[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transgelin2, one of cytoskeletal actin binding proteins has recently been suggested to be involved in the formation of immune synapses. Although detailed function of transgelin2 is largely unknown, interactions between transgelin2 and actin appear to be important in regulating cellular functions of transgelin2. Because protein phosphorylation can change ability to interact with other proteins, comprehensive phosphorylation analysis of transgelin2 will be helpful in understanding its functional mechanisms.
Here, a specific protein label-free quantitative phosphorylation analysis method combining immuno-precipitation, IMAC phosphopeptide enrichment technique and label-free relative quantification analysis was used to monitor the phosphorylation changes of transgelin2 overexpressed in Jurkat T cells under protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) activation conditions, two representative intracellular signalling pathways of immune cell activation and homeostasis. A total of six serine/threonine phosphorylation sites were identified including threonine-84, a novel phosphorylation site. Notably, distinct phosphorylation patterns of transgelin2 under the two kinase activation conditions were observed. Most phosphorylation sites showing specific kinase-dependent phosphorylation changes were discretely located in two previously characterized actin-binding regions: actin-binding site (ABS) and calponin repeat domain (CNR). PKC activation increased phosphorylation of threonine-180 and serine-185 in the CNR, and PKA activation increased phosphorylation of serine-163 in the ABS.
Multiple actin-binding regions of transgelin2 participate to accomplish its full actin-binding capability, and the actin-binding affinity of each actin-binding region appears to be modulated by specific kinase-dependent phosphorylation changes. Accordingly, different actin-binding properties or cellular functions of transgelin2 may result from distinct intracellular signalling events under immune response activation or homeostasis conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rice is a model plant widely used for basic and applied research programs. Plant cell wall proteins play key roles in a broad range of biological processes. However, presently, knowledge on the rice cell wall proteome is rudimentary in nature. In the present study, the tightly-bound cell wall proteome of rice callus cultured cells using sequential extraction protocols was developed using mass spectrometry and bioinformatics methods, leading to the identification of 1568 candidate proteins. Based on bioinformatics analyses, 389 classical rice cell wall proteins, possessing a signal peptide, and 334 putative non-classical cell wall proteins, lacking a signal peptide, were identified. By combining previously established rice cell wall protein databases with current data for the classical rice cell wall proteins, a comprehensive rice cell wall proteome, comprised of 496 proteins, was constructed. A comparative analysis of the rice and Arabidopsis cell wall proteomes revealed a high level of homology, suggesting a predominant conservation between monocot and eudicot cell wall proteins. This study importantly increased information on cell wall proteins, which serves for future functional analyses of these identified rice cell wall proteins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare but debilitating pain disorder. Although the exact pathophysiology of CRPS is not fully understood, central and peripheral mechanisms might be involved in the development of this disorder. To reveal the central mechanism of CRPS, we conducted a proteomic analysis of rat cerebrum using the chronic postischemia pain (CPIP) model, a novel experimental model of CRPS.
Materials and methods:
After generating the CPIP animal model, we performed a proteomic analysis of the rat cerebrum using a multidimensional protein identification technology, and screened the proteins differentially expressed between the CPIP and control groups. Results. A total of 155 proteins were differentially expressed between the CPIP and control groups: 125 increased and 30 decreased; expressions of proteins related to cell signaling, synaptic plasticity, regulation of cell proliferation, and cytoskeletal formation were increased in the CPIP group. However, proenkephalin A, cereblon, and neuroserpin were decreased in CPIP group.
Altered expression of cerebral proteins in the CPIP model indicates cerebral involvement in the pathogenesis of CRPS. Further study is required to elucidate the roles of these proteins in the development and maintenance of CRPS.
Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · BioMed Research International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify ligands for orphan GPCRs, we searched novel neuropeptide genes in the Drosophila melanogaster genome. Here, we describe CNMa, a novel cyclic neuropeptide that is a highly potent and selective agonist for the orphan GPCR, CG33696 (CNMaR). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that arthropod species have two paralogous CNMaRs, but many taxa retain only one. Drosophila CNMa potently activates CNMaR-2 from Apis mellifera, suggesting both receptors are functional. Although CNMa is conserved in most arthropods, Lepidoptera lack the CNMa gene. However, they retain the CNMaR gene. Bombyx CNMaR showed low sensitivity to Drosophila CNMa, hinting toward the existence of additional CNMaR ligand(s).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial blight disease in rice, and that severely affects yield loss (upto 50%) of total rice production. Here, we report a proteomics investigation of Xoo (compatible race K3)-secreted proteins, isolated from its in vitro culture and in planta infected rice leaves. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS and/or nLC-ESI-MS/MS approach identified 139 protein spots (out of 153 differential spots), encoding 109 unique proteins. Identified proteins belonged to multiple biological and molecular functions. Metabolic and nutrient uptake proteins were common up to both in vitro and in planta secretomes. However, pathogenicity, protease/peptidase, and host defense-related proteins were highly- or specifically-expressed during in planta infection. A good correlation was observed between protein and transcript abundances for nine proteins-secreted in planta as per semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Transgenic rice leaf sheath (carrying PBZ1 promoter::GFP cell death reporter), when used to express a few of the identified secretory proteins, showed a direct activation of cell death signaling, suggesting their involvement in pathogenicity-related with secretion effectors. This work furthers our understanding of rice bacterial blight disease, and serves as a resource for possible translation in generating disease resistant rice plants for improved seed yield.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key pattern-recognition receptors that recognize invading pathogens and non-microbial endogenous molecules to induce innate and adaptive immune responses. Since activation of TLRs is deeply implicated in the pathological progress of autoimmune diseases, sepsis, metabolic diseases, and cancer, modulation of TLR activity is considered one of the most important therapeutic approaches. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin of gram-negative bacteria, is a well-known agonist for TLR4 triggering inflammation and septic shock. LPS interacts with TLR4 through binding to a hydrophobic pocket in myeloid differentiation 2 (MD2), a co-receptor of TLR4. In this study, we showed that sulforaphane (SFN) interfered with the binding of LPS to MD2 as determined by in vitro binding assay and co-immunoprecipitation of MD2 and LPS in a cell system. The inhibitory effect of SFN on the interaction of LPS and MD2 was reversed by thiol supplementation with N-acetyl-L-cysteine or dithiothreitol showing that the inhibitory effect of SFN is dependent on its thiol-modifying activity. Indeed, micro LC-MS/MS analysis showed that SFN preferentially formed adducts with Cys133 in the hydrophobic pocket of MD2, but not with Cys95 and Cys105. Molecular modeling showed that SFN bound to Cys133 blocks the engagement of LPS and lipid IVa to hydrophobic pocket of MD2. Our results demonstrate that SFN interrupts LPS engagement to TLR4/MD2 complex by direct binding to Cys133 in MD2. Our data suggest a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of SFN, and provide a novel target for the regulation of TLR4-mediated inflammatory and immune responses by phytochemicals.
Preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and purpose:
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in recognizing invading pathogens and endogenous danger signal to induce immune and inflammatory responses. Since dysregulation of TLRs enhances the risk of immune disorders and chronic inflammatory diseases, modulation of TLR activity by phytochemicals could be useful therapeutically. We investigated the effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on TLR-mediated inflammation and the underlying regulatory mechanism.
Inhibitory effects of CAPE on TLR4 activation were assessed with in vivo murine skin inflammation model and in vitro production of inflammatory mediators in macrophages. In vitro binding assay, cell-based immunoprecipitation study and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis were performed to determine lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding to MD2 and to identify the direct binding site of CAPE in MD2.
Topical application of CAPE attenuated dermal inflammation and oedema induced by intradermal injection of LPS (a TLR4 agonist). CAPE suppressed production of inflammatory mediators and activation of NFκB and interferon-regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) in macrophages stimulated with LPS. CAPE interrupted LPS binding to MD2 through formation of adduct specifically with Cys133 located in hydrophobic pocket of MD2. The inhibitory effect on LPS-induced IRF3 activation by CAPE was not observed when 293T cells were reconstituted with MD2 (C133S) mutant.
Conclusions and implications:
Our results show a novel mechanism for anti-inflammatory activity of CAPE to prevent TLR4 activation by interfering with interaction between ligand (LPS) and receptor complex (TLR4/MD2). These further provide beneficial information for the development of therapeutic strategies to prevent chronic inflammatory diseases.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · British Journal of Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The in vivo apoplastic fluid secretome of rice-blast fungus interaction remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we report a proteomics investigation of in vivo secreted proteins of rice leaves infected with incompatible (KJ401) and compatible (KJ301) races of Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae) using 2-DGE and MudPIT coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS and/or nESI-LC-MS/MS analyses. Prepared fractions of secretory proteins were essentially free from cytoplasmic contamination. Two-DGE and MudPIT identified 732 secretory proteins, where 291 (40%) and 441 (60%) proteins were derived from rice and M. oryzae, respectively. Of these, 39.2% (rice) and 38.9% (M. oryzae) of proteins were predicted by SignalP as retaining signal peptides. Among these, rice secreted more proteins related to stress response, ROS and energy metabolism, whereas, M. oryzae secreted more proteins involved in metabolism and cell wall hydrolyses. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed their differential expression under compatible/incompatible interactions. In vivo expression of M. oryzae glycosyl hydrolase (GH) protein family members using particle bombardment driven transient expression system showed that four GH genes could act as effectors within host apoplast possibly via interaction with host membrane bound receptor. The established in vivo secretome serves as a valuable resource toward secretome analysis of rice-M. oryzae interaction.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Journal of proteomics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ninjurin1 is known as an adhesion molecule promoting leukocyte trafficking under inflammatory conditions. However, the posttranslational modifications of Ninjurin1 are poorly understood. Herein, we defined the proteolytic cleavage of Ninjurin1 and its functions. HEK293T cells overexpressing the C- or N-terminus tagging mouse Ninjurin1 plasmid produced additional cleaved forms of Ninjurin1 in the lysates or conditioned media (CM). Two custom-made anti-Ninjurin1 antibodies, Ab(1-15) or Ab(139-152), specific to the N- or C-terminal regions of Ninjurin1 revealed the presence of its shedding fragments in the mouse liver and kidney lysates. Furthermore, Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 was responsible for Ninjurin1 cleavage between Leu(56) and Leu(57). Interestingly, the soluble N-terminal Ninjurin1 fragment has structural similarity with well-known chemokines. Indeed, the CM from HEK293T cells overexpressing the GFP-mNinj1 plasmid was able to attract Raw264.7 cells in trans-well assay. Collectively, we suggest that the N-terminal ectodomain of mouse Ninjurin1, which may act as a chemoattractant, is cleaved by MMP9.
No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mammalian heart is a muscular organ that can adjust dynamic alterations in its workload. In response to physiological or pathological stimuli and development, the heart changes hypertrophic enlargement which increase in the size of individual cardiac myocytes. A comparative proteomic survey is needed to acquire systemic insights into mammalian cardiac hypertrophy. In this study, using a shotgun proteomics approach based on MudPIT and tandem mass spectrometry, we have gained global protein profiling for each of pathological and physiological cardiac hypertrophy models and applied a statistical method by normalization of spectral counts. We analyzed relative protein expression abundance and studied their biological functions with bioinformatics tools. Interestingly, between physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy there were little overlap in the expression profiles. More specifically, there was a significant, negative correlation in biological functions of two models. Thus, different models of pathological and physiological cardiac hypertrophy are associated with distinct proteins controlled each signaling pathway. These data demonstrate key biological functions which describe each type of cardiac hypertrophy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) and metal oxide type affinity chromatography (MOAC) techniques have been widely used for mass spectrometry-based phosphorylation analysis. Unlike MOAC techniques, IMAC requires rather complete removals of buffering reagents, salts and high concentrations of denaturant prior to sample loading in order for the successful enrichment of phosphopeptides. In this study, a simple off-line capillary column-based IMAC phosphopeptide enrichment method can shorten sample preparation time by eliminating the speed-vac step from the desalting process. Tryptic digest peptide samples containing 2M urea can be directly processed and the entire IMAC procedure can be completed within 6 h. When tryptic digest peptide samples prepared from mouse whole brain tissues were analyzed using our method, an average of 249 phosphoproteins and 463 unique phosphopeptides were identified from single 2-h RPLC-MS/MS analysis (~88% specificity). An additional advantage of this method is the significantly improved reproducibility of the phosphopeptide enrichment results. When four independent phosphopeptide enrichment experiments were carried out, the peak areas of phosphopeptides identified among four enrichment experiments were relatively similar (less than 16.2% relative standard dev.). Because of this increased reproducibility, relative phosphorylation quantification analysis of major phosphoproteins appears to be feasible without the need for stable isotope labeling techniques.
No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The filipin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces avermitilis contains pteB, a homolog of crotonyl-CoA carboxylase/reductase. PteB was predicted to be 2-octenoyl-CoA carboxylase/reductase, supplying hexylmalonyl-CoA to filipin biosynthesis. Recombinant PteB displayed selective reductase activity toward 2-octenoyl-CoA while generating a broad range of alkylmalonyl-CoAs in the presence of bicarbonate.
No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transmembrane 4 L six family member 5 (TM4SF5) is highly expressed in hepatocarcinoma and causes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of hepatocytes. We found that TM4SF5-expressing cells showed lower mRNA levels but maintained normal protein levels in certain gene cases, indicating that TM4SF5 mediates stabilization of proteins. In this study, we explored whether regulation of proteasome activity and TM4SF5 expression led to EMT. We observed that TM4SF5 expression caused inhibition of proteasome activity and proteasome subunit expression, causing morphological changes and loss of cell-cell contacts. shRNA against TM4SF5 recovered proteasome expression, with leading to blockade of proteasome inactivation and EMT. Altogether, TM4SF5 expression appeared to cause loss of cell-cell adhesions via proteasome suppression and thereby proteasome inhibition, leading to repression of cell-cell adhesion molecules, such as E-cadherin.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β (TRIF) is an adaptor molecule that is recruited to TLR3 and -4 upon agonist stimulation and triggers activation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and expression of type 1 IFNs, which are critical for cellular antiviral responses. We show that Akt is a downstream molecule of TRIF/TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and plays an important role in the activation of IRF3 by TLR3 and -4 agonists. Blockade of Akt by a dominant-negative mutant or by short interfering RNA decreased IRF3 activation and IFN-β expression induced by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], LPS, TRIF, and TBK1. Association of endogenous TBK1 and Akt was observed in macrophages when stimulated with poly(I:C) and LPS. In vitro kinase assays combined with reversed-phase liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis showed that TBK1 enhanced phosphorylation of Akt on Ser(473), whereas knockdown of TBK1 expression by short interfering RNA in macrophages decreased poly(I:C)- and LPS-induced Akt phosphorylation. Embryonic fibroblasts derived from TBK1 knockout mice also showed impaired Akt phosphorylation in response to poly(I:C) and LPS. To our knowledge, our results demonstrate a new regulatory mechanism for Akt activation mediated by TBK1 and a novel role of Akt in TLR-mediated immune responses.
Preview · Article · Jan 2011 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In plants, plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular channels that function in both metabolite exchange and the transport of proteins and RNAs. Currently, many of the PD structural and regulatory components remain to be elucidated. Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) belonging to a notably expanded protein family in plants compared to the animal kingdom have been shown to play important roles in plant growth, development, pathogen resistance, and cell death. In this study, cell biological approaches were used to identify potential PD-associated RLK proteins among proteins contained within cell walls isolated from rice callus cultured cells. A total of 15 rice RLKs were investigated to determine their subcellular localization, using an Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system. Of these six PD-associated RLKs were identified based on their co-localization with a viral movement protein that served as a PD marker, plasmolysis experiments, and subcellular localization at points of wall contact between spongy mesophyll cells. These findings suggest potential PD functions in apoplasmic signaling in response to environmental stimuli and developmental inputs.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00709-010-0251-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.