[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
In peripheral macrophages, tissue-type transglutaminase (TG2) is reported to be involved in phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. However, the contribution of TG2 to microglial phagocytosis has not been investigated. In this study, using a microglial cell line, BV-2, we examined the changes in TG2 expression, phagocytosis and pinocytosis in cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
Cells of the mouse microglial cell line BV-2 were stimulated by LPS with or without cystamine, an inhibitor of TG enzyme activity, for 24 h. TG2 expression was measured by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. TG activity was evaluated using biotinylated pentylamine as a substrate. Pinocytosis was determined by uptake of 1-µm fluorescent microbeads. Phagocytosis was assessed by uptake of dead cells, human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, which were pretreated with H2O2 for 24 h.
Phagocytosis of dead cells and pinocytosis of fluorescent microbeads were up-regulated by LPS stimulation together with TG2 expression. Blockade of TG enzyme activity by cystamine suppressed TG2 expression, phagocytosis and pinocytosis.
These results suggested that LPS-induced TG2 was involved in the mechanism of pinocytosis and phagocytosis in microglia.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · NeuroImmunoModulation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amphotericin B (AmB) is a polyene antifungal drug and is reported to be one of a few reagents having therapeutic effects on prion diseases, that is, a delay in the appearance of clinical signs and prolongation of the survival time in an animal model. In prion diseases, glial cells have been suggested to play important roles; however, the therapeutic mechanism of AmB on prion diseases remains elusive. We have previously reported that AmB changed the expression of neurotrophic factors in microglia and astrocytes (Motoyoshi et al., 2008, Neurochem. Int. 52, 1290-1296; Motoyoshi-Yamashiro et al., 2013, ibid. 63, 93-100). These results suggested that neurotrophic factors derived from glial cells might be involved in the therapeutic mechanism of AmB. In the present study, we examined immunohistochemically the effects of AmB on the expression of neurotrophic factors in the rat brain. We found that direct injection of AmB into the striatum significantly enhanced the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor protein. Amphotericin B also increased the expressions of CD11b and glial fibrillary acidic protein, markers of microglia and astrocytes, respectively. Moreover, expressions of the two neurotrophic factors by AmB were co-localized with the expression of CD11b or glial fibrillary acidic protein. These results suggest that AmB in vivo might also activate glial cells and induce the production of neurotrophic factors protecting neurons in prion diseases.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elucidation of the functions of astrocytes is important for understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of various neurodegenerative diseases. Theophylline is a common drug for bronchial asthma and occasionally develops side-effects, such as acute encephalopathy; although the pathogenic mechanism of the side-effects is unknown. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production is generally used for an index of the activation of astrocyte in vitro. In this study, in order to elucidate the effect of theophylline on the astrocytic functions, we examined the LPS-induced NO production and the expression of iNOS in cultured rat cortex astrocytes. Theophylline alone could not induce the NO production; however, NO production induced by LPS was enhanced by theophylline in a dose-dependent manner; and by isobutylmethylxanthine, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. The theophylline enhancement of LPS-induced NO production was further increased by dibutyryl cyclic AMP, a membrane-permeable cAMP analog; and by forskolin, an adenylate cyclase activator. When the cells were preincubated with Rp-8-Br-cAMP, an inhibitor of protein kinase A, the theophylline enhancement of LPS-induced NO production was decreased. The extent of iNOS protein expression induced by LPS was also enhanced by theophylline. It is likely that phosphodiesterase inhibition is a major action mechanism for the theophylline enhancement of LPS-induced NO production in astrocytes. Theophylline-induced acute encephalopathy might be due to the hyper-activation of astrocytes via cAMP signaling to produce excess amount of NO.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Neurochemical Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amphotericin B (AmB) is a polyene antibiotic and reported to be one of a few reagents having therapeutic effects on prion diseases, such as the delay in the appearing of the clinical signs and the prolongation of the survival time. In prion diseases, glial cells have been suggested to play important roles by proliferating and producing various factors such as nitric oxide, proinflammatory cytokines, and neurotrophic factors. However, the therapeutic mechanism of AmB on prion diseases remains elusive. We have previously reported that AmB changed the expression of neurotoxic and neurotrophic factors in microglia (Motoyoshi et al., 2008, Neurochem. Int. 52, 1290-1296). In the present study, we examined the effects of AmB on cellular functions of rat cultured astrocytes. We found that AmB could activate astrocytes to produce nitric oxide via inducible nitric oxide synthase induction. AmB also induced mRNA expression of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, and productions of their proteins in astrocytes. Moreover, AmB changed levels of neurotrophic factor mRNAs and proteins. Among three neurotrophic factors examined here, neurotrophin-3 mRNA expression and its protein production in the cells were down-regulated by AmB stimulation. On the other hand, AmB significantly enhanced the amounts of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor proteins in the cells and the medium. These results suggest that AmB might show therapeutic effects on prion diseases by controlling the expression and production of such mediators in astrocytes.
No preview · Article · May 2013 · Neurochemistry International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depression is one of the most prevalent and livelihood-threatening forms of mental illnesses and the neural circuitry underlying depression remains incompletely understood. Recent studies suggest that the neuronal plasticity involved with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the recovery from depression. Some antidepressants are reported to induce BDNF expression in vivo; however, the mechanisms have been considered solely in neurons and not fully elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of imipramine, a classic tricyclic antidepressant drug, on BDNF expression in cultured rat brain astrocytes. Imipramine dose-dependently increased BDNF mRNA expression in astrocytes. The imipramine-induced BDNF increase was suppressed with inhibitors for protein kinase A (PKA) or MEK/ERK. Moreover, imipramine exposure activated transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that imipramine induced BDNF expression through CREB activation via PKA and/or ERK pathways. Imipramine treatment in depression might exert antidepressant action through BDNF production from astrocytes, and glial BDNF expression might be a target of developing novel antidepressants.
No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Under some pathological conditions in brain, a large amount of superoxide anion (O(2) (-)) is produced, causing various cellular damages. Among three isozymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD), extracellular (EC)-SOD should play a role to detoxify O(2) (-) in extracellular space; however, a little is known about EC-SOD in brain. Although dopamine (DA) stored in the synaptic vesicle is stable, the excess leaked DA is spontaneously oxidized to yield O(2) (-) and reactive DA quinones, causing damages of dopaminergic neurons. In the present study, we examined the effects of DA on SOD expression in cultured rat cortical astrocytes. By means of RT-PCR, all mRNA of three isozymes of SOD could be detected; however, only EC-SOD was increased by DA exposure for 24 h, dose-dependently. The expression of EC-SOD protein and the cell-surface SOD activity in astrocytes also increased with 100 μM DA exposure. The increase of EC-SOD mRNA by DA was inhibited by a DA transporter inhibitor, GBR12909, whereas it was not changed by DA receptor antagonists, SKF-83566 (D1) and haloperidol (D2). Furthermore, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, pargyline, and antioxidants, N-acetyl-L-cysteine and glutathione, also did not affect the DA-induced expression of EC-SOD mRNA. On the other hand, an inhibitor of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB), ammonium pyrrolidine-1-carbodithioate, suppressed the DA-induced expression of EC-SOD mRNA. These results suggest that DA incorporated into the cells caused the induction of EC-SOD mRNA followed by the enhancements of EC-SOD protein level and the enzyme activity, and that NF-κB activation is involved in the mechanisms of the EC-SOD induction. The regulation of EC-SOD in astrocytes surrounding dopaminergic neurons may contribute to the defensive mechanism against oxidative stress in brain.
No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Neurochemical Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Under pathological conditions such as ischemia/reperfusion, a large amount of superoxide anion (O(2) (-)) is produced and released in brain. Among three isozymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD), extracellular (EC)-SOD, known to be excreted outside cells and bound to extracellular matrix, should play a role to detoxify O(2) (-) in extracellular space; however, a little is known about EC-SOD in brain. In order to evaluate the SOD activity in extracellular space of CNS as direct as possible, we attempted to measure the cell-surface SOD activity on primary cultured rat brain cells by the inhibition of color development of a water-soluble tetrazolium due to O(2) (-) generation by xanthine oxidase/hypoxanthine added into extracellular medium of intact cells. The cell-surface SOD activity on cultured neuron and microglia was below the detection limit; however, that on cultured astrocyte was high enough to measure. By means of RT-PCR, all mRNA of three isozymes of SOD could be detected in the three types of the cells examined; however, the semi-quantitative analysis revealed that the level of EC-SOD mRNA in astrocytes was significantly higher than that in neurons and microglia. When astrocytes were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 12-24 h, the cell-surface SOD activity decreased to a half, whereas the activity recovered after 36-48 h. The decrease in the activity was dependent on the LPS concentration. On the other hand, the SOD activity in the medium increased by the LPS-stimulation in a dose dependent manner; suggesting that the SOD protein localized on cell-surface, probably EC-SOD, was released into the medium. These results suggest that EC-SOD of astrocyte play a role for detoxification of extracellular O(2) (-) and the regulation of EC-SOD in astrocytes may contribute to the defensive mechanism against oxidative stress in brain.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Neurochemical Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of glia has been observed in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), multiple sclerosis and brain ischemia. Excessive production of nitric oxide (NO), as a consequence of increased inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in glia, contributes to neurodegeneration. Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a cross-linking enzyme, which is activated in neurodegenerative diseases such as PD, AD and Huntington's diseases. However, mechanisms contributing to the increased TG activity in neurodegenerative diseases remain to be clarified. In the present study, we examined the expression of TG2 in cultured rat hippocampal astrocytes activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is generally used for a stimulant of iNOS induction. The expressions of TG2 mRNA and protein were increased by stimulation with LPS in a dose-dependent manner. The LPS-induced TG2 expression was diminished by ammonium pyrrolidine-1-carbodithioate; an inhibitor for nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation, suggesting the factors involved. Both expressions of TG2 and iNOS induced by LPS stimulation were suppressed by an antioxidant, ethyl pyruvate, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, they were also suppressed by cystamine, an inhibitor of TG activity. These results suggest that the level of TG2 expression is regulated by oxidative stress and the activity of TG itself, and that the induction of iNOS and NO production are closely associated with TG2 expression in LPS-stimulated activation of astrocytes.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Neurochemistry International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amphotericin B (AmB) is a polyene antibiotic and reported to have therapeutic effects on prion diseases, in which the microglial activation has been suggested to play important roles by proliferating and producing various factors such as nitric oxide, proinflammatory cytokines, and so on. However, the therapeutic mechanism of AmB on prion diseases remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated the effects of AmB on cellular functions of rat primary cultured microglia. We found that AmB, similarly as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), could activate microglia to produce nitric oxide via inducible nitric oxide synthase. Both AmB and LPS also induced mRNA expressions of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in microglia. AmB also changed the expression levels of neurotrophic factors mRNAs. AmB and LPS significantly down-regulated the level of ciliary neurotrophic factor mRNA. However, AmB, but not LPS, significantly up-regulated the level of glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in microglia. In addition, brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression level was tending upward by treatment with AmB, but not with LPS. Taken together, these results suggest that AmB regulates the microglial activation in different manner from LPS and that microglia may participate in the therapeutic effects of AmB on prion diseases by controlling the expression and production of such mediators.
No preview · Article · Jun 2008 · Neurochemistry International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the role played by lymphocytes and cytokines in the growth of sympathetic neurons in vivo, the innervation and cytokine levels were examined in the spleens of SCID mice that lack T and B cells. Splenic noradrenaline, nerve growth factor (NGF), and IL-1beta levels were elevated in SCID mice. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that the density of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH(+)) fibers of splenic central arteries in SCID mice was increased compared with wild-type C.B-17 mice, while SCID mice had significantly fewer TH(+) fibers in their periarteriolar lymphatic sheaths (PALS). Two weeks after SCID mice were injected with C.B-17 splenic T cells, their TH(+) fiber staining increased in the PALS. IL-3 levels increased significantly in SCID mice following T cell reconstitution, and the administration of anti-IL-3 Ab blocked the above T cell-induced increase in innervation in the PALS. Anti-IL-3 treatment also inhibited the regeneration of splenic sympathetic neurons in C.B-17 mice after they were chemically sympathetomized with 6-hydroxydopamine. Depletion of NK cells by anti-asialo GM1 promoted the splenic innervation in SCID mice, while there were no significant changes in the innervation between CD8(+) T cell-deficient beta(2)-microglobulin knockout mice and their wild type. Our results suggest that T cells (probably CD4(+) Th cells but not CD8(+) CTLs) play a role in regulating the sympathetic innervation of the spleen; this effect appeared to be mediated, at least in part, by IL-3. On the contrary, NK cells may exert an inhibitory effect on the sympathetic innervation.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2008 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Citrin is the liver-type mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier that participates in urea, protein, and nucleotide biosynthetic pathways by supplying aspartate from mitochondria to the cytosol. Citrin also plays a role in transporting cytosolic NADH reducing equivalents into mitochondria as a component of the malate-aspartate shuttle. In humans, loss-of-function mutations in the SLC25A13 gene encoding citrin cause both adult-onset type II citrullinemia and neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis, collectively referred to as human citrin deficiency. Citrin knock-out mice fail to display features of human citrin deficiency. Based on the hypothesis that an enhanced glycerol phosphate shuttle activity may be compensating for the loss of citrin function in the mouse, we have generated mice with a combined disruption of the genes for citrin and mitochondrial glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The resulting double knock-out mice demonstrated citrullinemia, hyperammonemia that was further elevated by oral sucrose administration, hypoglycemia, and a fatty liver, all features of human citrin deficiency. An increased hepatic lactate/pyruvate ratio in the double knock-out mice compared with controls was also further elevated by the oral sucrose administration, suggesting that an altered cytosolic NADH/NAD(+) ratio is closely associated with the hyperammonemia observed. Microarray analyses identified over 100 genes that were differentially expressed in the double knock-out mice compared with wild-type controls, revealing genes potentially involved in compensatory or downstream effects of the combined mutations. Together, our data indicate that the more severe phenotype present in the citrin/mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase double knock-out mice represents a more accurate model of human citrin deficiency than citrin knock-out mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Growing evidence indicates that the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is closely linked to the immune system. Primary and secondary lymphoid organs receive extensive sympathetic noradrenergic innervation. Under stimulation, norepinephrine (NE) released from the sympathetic nerve terminals in these organs, or circulating catecholamines (CAs) such as epinephrine, affects lymphocyte circulation, proliferation, and cytokine and antibody production through adrenergic receptors (ARs) expressed on lymphocytes and other immune cells. Although the mechanisms of adrenergic regulation of immune cells are very complicated, NE and epinephrine appear to promote humoral immunity rather than cellular immunity by suppressing the helper T (Th)1 response and upregulating T cell-dependent antibody production, through stimulation of the β2-AR-cyclic AMP (cAMP)-protein kinase (PK) A pathway. The SNS also strongly affects natural killer (NK) cell function, especially during stress. The immune system influences SNS activity by cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), which travel to the brain and stimulate the hypothalamic or other regional neurons regulating the sympathetic outflow. IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-6, IL-12, and granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) can stimulate the sympathetic neurite outgrowth, with or without the mediation of nerve growth factor (NGF) production. Lymphocytes are not only regulated by NE from the sympathetic nerve terminals, but also synthesize NE and other CAs, and the lymphocyte-derived CAs may regulate themselves in an auto- and paracrine way.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in SLC25A13, encoding the mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier citrin, cause adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2) in humans. We have previously reported that although citrin-knockout (Ctrn-/-) mice fail to display symptoms of CTLN2, liver perfusion revealed a deficit in ureogenesis from ammonia accompanied by an increase in the perfusate lactate-to-pyruvate (L/P) ratio. The present study explores the effects of pyruvate, aspartate and citrate on improving the abnormalities observed in the Ctrn-/- liver.
We measured the rate of ureogenesis from ammonium chloride using the liver-perfusion system.
Pyruvate infusion lowered the L/P ratio and corrected the deficit in ureogenesis in the Ctrn-/- liver. This effect was found to be dose-dependent in both instances. Phenazine methosulfate, a cytosolic oxidant, also improved the rate of ureogenesis in the Ctrn-/- liver and led to a fall in the L/P ratio. The addition of aspartate or citrate did not change either the rate of ureogenesis or the L/P ratio in the Ctrn-/- liver.
Citrin deficiency disturbs urea synthesis primarily as a result of an elevated cytosolic NADH/NAD+ ratio owing to limited reoxidation of reducing equivalents. Clinically, pyruvate may have a therapeutic benefit for CTLN2 patients.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2006 · Journal of Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uptake of K+ is an important role of astrocytes to maintain physiological lower extracellular K+ concentration in the CNS. In this study, the effect of high K+ concentration was examined on the cellular function of astrocytes from embryonic rat brain in primary culture. Nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was measured as an index of cellular function of astrocytes. Increasing KCl concentration to about 40 mM did not directly evoke NO production, but doubled the level of LPS (1 ng/ml)-induced NO production. K-gluconate showed a similar enhancing effect although the degree of enhancement was about half of that of KCl. Neither NaCl nor Na-gluconate showed any effect. The K(+)-channel blocker, 4-aminopyridine, but not tetraethylammonium or apamin, inhibited the enhancing effect of KCl. The LPS-induced iNOS protein expression determined by immunoblotting analysis was enhanced by high K+ treatment. The level of iNOS mRNA determined by real-time RT-PCR technique was also augmented by the presence of 40 mM KCl. These results indicate that the elevation of extracellular K+ concentration regulates astrocytic cell functions through a mechanism involving K(A)-type K(+)-channels and that potentiation of NO production by high K+ is due to the augmentation of iNOS mRNA and iNOS protein levels.
No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Neurochemistry International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Citrin, encoded by SLC25A13, is a liver-type mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier (AGC), of which deficiency, in autosomal recessive trait, causes neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis (NICCD) and adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2). NICCD patients have jaundice, hypoproteinemia, hypoglycemia, galactosemia, growth retardation, fatty liver and multiple aminoacidemia including citrulline, methionine, threonine and tyrosine. Some of the neonates who have experienced NICCD suffer from severe CTLN2 more than 10 years or several decades later. In CTLN2, neuropsychotic symptoms such as disorientation, aberrant behavior, coma and death are observed. Laboratory findings reveal hyperammonemia, citrullinemia, fatty liver and liver-specific decrease in a urea cycle enzyme, argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS). In some cases, hyperlipidemia, pancreatitis and hepatoma are accompanied with CTLN2. Citrin as a liver-type AGC plays a role in supplying aspartate to the cytosol for urea, protein and nucleotide synthesis by exchanging mitochondrial aspartate for cytosolic glutamate and proton, and transporting cytosolic NADH reducing equivalent to mitochondria as a member of malate aspartate shuttle essential for aerobic glycolysis. AGC is also important for gluconeogenesis from lactate. Although it is difficult to explain pathogenesis of the symptoms such as cholestasis in NICCD and liver-specific decrease of ASS protein in CTLN2 from the functions of the AGC, some are understandable by the loss of citrin functions. Many CTLN2 patients have been treated with a low protein and high carbohydrate diet and glycerol at the hyperammonemic coma. We argue that those treatments may result in fatty liver, hyperlipidemia, hyperammonemia and even death due to loss of the citrin functions. Loss of citrin first cause deficiency of aspartate in the cytosol, which results in an increase in cytosolic NADH/NAD(+) ratio and then activation of fatty acid synthesis pathway to compensate the aberrant ratio. This follows inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The peculiar fondness for food of CTLN2 patients who like protein and dislike carbohydrate and sweets may be related to their metabolic requirements.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2005 · Hepatology Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with poorly controlled diabetes are at high risk of acquiring bacterial infections. However, conflicting results have been reported on neutrophil function in diabetes. We periodically evaluated neutrophil dysfunction in multiple low-dose streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice, and then evaluated the effects of troglitazone and other thiazolidinediones (TZDs) on the decline of neutrophil function. Zymosan was injected intraperitoneally and neutrophil infiltration and phagocytosis were evaluated. While phagocytosis of zymosan by peritoneal neutrophils was consistently reduced in diabetic mice, neutrophil infiltration was decreased on day 30, but increased on day 40 after STZ injection. The in vitro chemotactic and phagocytic activities of blood neutrophils in mice that did not receive zymosan were consistently reduced in diabetic mice. Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated superoxide production by zymosan-induced peritoneal neutrophils and the levels of zymosan-induced tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1beta in peritoneal exudate fluids were also reduced in the diabetic mice. Treatment of the diabetic mice with troglitazone beginning 2 weeks after STZ injection did not improve hyperglycaemia but did prevent the decline of zymosan-induced neutrophil infiltration on day 30, and additionally promoted the increased infiltration on day 40. Troglitazone also promoted the chemotactic activity of blood neutrophils isolated from normal mice in vitro. Rosiglitazone but not pioglitazone induced a similar effect. Neutrophil phagocytosis was not enhanced by troglitazone either in vivo or in vitro. Taken together, neutrophil function is impaired by STZ-induced diabetes, but inflammatory infiltration does not always vary with the chemotactic disability or cytokine levels. Furthermore, troglitazone and rosiglitazone were suggested to improve at least neutrophil chemotactic activity in these animals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Citrin is a mitochondrial aspartate glutamate carrier primarily expressed in the liver, heart, and kidney. We found that adult-onset type II citrullinemia is caused by mutations in the SLC25A13 gene that encodes for citrin. In this report, we describe the frequency of SLC25A13 mutations, the roles of citrin as a member of the urea cycle and as a member of the malate-aspartate shuttle, the relationship between its functions and symptoms of citrin deficiency, and therapeutic issues.
No preview · Article · May 2004 · Molecular Genetics and Metabolism