[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR) is a genetic disease caused by a point mutation in the TTR gene that causes the liver to produce an unstable TTR protein. The most effective treatment has been liver transplantation in order to replace the variant TTR producing liver with one that produces only wild-type TTR. ATTR amyloidosis patients’ livers are reused for liver sick patients, i.e. the Domino procedure. However, recent findings have demonstrated that ATTR amyloidosis can develop in the recipients within 7–8 years. The aim of this study was to elucidate how the genetic profile of the liver is affected by the disease, and how amyloid deposits affect target tissue.
Gene expression analysis was used to unravel the genetic profiles of Swedish ATTR V30M patients and controls. Biopsies from adipose tissue and liver were examined.
Results and Conclusions
ATTR amyloid patients’ gene expression profile of the main source organ, the liver, differed markedly from that of the controls, whereas the target organs’ gene expression profiles were not markedly altered in the ATTR amyloid patients compared to those of the controls. An impaired ER/protein folding pathway might suggest ER overload due to mutated TTR protein.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Amyloid: the international journal of experimental and clinical investigation: the official journal of the International Society of Amyloidosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract By genotyping a large number of samples from the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study cohort, a carrier frequency could be determined for the Skellefteå and Lycksele populations. A previous study of the amyloidogenic transthyretin mutation TTRV30M in Northern Sweden's endemic area has shown a large variation in carrier frequency and penetrance of the trait within the area. However, the estimations have been based on a small sample size within the different regions in the area and therefore, the wide variation in TTRV30M carrier frequency observed between the Lycksele and Skellefteå populations are uncertain. Based on a total of 3460 samples, the estimated overall carrier frequency in the two regions was 1.82% with a carrier frequency in the Skellefteå and Lycksele population of 1.63% and 2.02%, respectively. Thus, the previously reported extremely high frequency in the Lycksele region compared to that of the Skellefteå region could not be substantiated. However, it does not change the previous finding of a surprisingly higher carrier frequency in the population from endemic area of Northern Sweden compared to that reported from endemic areas in Portugal.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Amyloid: the international journal of experimental and clinical investigation: the official journal of the International Society of Amyloidosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hereditary transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis (ATTR) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by extracellular deposits of amyloid fibrils composed of misfolded TTR. The differences in penetrance and age at onset are vast, both between and within populations, with a generally late onset for Swedish carriers. In a recent study the entire TTR gene including the 3' UTR in Swedish, French and Japanese ATTR patients was sequenced. The study disclosed a SNP in the V30M TTR 3' UTR of the Swedish ATTR population that was not present in either the French or the Japanese populations (rs62093482-C>T). This SNP could create a new binding site for miRNA, which would increase degradation of the mutated TTR's mRNA thus decrease variant TTR formation and thereby delay the onset of the disease. The aim of the present study was to disclose differences in allele specific TTR expression among Swedish V30M patients, and to see if selected miRNA had any effect upon the expression.
Allele-specific expression was measured on nine liver biopsies from Swedish ATTR patients using SNaPshot Multiplex assay. Luciferase activity was measured on cell lines transfected with constructs containing the TTR 3' UTR. Allele-specific expression measured on liver biopsies from Swedish ATTR patients showed no difference in expression between the two alleles. Neither was there any difference in expression between cell lines co-transfected with two constructs with or without the TTR 3' UTR SNP regardless of added miRNA.
The SNP found in the 3' UTR of the TTR gene has no effect on degrading the variant allele's expression and thus has no impact on the diminished penetrance of the trait in the Swedish population. However, the 3' UTR SNP is unique for patients descending from the Swedish founder, and this SNP could be utilized to identify ATTR patients of Swedish descent.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial amyloidosis with polyneuropathy (FAP) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by transthyretin (TTR) mutations, of which V30M (TTR c.148G > A, p.Val50Met, "Val30Met") is the most common. Swedish V30M carriers display later age at onset and lower penetrance compared to other populations.
In the study, 130 Swedish V30M carriers (32 early, 30 late onset and 68 asymptomatic carriers) and 50 controls, 23 French symptomatic V30M carriers and 29 controls and 18 Japanese symptomatic V30M carriers and 29 controls were included. We aimed to identify additional genetic factors in the TTR gene and its surrounding region that could have an impact on phenotype.
We identified three SNPs (rs71383038, rs3794885 and rs62093482) with a significant difference in allele frequency between Swedish V30M carriers and controls. The two Swedish V30M homozygous patients present in the study also displayed homozygosity for the CA10 (rs71383038), A (rs3794885) and T (rs62093482) alleles in these SNPs. Hence, these alleles are present on the Swedish V30M haplotype. Of these, rs62093482 is located in the 3'UTR of TTR gene and thus more interesting since SNPs in the 3'UTR can affect gene expression levels by modifying microRNA (miRNA) targeting activity. miRNA target predictions revealed four potential miRNAs with predicted targets unique for the polymorphic allele.
Our results are the first to show the presence of a 3'UTR polymorphism on the V30M haplotype in Swedish carriers, which can serve as a miRNA binding site potentially leading to down-regulated expression from the mutated TTR allele. This finding may be related to the low penetrance and high age at onset of the disease observed in the Swedish patient population.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · BMC Medical Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Val30Met transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-V30M-FAP) is the most frequent familial amyloidosis, with autosomal dominant transmission. This severe disease shows important differences in age of onset and penetrance. Recently, a difference in penetrance according to the gender of the transmitting parent was elicited in different geographic areas with a higher penetrance in case of maternal transmission of the trait. In addition, differences in mitochondrial haplogroup distribution in early and late onset Swedish and French cases of TTR-V30M-FAP suggested that a polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA could be one underlying mechanism of the phenotypic variation. We further investigated this hypothesis by modeling the penetrance function with a parent-of-origin and/or a mitochondrial polymorphism effect in samples of Portuguese (n=33) and Swedish families (n=86) with TTR-V30M-FAP in which several individuals had been tested for mitochondrial haplogroups. Our analysis showed that a mitochondrial polymorphism effect was sufficient to explain the observed difference in penetrance according to gender of the transmitting parent in the Portuguese sample, whereas, in the Swedish sample, a clear residual parent-of-origin effect remained. This study further supported the role of a mitochondrial polymorphism effect that might induce a higher penetrance in case of maternal inheritance of the disease. In clinical practice, these results might help to better delineate the individual disease risk and have a significant impact on the management of both patients and carriers.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · European journal of human genetics: EJHG
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The number of amyloidogenic transthyretin (TTR) mutations described in the literature is more than 100. However, for several mutations, the phenotype has been described in a few individuals only; thus, the knowledge of the clinical course and the outcome after therapeutical interventions such as liver transplantation is limited. We describe the phenotype associated with five rare amyloidogenic TTR mutations that lately were discovered in Sweden: ATTR Val30Leu, Ala45Ser, Leu55Gln, Gly57Arg and Tyr69His of which ATTR Gly57Arg is previously unknown. The symptoms at onset differed, but cardiomyopathy and peripheral neuropathy were observed in all except the ATTR Tyr69His mutation. Likewise, carpal tunnel syndrome was found or had been present in all cases except the case with the ATTR Val30Leu mutation. The phenotype of the ATTR Tyr69His mutation was characterised by oculo-meningeal symptoms with seizures and a steadily progressing dementia, symptoms rarely found in ATTR amyloidosis, but similar to those previously described for this mutation, where all cases appear to originate from one Swedish family. Two patients with the ATTR Leu55Gln and Ala45Ser mutations have been subjected to liver transplantation, but echocardiographic examination has revealed an increasing cardiomyopathy after transplantation in both cases, the ATTR Leu55Gln patient succumbed 2 years after transplantation from progressive disease.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Amyloid: the international journal of experimental and clinical investigation: the official journal of the International Society of Amyloidosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) is a monogenic disease caused by mutations in the transthyretin (TTR) gene. The phenotype of the most common TTR mutation, V30M, varies within and between populations. Oxidative stress and protein misfolding are cellular processes involved in the development of FAP. Because the mitochondria are important for both these processes, we investigated if mitochondrial haplogroups are related to age at onset of the disease in Swedish and French FAP patients. Mitochondrial haplogroup analysis was performed on 25 early-onset (below 40 years) and 29 late-onset (above 51 years) Swedish FAP patients. DNA from 249 Swedish individuals served as controls. In addition, 6 early-onset and 17 late-onset French FAP patients were examined with 25 French controls. The haplogroup distribution among late-onset Swedish and French cases was similar to that found in the general populations, whereas among early-onset cases a different haplogroup distribution was seen. The relatively rare haplogroup K was significantly more common among early-onset cases. Our findings substantiate the suggestion that a genetic component, still to be found, affecting mitochondrial function has an impact on the amyloid generating process in transthyretin amyloidosis.
No preview · Article · Dec 2008 · Clinical Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Differences in the gastrointestinal manifestations have emerged between Swedish and Japanese familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy amyloidogenic transthyretin Valine30Methionine (FAP ATTR Val30Met) patients. To elucidate the cause of the differences, we investigated the associations between serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and/or catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) gene polymorphism and their gastrointestinal in these patients.
Twenty-six Swedish and 24 Japanese patients with gastrointestinal disturbances, in whom genetic material was available, were included in the study. The initial gastrointestinal manifestations of the disease were classified as constipation, constipation alternating with diarrhoea, continuous diarrhoea, and nausea/vomiting. 5-HTTLPR and COMT gene polymorphism were assessed by polymerase chain reaction and enzymatic digestion.
A significantly higher LA allele frequency of 5-HTTLPR was noted in the Swedish population compared with that of the Japanese. Moreover, the LA allele frequency tended to be lower in the continuous diarrhoea group than in that of the remaining groups of both Swedish and Japanese patients. No association between COMT genotype and initial gastrointestinal symptoms was noted.
A high expression of serotonin transporter induced by LA allele of 5-HTTLPR may be one of the factors implicated with the inhibition of severe diarrhoea in early stages of Swedish FAP ATTR Val30Met patients.