[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Currently there are more and more studies on the association between short-term effects of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and the morbidity of stroke attack, but few have focused on stroke subtypes. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between PM and stroke subtypes attack, which is uncertain now.
Meta-analyses, meta-regression and subgroup analyses were conducted to investigate the association between short-term effects of exposure to PM and the morbidity of different stroke subtypes from a number of epidemiologic studies (from 1997 to 2012).
Nineteen articles were identified. Odds ratio (OR) of stroke attack associated with particular matter ("thoracic particles" [PM10]<10 µm in aerodynamic diameter, "fine particles" [PM2.5]<2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter) increment of 10 µg/m3 was as effect size. PM10 exposure was related to an increase in risk of stroke attack (OR per 10 µg/m3 = 1.004, 95%CI: 1.001∼1.008) and PM2.5 exposure was not significantly associated with stroke attack (OR per 10 µg/m3 = 0.999, 95%CI: 0.994∼1.003). But when focused on stroke subtypes, PM2.5 (OR per 10 µg/m3 = 1.025; 95%CI, 1.001∼1.049) and PM10 (OR per 10 µg/m3 = 1.013; 95%CI, 1.001∼1.025) exposure were statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke attack, while PM2.5 (all the studies showed no significant association) and PM10 (OR per 10 µg/m3 = 1.007; 95%CI, 0.992∼1.022) exposure were not associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke attack. Meta-regression found study design and area were two effective covariates.
PM2.5 and PM10 had different effects on different stroke subtypes. In the future, it's worthwhile to study the effects of PM to ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke, respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research on the potential impact of high salt intake on health has grown rapidly over the last decades. Recent studies have suggested that high salt intake could also be associated with adverse effects on cardiovascular system. The review evaluated the current level of epidemiologic evidence on the association between the level of habitual salt intake and stroke outcome. We also suggest further research direction. There were 21 independent samples from 12 studies, with 225,693 participants (follow-up, 3-19 years) and 8135 stroke events. High salt intake was associated with risk of stroke event (pooled odd ratio [OR], 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-1.51), stroke death (1.40; 1.21-1.63) and stroke onset (1.11; 1.00-1.24), ischemic stroke death (2.15; 1.57-2.95), not associated with risk of ischemic stroke onset (1.07, 0.95-1.2), with no significant evidence of publication bias. High salt intake is associated with significantly increased risk of stroke event. Further research should be directed toward clarifying and quantifying these possible effects and generating testable hypotheses on plausible biologic mechanisms.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted systematic review as well as meta-analyses on the association between particulate matter and daily stroke attack from a number of epidemiologic studies.
Twelve quantitative studies about the associations between particulate matter and stroke attack met the inclusive criteria. We evaluated the odds ratio (OR) of stroke attack associated with per 10 μg/m(3) increase of the concentration of PM(10) (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm) or PM(2.5) (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) as effect scale, and a sensitivity analysis for the results was conducted.
In the time-series design, PM(10) exposure wasn't related to an increased risk of daily stroke attack [OR per 10 μg/m(3) = 1.002, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.999~1.005], PM(2.5) exposure were related to an increased risk of daily stroke attack (OR per 10 μg/m(3) = 1.006, 95%CI: 1.002~1.010]; but in the case-crossover studies, PM(10) exposure was related to increase in risk of daily stroke attack (OR per 10 μg/m(3) = 1.028, 95%CI: 1.001~1.057). PM(2.5) exposure was not significant association with daily stroke attack (OR per 10 μg/m(3) = 1.016, 95%CI: 0.937~1.097). Sensitivity analysis showed that the results for PM(10) , PM(2.5) and daily stroke attack were robust in the time-series design.
We found some evidence for an effect of air pollutants on stroke attack risk.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To analyze the associations between particulate air pollution (PM(10), PM(2.5)) and stroke daily attack or mortality. METHODS: Meta-analysis method was used to polysynthetically analyze 16 quantitative studies about the associations between particulate air pollution and stroke daily attack or mortality. The relative odds ratio (OR)of stroke attack or mortality associated with per 10 µg/m(3) increase of particulate matter concentration was used as effective value, taking a sensitivity analysis for the results. RESULTS: A 10 µg/m(3) increase in PM(10) was associated with a 1.09% (95%CI: 0.10% - 2.08%) increase in stroke daily attack (OR = 1.011, 95%CI: 1.001 - 1.021) and 0.70% (95%CI: 0.60% - 0.80%) increase in stroke daily mortality (OR = 1.007, 95%CI: 1.006 - 1.008). The results of sensitivity analysis supported above results. As for PM(2.5) OR appeared to be 1.001 (95%CI: 0.992 - 1.010) with a 10 µ g/m(3) increase in stroke daily attack and 1.052 (95%CI: 0.958 - 1.154) for daily mortality. CONCLUSION: There are positive associations between PM(10) and stroke daily attack and mortality, increase of PM(2.5) was not associated with stroke attack and mortality.
No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the relationship between air pollution and acute onset of cerebral hemorrhage in Hangzhou.
Time-stratified case-crossover study was used to analyze the effect of aerosol optical depth (AOD), PM(10), SO(2) and NO(2) on the acute onset of cerebral hemorrhage. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in relation to an increase of one unit of AOD and 10 microg/m(3) of air pollutants.
After adjusted temperature and relative humidity, the ORs of acute onset of cerebral hemorrhage by a unit increase in AOD at a 2 day-lag were 1.727 (95%CI: 1.103 - 2.703) in first half year and 2.412 (95%CI: 1.230 - 4.733) at a 2 day-lag in spring. For a 10 microg/m(3) increase in SO(2), the ORs were 1.119 (95%CI: 1.019 - 1.229), 1.230 (95%CI: 1.092 - 1.386), 1.254 (95%CI: 1.076 - 1.460) in the whole year (2 day-lag), in first half year (2 day-lag) and in spring (2 day-lag), respectively. NO(2) exposure in first half year (2 day-lag) was associated with cerebral hemorrhage, with OR as 0.841 (95%CI: 0.734 - 0.964). However, there were no statistical significances for AOD, SO(2), NO(2) in the rest time-periods (P > 0.05). Additionally, no association was found between PM(10) and the acute onset of cerebral hemorrhage in any time-periods (P > 0.05).
Our data showed that there was association between air pollution and the acute onset of cerebral hemorrhage, especially in spring and in the first half of the year.
No preview · Article · Aug 2009 · Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Through the multi-stage hierarchical Bayesian model and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods, Bayesian statistics can be used in dependent spatial data analysis, including disease mapping in small areas, disease clustering, and geographical correlation studies. Recently, Bayesian spatial models have been developed with many types, which have made considerable progress in data analysis. This paper introduces several approaches that have been fully developed and applied, such as BYM model,joint model, semi-parameter model, moving average model and so on. Recently,many studies focused on the comparison work through Deviance Information criterion. Those results show that BYM model and MIX model of semi-parameter model could obtain better results. As more research going on, Bayesian statistics will have more space in applications of spatial epidemiology.
No preview · Article · Dec 2008 · Zhejiang da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the short-term effect of particulate matter in air on the mortality of stroke.
Using time-stratified case-crossover study design, an association was examined between stroke mortality and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of < 10 microm (PM10) of 2002 - 2004 in Hangzhou city. Meanwhile, the acute health effect of other gaseous pollutants (sulfur dioxide, SO2 and nitrogen dioxide, NO2) was also analyzed.
A total of 9906 deaths of stroke were included. The crude stroke mortality was 83.54 per 100 000. After being adjusted for meteorological factors, when an increase of 10 microg/m3 in PM10, SO2 and NO2 in three days was noticed, it appeared that the increases of mortality of stroke were 0.56% (95% CI: 0.14%-0.99%), 1.62% (95% CI: 0.26% - 3.01%) and 2.07% (95% CI: 0.54% - 3.62%) respectively. There was no distinct association in multi-pollutant models. In sensitivity analysis, the associations were found in all single-pollutant models but not statistically significant in multi-pollutant models after replacing the missing values.
It is suggested that the short-term elevation in PM10 as well as SO2 and NO2 daily concentrations were related to the increase of stroke mortality in Hangzhou city.
No preview · Article · Oct 2008 · Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To introduce the basic concept of scan statistic, its computation method and application in the area of spatial epidemiology. Retrospective space-time permutation statistics for evaluating the clustering of disease monitoring program is illustrated, using data on recent acute onset of cardiovascular disease in Hangzhou, China. Calculations were performed with SaTScan Version 7.0.3. With 999 Monte Carlo replications, the program took 5 seconds to run on a 100-MHz Pentium PC. The geographical surveillance program on acute onset clusters of cardiovascular disease, data which showed statistical significance, would include: a) from January 1, 1997 to February 28, 2007 in Qiantan township, Jiande county (P = 0.001); b) highly significant between January 1, 1997 and February 28, 1999 for Lushan street, Lingqiao township in Fuyang county (P = 0.003); c) between March 1, 2001 and February 29, 2004 for Dayuan town, Xinyi town, Shouxiang town in Fuyang (P = 0.004); d) between March 1, 2004 and Feb 28, 2006 for Chengzhan street, Ziyang street, Hubin street, Qinbo street, Xiaoying street, Wangjiang street, Chaoming street, Changqing street, Wulin street, Tianshui street, Wenhui street and Shiqiao street in Hangzhou (P = 0.005), respectively. The retrospective space-time permutation statistics seems useful as a screening tool for identifying the cluster of disease. Scan statistics are practical and effective method for deciding which cluster alarms would merit further investigation and which clusters are probably chance occurrences in the study of spatial epidemiology.
No preview · Article · Sep 2008 · Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the association between the effort-reward imbalance at work and depressive symptoms among healthcare workers.
The effort-reward imbalance at work was conceptualized in terms of the Chinese version of the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Chinese version of the Center of Epidemiology Survey Depression (CES-D) scale. The data came from the cross-sectional survey of 1 179 healthcare workers aged between 18 and 73 employed in 6 affiliated hospitals of Zhejiang University. The questionnaire comprised questions on the effort-reward at work, over-commitment, the full CES-D scale of depression and a range of other characteristics. Univariate analyses were used with Spearman's correlation, Mann-Whitney test, Pearson chi(2) test and likelihood chi(2) test. Multivariate logistic regression analyses was used to discover factors associated with depressive symptoms.
The prevalence of depressive symptoms among healthcare workers was 48.12% (95% CI: 45.08% to 51.16%). The prevalence of depressive symptoms among nurses was 52.40% (95% CI: 47.87% to 56.93%) higher than doctors' 44.70% (95% CI: 10.64% to 48.77%) with the significant difference (chi(2) = 6.077, P = 0.014). Positive associations were found between the high effort-low reward, level of work-related over commitment and depressive symptoms (OR = 1.859, 95% CI: 1.337 to 2.585; OR = 2.207, 95% CI: 1.656 to 2.942) among healthcare workers, respectively.
The high effort-low reward and the work-related over-commitment have a negative impact on healthcare workers' health.
No preview · Article · Sep 2006 · Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate reliability and validity of the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) in the Chinese version.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted comprising a large sample of 4782 subjects in China, using ERI in the Chinese version. This scale contained 23 scaled items while the questionnaire including questions on the effort and reward at work, over-commitment, the full CES-D scale of depression and a range of other characteristics. Reliability analysis was applied to evaluate reliability of the ERI scale in the Chinese version and factor analysis was applied to analyze validity of the scale.
Theoretical hypothesis on the ERI model was supported by the data derived in this study. Reliability and validity of the effort sub-scale, the reward sub-scale of the ERI scale in the Chinese version seemed to be better, but reliability and validity of the over-commitment sub-scale were not perfect.
The results of the study showed that the effort sub-scale, the reward sub-scale of the ERI in the Chinese version was applicable to the Chinese population but the scaled items of the over-commitment sub-scale should be further modified.
No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To detect the relations between incidence rate of the epidemical encephalitis B and related factors, to provide a simple, valid and practical new method for forecasting encephalitis B eipdemics.
Connection number between the incidence rate of encephalitis B and the historical forecast factors was computed, before ranking the first, second and the third principal factor, to remove the factor with the smallest value in the light of the connection number before comparing the newest value of forecast factors with the same kind of history while the most nearly value becoming the forecasting factor value and to establish a forecasting equation according to the factor value and the consistent degree of the incidence rate of encephalitis B at that time. Finally, to put into the new factor value to get this forecast value under this equation. Assuming that there are n' (n' >or= 2) forecast factors, this time forecast value can then be directly obtained from the average of these estimate values.
Using above forecast method to forecast the incidence rate of encephalitis B at certain place and year, the predicting value is very much close to the actual incidence rate. Difference between the predicting value forecasted by the above-mentioned method and the actual incidence rate is only 0.0264/100 000 with an accurate rate of 97.94%.
This principal factor analysis forecast method based on connection number in forecasting the incidence rate of encephalitis B prevention is acceptable.
No preview · Article · Apr 2005 · Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi