[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Less than 20 % of familial breast cancer patients who undergo genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carry a pathogenic mutation in one of these two genes. The GENESIS (GENE SISter) study was designed to identify new breast cancer susceptibility genes in women attending cancer genetics clinics and with no BRCA1/2 mutation. Methods The study involved the French national network of family cancer clinics. It was based on enrichment in genetic factors of the recruited population through case selection relying on familial criteria, but also on the consideration of environmental factors and endophenotypes like mammary density or tumor characteristics to assess potential genetic heterogeneity. One of the initial aims of GENESIS was to recruit affected sibpairs. Siblings were eligible when index cases and at least one affected sister were diagnosed with infiltrating mammary or ductal adenocarcinoma, with no BRCA1/2 mutation. In addition, unrelated controls and unaffected sisters were recruited. The enrolment of patients, their relatives and their controls, the collection of the clinical, epidemiological, familial and biological data were centralized by a coordinating center. Results Inclusion of participants started in February 2007 and ended in December 2013. A total of 1721 index cases, 826 affected sisters, 599 unaffected sisters and 1419 controls were included. 98 % of participants completed the epidemiological questionnaire, 97 % provided a blood sample, and 76 % were able to provide mammograms. Index cases were on average 59 years old at inclusion, were born in 1950, and were 49.7 years of age at breast cancer diagnosis. The mean age at diagnosis of affected sisters was slightly higher (51.4 years). The representativeness of the control group was verified. Conclusions The size of the study, the availability of biological specimens and the clinical data collection together with the detailed and complete epidemiological questionnaire make this a unique national resource for investigation of the missing heritability of breast cancer, by taking into account environmental and life style factors and stratifying data on endophenotypes to decrease genetic heterogeneity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although a wide number of breast cancer susceptibility alleles associated with various levels of risk have been identified to date, about 50% of the heritability is still missing. Although the major BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are being extensively screened for truncating and missense variants in breast and/or ovarian cancer families, potential regulatory variants affecting their expression remain largely unexplored. In an attempt to identify such variants, we focused our attention on gene regulation mediated by microRNAs (miRs). We screened two genes, MIR146A and MIR146B, producing miR-146a and miR-146b-5p, respectively, that regulate BRCA1, and the 3'- untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in the GENESIS French national case/control study (BRCA1- and BRCA2-negative breast cancer cases with at least one sister with breast cancer and matched controls). We identified one rare variant in MIR146A, four in MIR146B, five in BRCA1 3'-UTR and one in BRCA2 3'-UTR in 716 index cases and 619 controls. Among these 11 rare variants, 7 were identified each in 1 index case. None of the three relevant MIR146A/MIR146B variants affected the pre-miR sequences. The potential causality of the four relevant BRCA1/BRCA2 3'-UTRs variants was evaluated with luciferase reporter assays and co-segregation studies, as well as with bioinformatics analyses to predict miRs-binding sites, RNA secondary structures and RNA accessibility. This is the first study to report the screening of miR genes and of BRCA2 3'-UTR in a large series of familial breast cancer cases. None of the variant identified in this study gave convincing evidence of potential pathogenicity.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 20 January 2016; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.284.
No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · European journal of human genetics: EJHG
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial aggregation among patients with several hematological malignancies has been revealed. This emphasizes the importance of genetic factors. Only few genes predisposing to familial hematological malignancies have been reported until now due to the low occurrence. We have described in previous study PRF1 and CEBPA variants that might contribute to the background of genetic factors, which encourage us to extend our investigations to other cooperating genes. The aim of this study is to determine whether germline additional sex combs-like 1 (ASXL1) gene mutations may be involved?
In this study, we investigated the candidate gene ASXL1 by direct sequencing in 88 unrelated Tunisian and French families with aggregated hematological malignancies.
We report a new p.Arg402Gln germline missense substitution in two related Tunisian patients which has not been previously described. We identified here this variant for the first time in non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The p.Arg402Gln variant was not found in 200 control chromosomes. In silico analysis has predicted potential deleterious effect on ASXL1 protein.
From an extended candidate genes analyzed in the field of familial hematological malignancies, ASXL1 might be involved. This variant should be considered since a potential damaging effect was predicted by in silico analysis, with a view to develop functional assay in order to investigate the biological assessment.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Clinical and Translational Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the two major genes predisposing to breast and ovarian cancer. Whereas high de novo mutation rates have been demonstrated for several genes, only 11 cases of de novo BRCA1/2 mutations have been reported to date and the BRCA1/2 de novo mutation rate remains unknown. The present study was designed to fill this gap based on a series of 12 805 consecutive unrelated patients diagnosed with breast and/or ovarian cancer who met the inclusion criteria for BRCA1/2 gene analysis according to French guidelines. BRCA1/2 mutations were detected in 1527 (12%) patients, and three BRCA1 mutations and one BRCA2 mutation were de novo. The BRCA1/2 de novo mutation rate was estimated to be 0.3% (0.1%; 0.7%). Although rare, it may be useful to take the possibility of de novo BRCA1/2 mutation into account in genetic counseling of relatives and to improve the understanding of complex family histories of breast and ovarian cancers.Oncogene advance online publication, 1 June 2015; doi:10.1038/onc.2015.181.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine if the at-risk single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles for colorectal cancer (CRC) could contribute to clinical situations suggestive of an increased genetic risk for CRC, we performed a prospective national case-control study based on highly selected patients (CRC in two first-degree relatives, one before 61 years of age; or CRC diagnosed before 51 years of age; or multiple primary CRCs, the first before 61 years of age; exclusion of Lynch syndrome and polyposes) and controls without personal or familial history of CRC. SNPs were genotyped using SNaPshot, and statistical analyses were performed using Pearson's χ(2) test, Cochran-Armitage test of trend and logistic regression. We included 1029 patients and 350 controls. We confirmed the association of CRC risk with four SNPs, with odds ratio (OR) higher than previously reported: rs16892766 on 8q23.3 (OR: 1.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30-2.72; P=0.0007); rs4779584 on 15q13.3 (OR: 1.42, CI: 1.11-1.83; P=0.0061) and rs4939827 and rs58920878/Novel 1 on 18q21.1 (OR: 1.49, CI: 1.13-1.98; P=0.007 and OR: 1.49, CI: 1.14-1.95; P=0.0035). We found a significant (P<0.0001) cumulative effect of the at-risk alleles or genotypes with OR at 1.62 (CI: 1.10-2.37), 2.09 (CI: 1.43-3.07), 2.87 (CI: 1.76-4.70) and 3.88 (CI: 1.72-8.76) for 1, 2, 3 and at least 4 at-risk alleles, respectively, and OR at 1.71 (CI: 1.18-2.46), 2.29 (CI: 1.55-3.38) and 6.21 (CI: 2.67-14.42) for 1, 2 and 3 at-risk genotypes, respectively. Combination of SNPs may therefore explain a fraction of clinical situations suggestive of an increased risk for CRC.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 15 April 2015; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.72.
No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · European journal of human genetics: EJHG
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genetic cause of some familial nonsyndromic renal cell carcinomas (RCC) defined by at least two affected first-degree relatives is unknown. By combining whole-exome sequencing and tumor profiling in a family prone to cases of RCC, we identified a germline BAP1 mutation c.277A>G (p.Thr93Ala) as the probable genetic basis of RCC predisposition. This mutation segregated with all four RCC-affected relatives. Furthermore, BAP1 was found to be inactivated in RCC-affected individuals from this family. No BAP1 mutations were identified in 32 familial cases presenting with only RCC. We then screened for germline BAP1 deleterious mutations in familial aggregations of cancers within the spectrum of the recently described BAP1-associated tumor predisposition syndrome, including uveal melanoma, malignant pleural mesothelioma, and cutaneous melanoma. Among the 11 families that included individuals identified as carrying germline deleterious BAP1 mutations, 6 families presented with 9 RCC-affected individuals, demonstrating a significantly increased risk for RCC. This strongly argues that RCC belongs to the BAP1 syndrome and that BAP1 is a RCC-predisposition gene.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Family structure, lack of reliable information, cost, and delay are usual concerns when deciding to perform BRCA analyses. Testing breast cancer tissues with four antibodies (MS110, lys27H3, vimentin, and KI67) in addition to grade evaluation enabled us to rapidly select patients for genetic testing identification. We constituted an initial breast cancer tissue microarray, considered as a learning set, comprising 27 BRCA1 and 81 sporadic tumors. A second independent validation set of 28 BRCA1 tumors was matched to 28 sporadic tumors using the same original conditions. We investigated morphological parameters and 21 markers by immunohistochemistry. A logistic regression model was used to select the minimal number of markers providing the best model to predict BRCA1 status. The model was applied to the validation set to estimate specificity and sensibility. In the initial set, univariate analyses identified 11 markers significantly associated with BRCA1 status. Then, the best multivariate model comprised only grade 3, MS110, Lys27H3, vimentin, and KI67. When applied to the validation set, BRCA1 tumors were correctly classified with a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 81%. The performance of this model was superior when compared to other profiles. This study offers a new rapid and cost-effective method for the prescreening of patients at high risk of being BRCA1 mutation carriers, to guide genetic testing, and finally to provide appropriate preventive measures, advice, and treatments including targeted therapy to patients and their families.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 confer a high risk of breast cancer (BC), but the magnitude of this risk seems to vary according to the study and various factors. Although controversial, there are data to support the hypothesis of allelic risk heterogeneity.
We assessed variation in BC risk according to factors related to pregnancies by location of mutation in the homogeneous risk region of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in 990 women in the French study GENEPSO by using a weighted Cox regression model.
Our results confirm the existence of the protective effect of an increasing number of full-term pregnancies (FTPs) toward BC among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers (≥3 versus 0 FTPs: hazard ratio (HR) = 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.33 to 0.81). Additionally, the HR shows an association between incomplete pregnancies and a higher BC risk, which reached 2.39 (95% CI = 1.28 to 4.45) among women who had at least three incomplete pregnancies when compared with women with zero incomplete pregnancies. This increased risk appeared to be restricted to incomplete pregnancies occurring before the first FTP (HR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.19 to 2.63). We defined the TMAP score (defined as the Time of Breast Mitotic Activity during Pregnancies) to take into account simultaneously the opposite effect of full-term and interrupted pregnancies. Compared with women with a TMAP score of less than 0.35, an increasing TMAP score was associated with a statistically significant increase in the risk of BC (P trend = 0.02) which reached 1.97 (95% CI = 1.19 to 3.29) for a TMAP score >0.5 (versus TMAP ≤0.35). All these results appeared to be similar in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Nevertheless, our results suggest a variation in BC risk associated with parity according to the location of the mutation in BRCA1. Indeed, parity seems to be associated with a significantly decreased risk of BC only among women with a mutation in the central region of BRCA1 (low-risk region) (≥1 versus 0 FTP: HR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.13 to 0.55) (Pinteraction <10-3).
Our findings show that, taking into account environmental and lifestyle modifiers, mutation position might be important for the clinical management of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and could also be helpful in understanding how BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are involved in BC.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Breast cancer research: BCR
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the impact of BRCA1/2 test results on carriers' reproductive decision-making and the factors determining their theoretical intentions about preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and prenatal diagnosis (PND).
Unaffected BRCA1/2 mutation carriers of childbearing age (N = 605; 449 women; 151 men) were included at least 1 year after the disclosure of their test results in a cross-sectional survey nested in a national cohort. Multivariate adjustment was performed on the data obtained in self-administered questionnaires.
Response rate was 81.0%. Overall, 32.5% and 50% said that they would undergo PGD/PND, respectively, at a theoretical next pregnancy, whereas only 12.1% found termination of pregnancy (TOP) acceptable. Theoretical intentions toward PGD did not depend on gender/age, but were higher among those with no future childbearing plans (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.5 (1.9-6.4)) and those having fewer relatives with cancer (AOR 1.5 95% CI (1.0-2.3)). Greater TOP acceptability was observed among males and those with lower educational levels; 85.4% of respondents agreed that information about PGD/PND should be systematically delivered with the test results.
The closer to reproductive decision-making BRCA1/2 carriers are, i.e., when they are more likely to be making future reproductive plans, the less frequently they intend to have PGD. Carriers' theoretical intentions toward PND are discussed further.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Women with germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations are considered as an extreme risk population for developing breast cancer. Prophylactic mastectomy provides a valid option to reduce such risk, impacting however, the quality of life. Medical prevention by aromatase inhibitor that has also recently shown to have preventive effect may thus be considered as an alternative. LIBER is an ongoing double-blind, randomized phase III trial to evaluate the efficacy of 5-year letrozole versus placebo to decrease breast cancer incidence in post-menopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers (NCT00673335). We present data on the uptake of this trial. We compared characteristics of women in the LIBER trial (n = 113) to those of women enrolled in the prospective ongoing national GENEPSO cohort (n = 1,505). Uptake was evaluated through a survey sent to all active centres, with responses obtained from 17 to the 20 (85%) centres. According to the characteristics of the women enrolled in the GENEPSO cohort and the survey, approximately one-third of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers were eligible for the trial. Five hundred and thirty-four women eligible from chart review have been informed by mail about the prevention trial and were invited to an oral information by participating centres. Forty-four percentage of them came to the dedicated medical visit. Uptake of drug prevention trial was 32% among women informed orally and 15% of all the eligible women. The main reasons of refusal were: potential side effects, probability to receive the placebo and lack of support from their physicians. Additionally, we noticed that prior prophylactic oophorectomy and previous unilateral breast cancer were more frequent in women enrolled in the LIBER trial than in the French cohort (93% vs. 60% and 50% vs. 39%, respectively). Based on an overall 15% uptake among all eligible subjects, greater and wider information of the trial should be offered to women with BRCA1/2 mutation to improve recruitment. Women with previous unilateral breast cancer or prior prophylactic oophorectomy are more likely to enter a medical prevention trial.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT: Perforin gene (PRF1) mutations have been identified in some patients diagnosed with the familial form of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and in patients with lymphoma. The aim of the present study was to determine whether patients with a familial aggregation of hematological malignancies harbor germline perforin gene mutations. For this purpose, 81 unrelated families from Tunisia and France with aggregated hematological malignancies were investigated. The variants detected in the PRF1 coding region amounted to 3.7% (3/81). Two of the three variants identified were previously described: the p.Ala91Val pathogenic mutation and the p.Asn252Ser polymorphism. A new p.Ala 211Val missense substitution was identified in two related Tunisian patients. In order to assess the pathogenicity of this new variation, bioinformatic tools were used to predict its effects on the perforin protein structure and at the mRNA level. The segregation of the mutant allele was studied in the family of interest and a control population was screened. The fact that this variant was not found to occur in 200 control chromosomes suggests that it may be pathogenic. However, overexpression of mutated PRF1 in rat basophilic leukemia cells did not affect the lytic function of perforin differently from the wild type protein.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Germline mutations in BRCA1/2 confer a high risk of breast cancer (BC), but the magnitude of this risk varies according to various factors. Although controversial, there are data to support the hypothesis of allelic-risk heterogeneity. We assessed variation in BC risk according to the location of mutations recorded in the French study GENEPSO. Since the women in this study were selected from high-risk families, oversampling of affected women was eliminated by using a weighted Cox-regression model. Women were censored at the date of diagnosis when affected by any cancer, or the date of interview when unaffected. A total of 990 women were selected for the analysis: 379 were classified as affected, 611 as unaffected. For BRCA1, there was some evidence of a central region where the risk of BC is lower (codons 374-1161) (HR = 0.59, P = 0.04). For BRCA2, there was a strong evidence for a region at decreased risk (codons 957-1827) (HR = 0.35, P = 0.005) and for one at increased risk (codons 2546-2968) (HR = 3.56, P = 0.01). Moreover, we found an important association between radiation exposure from chest X-rays and BC risk (HR = 4.29, P < 10(-3)) and a positive association between smoking more than 21 pack-years and BC risk (HR = 2.09, P = 0.04). No significant variation in BC risk associated with chest X-ray exposure, smoking, and alcohol consumption was found according to the location of the mutation in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Our findings are consistent with those suggesting that the risk of BC is lower in the central regions of BRCA1/2. A new high-risk region in BRCA2 is described. Taking into account environmental and lifestyle modifiers, the location of mutations might be important in the clinical management of BRCA mutation carriers.
No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the medical and psychosocial factors determining the time to prophylactic surgery of unaffected women carriers of a deleterious BRCA1/2 mutation.
Prospective study on a French national cohort of unaffected BRCA1/2 carriers (N = 244); multivariate Cox proportional hazard modeling.
Median follow-up time was 2.33 years (range, 0.04-6.84 years). Time to surgery was shorter when the psychological impact of BRCA1/2 result disclosure was stated to be higher (P ≤ 0.01). Those who intended to opt for prophylactic surgery before being tested did so faster and more frequently after test disclosure than those who were undecided/opposed. The older the women were, the faster their uptake of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (adjusted hazard ratio >2.95; P < 0.001) was; the uptake of those with at least two children was also faster (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.51; [1.38-4.55]). Those who opted most quickly for risk-reducing mastectomy more frequently had a younger child at the time of testing (adjusted hazard ratio = 4.63 [1.56-13.74]). Time to surgery was shorter when there was a first-degree relative with ovarian/breast cancer (P ≤ 0.01).
Time to prophylactic surgery depends on the stated psychological impact of disclosure and on women's cognitive anticipation of surgery after adjusting on sociodemographic characteristics.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial aggregation in patients with several haematological malignancies has been described, but the genetic basis for this familial clustering is not known. Few genes predisposing to familial haematological malignancies have been identified, among which RUNX1 and CEBPA have been described as predisposing genes to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Recent studies on RUNX1 suggest that germline mutations in this gene predispose to a larger panel of familial haematological malignancies than AML. In order to strengthen this hypothesis, we have screened CEBPA for germline mutations in several families presenting aggregation of hematological malignancies (including chronic or acute, lymphoid or myeloid leukemias, Hodgkin's or non Hodgkin's lymphomas, and myeloproliferative or myelodysplastic syndromes) with or without solid tumours. Although no deleterious mutations were found, we report two novel and rare variants of uncertain significance. In addition, we confirm that the in frame insertion c.1175_1180dup (p.P194_H195dup) is a germline polymorphism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several reproductive and hormonal factors are known to be associated with ovarian cancer risk in the general population, including parity and oral contraceptive (OC) use. However, their effect on ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers has only been investigated in a small number of studies.
We used data on 2,281 BRCA1 carriers and 1,038 BRCA2 carriers from the International BRCA1/2 Carrier Cohort Study to evaluate the effect of reproductive and hormonal factors on ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers. Data were analyzed within a weighted Cox proportional hazards framework.
There were no significant differences in the risk of ovarian cancer between parous and nulliparous carriers. For parous BRCA1 mutation carriers, the risk of ovarian cancer was reduced with each additional full-term pregnancy (P trend = 0.002). BRCA1 carriers who had ever used OC were at a significantly reduced risk of developing ovarian cancer (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence intervals, 0.37-0.73; P = 0.0002) and increasing duration of OC use was associated with a reduced ovarian cancer risk (P trend = 0.0004). The protective effect of OC use for BRCA1 mutation carriers seemed to be greater among more recent users. Tubal ligation was associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer for BRCA1 carriers (hazard ratio, 0.42; 95% confidence intervals, 0.22-0.80; P = 0.008). The number of ovarian cancer cases in BRCA2 mutation carriers was too small to draw definitive conclusions.
The results provide further confirmation that OC use, number of full-term pregnancies, and tubal ligation are associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 carriers to a similar relative extent as in the general population.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in two genes encoding cell cycle regulatory proteins have been shown to cause familial cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). About 20% of melanoma-prone families bear a point mutation in the CDKN2A locus at 9p21, which encodes two unrelated proteins, p16(INK4a) and p14(ARF). Rare mutations in CDK4 have also been linked to the disease. Although the CDKN2A gene has been shown to be the major melanoma predisposing gene, there remains a significant proportion of melanoma kindreds linked to 9p21 in which germline mutations of CDKN2A have not been identified through direct exon sequencing. The purpose of this study was to assess the contribution of large rearrangements in CDKN2A to the disease in melanoma-prone families using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. We examined 214 patients from independent pedigrees with at least two CMM cases. All had been tested for CDKN2A and CDK4 point mutation, and 47 were found positive. Among the remaining 167 negative patients, one carried a novel genomic deletion of CDKN2A exon 2. Overall, genomic deletions represented 2.1% of total mutations in this series (1 of 48), confirming that they explain a very small proportion of CMM susceptibility. In addition, we excluded a new gene on 9p21, KLHL9, as being a major CMM gene.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · British Journal of Cancer