CaMKII-administration. All-titin phosphorylation was reduced by >50% in DKO but increased by up to ≈100% in transgenic versus WT hearts. Conserved CaMKII-dependent phosphosites were identified within the PEVK-domain of titin by quantitative mass spectrometry and confirmed in recombinant human PEVK-fragments. CaMKII also phosphorylated the cardiac titin N2B-unique sequence. Phosphorylation at specific PEVK/titin N2B-unique sequence sites was decreased in DKO and amplified in transgenic versus WT hearts. F(passive) was elevated in DKO and reduced in transgenic compared with WT cardiomyocytes. CaMKII-administration lowered F(passive) of WT and DKO cardiomyocytes, an effect blunted by titin antibody pretreatment. Human end-stage failing hearts revealed higher CaMKII expression/activity and phosphorylation at PEVK/titin N2B-unique sequence sites than nonfailing donor hearts.
CaMKII phosphorylates the titin springs at conserved serines/threonines, thereby lowering F(passive). Deranged CaMKII-dependent titin phosphorylation occurs in heart failure and contributes to altered diastolic stress.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Circulation Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation impairs atrial contractility, inducing atrial stunning that promotes thromboembolic stroke. Action potential (AP)-prolonging drugs are reported to normalize atrial hypocontractility caused by atrial tachycardia remodeling (ATR). Here, we addressed the role of AP duration (APD) changes in ATR-induced hypocontractility.
ATR (7-day tachypacing) decreased APD (perforated patch recording) by ≈50%, atrial contractility (echocardiography, cardiomyocyte video edge detection), and [Ca(2+)](i) transients. ATR AP waveforms suppressed [Ca(2+)](i) transients and cell shortening of control cardiomyocytes; whereas control AP waveforms improved [Ca(2+)](i) transients and cell shortening in ATR cells. However, ATR cardiomyocytes clamped with the same control AP waveform had ≈60% smaller [Ca(2+)](i) transients and cell shortening than control cells. We therefore sought additional mechanisms of contractile impairment. Whole-cell voltage clamp revealed reduced I(CaL); I(CaL) inhibition superimposed on ATR APs further suppressed [Ca(2+)](i) transients in control cells. Confocal microscopy indicated ATR-impaired propagation of the Ca(2+) release signal to the cell center in association with loss of t-tubular structures. Myofilament function studies in skinned permeabilized cardiomyocytes showed altered Ca(2+) sensitivity and force redevelopment in ATR, possibly due to hypophosphorylation of myosin-binding protein C and myosin light-chain protein 2a (immunoblot). Hypophosphorylation was related to multiple phosphorylation system abnormalities where protein kinase A regulatory subunits were downregulated, whereas autophosphorylation and expression of Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIδ and protein phosphatase 1 activity were enhanced. Recovery of [Ca(2+)](i) transients and cell shortening occurred in parallel after ATR cessation.
Shortening of APD contributes to hypocontractility induced by 1-week ATR but accounts for it only partially. Additional contractility-suppressing mechanisms include I(CaL) current reduction, impaired subcellular Ca(2+) signal transmission, and altered myofilament function associated with abnormal myosin and myosin-associated protein phosphorylation. The complex mechanistic basis of the atrial hypocontractility associated with AF argues for upstream therapeutic targeting rather than interventions directed toward specific downstream pathophysiological derangements.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Circulation Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myofilament contractility of individual cardiomyocytes is depressed in remote noninfarcted myocardium and contributes to global left ventricular pump dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI). Here, we investigated whether beta-blocker therapy could restore myofilament contractility.
In pigs with a MI induced by ligation of the left circumflex coronary artery, beta-blocker therapy (bisoprolol, MI+beta) was initiated on the first day after MI. Remote left ventricular subendocardial biopsies were taken 3 weeks after sham or MI surgery. Isometric force was measured in single permeabilized cardiomyocytes. Maximal force (F(max)) was lower, whereas Ca(2+) sensitivity was higher in untreated MI compared with sham (both P<0.05). The difference in Ca(2+) sensitivity was abolished by treatment of cells with the beta-adrenergic kinase, protein kinase A. beta-blocker therapy partially reversed F(max) and Ca(2+) sensitivity to sham values and significantly reduced passive force. Despite the lower myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity in MI+beta compared with untreated myocardium, the protein kinase A induced reduction in Ca(2+) sensitivity was largest in cardiomyocytes from myocardium treated with beta-blockers. Phosphorylation of beta-adrenergic target proteins (myosin binding protein C and troponin I) did not differ among groups, whereas myosin light chain 2 phosphorylation was reduced in MI, which coincided with increased expression of protein phosphatase 1. beta-blockade fully restored the latter alterations and significantly reduced expression of protein phosphatase 2a.
beta-blockade reversed myofilament dysfunction and enhanced myofilament responsiveness to protein kinase A in remote myocardium after MI. These effects likely contribute to the beneficial effects of beta-blockade on global left ventricular function after MI.
Full-text · Article · May 2009 · Circulation Heart Failure
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Altered titin isoforms may modify cardiac function in heart failure (HF), but the nature of isoform switches and associated functional implications are not well defined. Limited studies have reported an increased compliant isoform (N2BA) expression in human systolic HF. Titin may also modulate stretch-regulated responses such as myocardial natriuretic peptide production.
We characterized titin isoform expression and extracellular matrix in all 4 cardiac chambers and the left ventricular (LV) epicardium and endocardium in normal dogs (n=6) and those with HF (n=6) due to tachypacing and characterized functional implications at the LV myofiber and chamber level. Recognizing the potential for uncoupling of the extracellular matrix and cardiomyocyte in tachypacing, myocardial natriuretic peptide production, a molecular marker of stretch-regulated responses, was also assessed. All chambers were dilated in HF, but the extracellular matrix was not increased. HF dogs had markedly lower N2BA in the atria and right ventricle. In failing LVs, N2BA was decreased only in the epicardium, where myofiber passive stiffness was increased. However, LV chamber mechanics were driven by the marked LV dilatation, with no increase in LV diastolic stiffness. Natriuretic peptide concentrations increased markedly in the endocardium in relation to increases in LV wall stress.
Tachypacing HF is characterized by decreases in compliant titin isoform expression in the atria, right ventricle, and LV epicardium. However, LV chamber mechanics are principally determined by geometric and extracellular matrix changes rather than titin-based myofiber stiffness in this model. Stretch-regulated myocardial responses (natriuretic peptide production) appeared intact, suggesting that the mechanotransduction role of titin was not impaired in HF.