[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evaluation of neurocognitive function of school-age children with HIV.
Cross-sectional observational study.
Twenty-two children (median age 9.46 years) with perinatally acquired HIV infection were administered a global intelligence test and tests from the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks (ANT) program. The relationship between various patient-, disease- and treatment factors and neurocognitive outcome variables was examined.
Compared with age-appropriate norms, mean IQ of the HIV-infected children was in the average range. However, the HIV-infected children performed poorer on several neuropsychological tests compared with age-appropriate norms. Executive function (attentional flexibility, visuospatial working memory) and processing speed emerged as the most sensitive cognitive measures in relation to HIV disease. The correlational analyses resulted in only two significant outcomes, showing that higher CD4% at initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and longer treatment duration were associated with better working memory function and attentional control, respectively.
These exploratory data suggest that subtle neurocognitive impairments may exist in HIV-infected school-age children, in particular characterized by compromised executive function and slowed information processing. Further research with larger sample sizes is needed to confirm these findings.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · European Journal of Paediatric Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study assesses the effects of HAART on psychomotor performance of symptomatic HIV-infected children. It is one of the first studies to look at neurobehavioral functioning in children infected with HIV in resource-limited countries.
A longitudinal pilot study of vertically HIV-infected children at the HIV Netherlands Australia Thailand Research Collaboration Center in Bangkok, Thailand.
A total of 34 children participated in the study of whom 16 had never received antiretroviral (ARV) therapy and were about to start HAART (Newly treated children), 7 did not receive antiretroviral therapy (Untreated children) and 11 had been treated with HAART for more than one year (HAART experienced children). All children were administered 4 psychomotor tasks at baseline and after 4 months. The Newly treated and the Untreated children were also evaluated after 12 months.
In general, the children performed similarly on all psychomotor tasks at baseline. After 12 months of HAART, there was a significant increase in CD4% in the Newly treated group. Overall, psychomotor performance did not change at the 4-month evaluation in all groups. At the 12-month evaluation psychomotor performance had deteriorated substantially on all tasks in both the Newly treated and the Untreated children.
There was no significant difference in psychomotor functioning between children newly treated, previously treated and untreated with HAART over the course of one year. Psychomotor performance deteriorated after 12 months of HAART, which provides important indications concerning the lack of benefits of HAART on psychomotor functions in children despite immunologic reconstitution. Further research with larger sample sizes is needed to confirm these findings.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2007 · Journal of Neurology