Morten L Kringelbach

Aarhus University, Aarhus, Central Jutland, Denmark

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Publications (148)767.33 Total impact

  • Gustavo Deco · Morten L. Kringelbach
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the mechanisms for communication in the brain remains one of the most challenging scientific questions. The communication through coherence (CTC) hypothesis was originally proposed 10 years ago, stating that two groups of neurons communicate most effectively when their excitability fluctuations are coordinated in time (i.e., coherent), and this control by cortical coherence is a fundamental brain mechanism for large-scale, distant communication. In light of new evidence from whole-brain computational modelling of multimodal neuroimaging data, we link CTC to the concept of metastability, which refers to a rich exploration of the functional repertoire made possible by the underlying structural whole-brain connectivity.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Trends in Neurosciences
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    ABSTRACT: Interpreting and responding to an infant's emotional cues is a fundamental parenting skill. Responsivity to infant cues is frequently disrupted in depression, impacting negatively on child outcomes, which underscores its importance. It is widely assumed that women, and in particular mothers, show greater attunement to infants compared with men. However, empirical evidence for sex and parental status effects, particularly in relation to perception of infant emotion, has been lacking. In this study, men and women with and without young infants were asked to rate valence in a range of infant facial expressions, on a scale of very positive to very negative. Results suggested complex interaction effects between parental status, sex and the facial expression being rated. Mothers provided more positive ratings of the happy expressions, and more extreme ratings of the intense emotion expression compared to fathers, but non-mothers and non-fathers did not. Low-level depressive symptoms were also found to correlate with more negative ratings of negative infant facial expressions across the entire sample. Overall, these results suggest that parental status might have differential effects on men and women's appraisal of infant cues. Differences between fathers’ and mothers’ perceptions of infant emotion might be of interest in understanding variance in interaction styles, such as proportion of time spent in play.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Quarterly journal of experimental psychology (2006)
  • Alexander Fjaeldstad · Tim J. van Hartevelt · Morten L. Kringelbach
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    ABSTRACT: The survival of individuals as well as species relies on a few fundamental necessities. In order to survive, we need food, procreation and social interactions. These are arguably also the most pleasurable activities and they all are known to stimulate an array of sensory systems. The multisensory perception of food is very complex and includes not only smell and taste. Flavour perception relies also on visual and auditory input. Food can be highly pleasurable and the act of eating extremely satisfying. The eating process can be described as a cyclic process of hunger, consumption and satiation. These three stages can also be described as the wanting, liking and learning phases, though learning does occur throughout the entire eating process, it is strongest in the later satiation phase. The related hedonic processing takes place in the orbitofrontal cortex (a crucial area for smell) where other multimodal stimuli are processed as well as reward and pleasure.
    No preview · Chapter · Jan 2016
  • T.J. van Hartevelt · M.L. Kringelbach
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    ABSTRACT: The olfactory system is a unique and important sense which has, however, been underrepresented in research. It plays a crucial role in food selection and reproduction, ensuring survival for both the individual and the species. The olfactory system is unique compared to the other senses in that, among other things, information is not relayed via the thalamus, but instead projected directly to cortical regions such as the orbitofrontal cortex. This article describes the information processing in the olfactory system from the olfactory epithelium to the cortical projection areas, based on translational research and imaging studies, and details the multimodal interactions between olfaction and gustation. Equally, we describe the breakdown of the sense of smell that can be devastating and is implicated in anhedonia, the lack of pleasure, a key feature of mental illness.
    No preview · Chapter · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Crying is the most salient vocal signal of distress. The cries of a newborn infant alert adult listeners and often elicit caregiving behavior. For the parent, rapid responding to an infant in distress is an adaptive behavior, functioning to ensure offspring survival. The ability to react rapidly requires quick recognition and evaluation of stimuli followed by a co-ordinated motor response. Previous neuroimaging research has demonstrated early specialized activity in response to infant faces. Using magnetoencephalography, we found similarly early (100–200 ms) differences in neural responses to infant and adult cry vocalizations in auditory, emotional, and motor cortical brain regions. We propose that this early differential activity may help to rapidly identify infant cries and engage affective and motor neural circuitry to promote adaptive behavioral responding, before conscious awareness. These differences were observed in adults who were not parents, perhaps indicative of a universal brain-based “caregiving instinct.”
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Cerebral Cortex
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    Robert Ton · Gustavo Deco · Morten L Kringelbach · Mark Woolrich · Andreas Daffertshofer
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    ABSTRACT: Converging research suggests that the resting brain operates at the cusp of dynamic instability signified by scale-free temporal correlations. We asked if the scaling properties of these correlations differ between amplitude and phase fluctuations, which may reflect different aspects of cortical functioning. Using source-reconstructed magneto-encephalographic signals, we found power-law scaling for the collective amplitude and for phase synchronization, both capturing whole-brain activity. The temporal changes of the amplitude comprise slow, persistent memory processes, whereas phase synchronization exhibits less temporally structured and more complex correlations, indicating a fast and flexible coding. This distinct temporal scaling supports the idea of different roles of amplitude and phase in cortical functioning.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
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    Morten L Kringelbach
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    ABSTRACT: As all chefs know, great food can have a transformational impact. A great deal of recent research has gone into using the new techniques from molecular gastronomy and gastrophysics to create innovative meals with delicious original textures and flavours. These novel creations have elicited much excitement from food critiques and diners alike. Much stands to be gained if these developments were to be matched by a better understanding of how the pleasure of food comes about in the brain. This review summarises the current state-of-the-art of the science of pleasure and specifically the brain’s fundamental computational principles for eating and the pleasures evoked. It is shown how the study of food has advanced our understanding of the unitary pleasure system that is used for all pleasures. As such, these novel insights may come to serve as a guide for chefs of how to combine science and art in order to maximise pleasure—and perhaps even increase happiness.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    Dan-Mikael Ellingsen · Siri Leknes · Morten Kringelbach
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    ABSTRACT: The hedonic processing of pleasure, pain, and displeasure is essential to survival and as such motivates behavior and strongly influences decision-making. Research has shown that the underlying mechanisms of wanting, liking, and learning form partly separable neuroanatomical and neuropharmacological systems in the brain, which are shared among many mammalian species. This chapter provides an overview of the brain circuitry involved in hedonic (dis)liking, wanting, and learning of rewards and punishments. It discusses the influence of physiology and homeostasis, motivational state, and contextual meaning in shaping the subjective utility of stimuli, and consequently hedonic value and the subjective hedonic experience.
    Full-text · Chapter · Nov 2015
  • Morten L. Kringelbach · Anthony R. McIntosh · Petra Ritter · Viktor K. Jirsa · Gustavo Deco
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    ABSTRACT: Slowness of thought is not necessarily a handicap but could be a signature of optimal brain function. Emerging evidence shows that neuroanatomical and dynamical constraints of the human brain shape its functionality in optimal ways, characterized by slowness during task-based cognition in the context of spontaneous resting-state activity. This activity can be described mechanistically by whole-brain computational modeling that relates directly to optimality in the context of theories arguing for metastability in the brain. We discuss the role for optimal processing of information in the context of cognitive, task-related activity, and propose that combining multi-modal neuroimaging and explicit whole-brain models focused on the timing of functional dynamics can help to uncover fundamental rules of brain function in health and disease. The dynamics of the human brain exhibits 'slowness' during spontaneous activity and task-based cognition.Whole-brain computational modeling can account for the mechanisms underlying this slowness in terms of maximal metastability of the dynamical system.A better understanding of the balance between fast and slow brain processing could lead to fundamental new insights into the brain in health and disease.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Trends in Cognitive Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a new treatment for alleviating intractable neuropathic pain. However, it fails to help some patients. The large size of the ACC and the intersubject variability make it difficult to determine the optimal site to position DBS electrodes. The aim of this work was therefore to compare the ACC connectivity of patients with successful versus unsuccessful DBS outcomes to help guide future electrode placement. Methods: Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) and probabilistic tractography were performed preoperatively in 8 chronic pain patients (age 53.4 ± 6.1 years, 2 females) with ACC DBS, of whom 6 had successful (SO) and 2 unsuccessful outcomes (UOs) during a period of trialing. Results: The number of patients was too small to demonstrate any statistically significant differences. Nevertheless, we observed differences between patients with successful and unsuccessful outcomes in the fiber tract projections emanating from the volume of activated tissue around the electrodes. A strong connectivity to the precuneus area seems to predict unsuccessful outcomes in our patients (UO: 160n/SO: 27n), with (n), the number of streamlines per nonzero voxel. On the other hand, connectivity to the thalamus and brainstem through the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) was only observed in SO patients. Conclusions: These findings could help improve presurgical planning by optimizing electrode placement, to selectively target the tracts that help to relieve patients' pain and to avoid those leading to unwanted effects.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · World Neurosurgery
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    ABSTRACT: Stress affects brain function, and may lead to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Considerable empirical data for the neurobiology of PTSD has been derived from neuroimaging studies, although findings have proven inconsistent. We used an activation likelihood estimation analysis to explore differences in brain activity between adults with and without PTSD in response to affective stimuli. We separated studies by type of control group: trauma-exposed and trauma-naïve: this revealed distinct patterns of differences in functional activity. Compared to trauma-exposed controls, regions of the basal ganglia were differentially active in PTSD; whereas the comparison with trauma-naïve controls revealed differential involvement in in the right anterior insula, precuneus, cingulate and orbitofrontal cortices known to be involved in emotional regulation. Changes in activity in the amygdala and parahippocampal cortex distinguished PTSD from both control groups. Results suggest that trauma has a measurable, enduring effect upon the functional dynamics of the brain, even in individuals who experience trauma but do not develop PTSD. These findings contribute to the understanding of whole-brain network activity following trauma, and its transition to clinical PTSD. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
  • Gustavo Deco · Giulio Tononi · Melanie Boly · Morten L Kringelbach
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    ABSTRACT: The brain regulates information flow by balancing the segregation and integration of incoming stimuli to facilitate flexible cognition and behaviour. The topological features of brain networks - in particular, network communities and hubs - support this segregation and integration but do not provide information about how external inputs are processed dynamically (that is, over time). Experiments in which the consequences of selective inputs on brain activity are controlled and traced with great precision could provide such information. However, such strategies have thus far had limited success. By contrast, recent whole-brain computational modelling approaches have enabled us to start assessing the effect of input perturbations on brain dynamics in silico.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Nature Reviews Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: It is unclear whether Hebbian-like learning occurs at the level of long-range white matter connections in humans, i.e., where measurable changes in structural connectivity (SC) are correlated with changes in functional connectivity. However, the behavioral changes observed after deep brain stimulation (DBS) suggest the existence of such Hebbian-like mechanisms occurring at the structural level with functional consequences. In this rare case study, we obtained the full network of white matter connections of one patient with Parkinson's disease (PD) before and after long-term DBS and combined it with a computational model of ongoing activity to investigate the effects of DBS-induced long-term structural changes. The results show that the long-term effects of DBS on resting-state functional connectivity is best obtained in the computational model by changing the structural weights from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) to the putamen and the thalamus in a Hebbian-like manner. Moreover, long-term DBS also significantly changed the SC towards normality in terms of model-based measures of segregation and integration of information processing, two key concepts of brain organization. This novel approach using computational models to model the effects of Hebbian-like changes in SC allowed us to causally identify the possible underlying neural mechanisms of long-term DBS using rare case study data. In time, this could help predict the efficacy of individual DBS targeting and identify novel DBS targets.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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    Full-text · Dataset · May 2015
  • Kent C Berridge · Morten L Kringelbach
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    ABSTRACT: Pleasure is mediated by well-developed mesocorticolimbic circuitry and serves adaptive functions. In affective disorders, anhedonia (lack of pleasure) or dysphoria (negative affect) can result from breakdowns of that hedonic system. Human neuroimaging studies indicate that surprisingly similar circuitry is activated by quite diverse pleasures, suggesting a common neural currency shared by all. Wanting for reward is generated by a large and distributed brain system. Liking, or pleasure itself, is generated by a smaller set of hedonic hot spots within limbic circuitry. Those hot spots also can be embedded in broader anatomical patterns of valence organization, such as in a keyboard pattern of nucleus accumbens generators for desire versus dread. In contrast, some of the best known textbook candidates for pleasure generators, including classic pleasure electrodes and the mesolimbic dopamine system, may not generate pleasure after all. These emerging insights into brain pleasure mechanisms may eventually facilitate better treatments for affective disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Neuron
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    ABSTRACT: Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that Contactin-associated protein-like2 (CNTNAP2) polymorphisms affect left-hemispheric function of language processing in healthy individuals, but no study has investigated the influence of these polymorphisms on right-hemispheric function involved in human voice perception. Further, although recent reports suggest that determination of handedness is influenced by genetic effect, the interaction effect between handedness and CNTNAP2 polymorphisms for brain activity in human voice perception and language processing has not been revealed. We aimed to investigate the interaction effect of handedness and CNTNAP2 polymorphisms in respect to brain function for human voice perception and language processing in healthy individuals. Brain function of 108 healthy volunteers (74 right-handed and 34 non-right-handed) was examined while they were passively listening to reverse sentences (rSEN), identifiable non-vocal sounds (SND), and sentences (SEN). Full factorial design analysis was calculated by using three factors: (1) rs7794745 (A/A or A/T), (2) rs2710102 [G/G or A carrier (A/G and A/A)], and (3) voice-specific response (rSEN or SND). The main effect of rs7794745 (A/A or A/T) was significantly revealed at the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG). This result suggests that rs7794745 genotype affects voice-specific brain function. Furthermore, interaction effect was significantly observed among MFG-STG activations by human voice perception, rs7794745 (A/A or A/T), and handedness. These results suggest that CNTNAP2 polymorphisms could be one of the important factors in the neural development related to vocal communication and language processing in both right-handed and non-right-handed healthy individuals.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Maria A G Witek · Morten L Kringelbach · Peter Vuust

    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Physics of Life Reviews
  • L Gebauer · M L Kringelbach · P Vuust

    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Physics of Life Reviews
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    Kristine Romer Thomsen · Peter C. Whybrow · Morten L. Kringelbach
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    ABSTRACT: Anhedonia, the lack of pleasure, has been shown to be a critical feature of a range of psychiatric disorders. Yet, it is currently measured primarily through subjective self-reports and as such has been difficult to submit to rigorous scientific analysis. New insights from affective neuroscience hold considerable promise in improving our understanding of anhedonia and for providing useful objective behavioral measures to complement traditional self-report measures, potentially leading to better diagnoses and novel treatments. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of hedonia research and specifically the established mechanisms of wanting, liking, and learning. Based on this framework we propose to conceptualize anhedonia as impairments in some or all of these processes, thereby departing from the longstanding view of anhedonia as solely reduced subjective experience of pleasure. We discuss how deficits in each of the reward components can lead to different expressions, or subtypes, of anhedonia affording novel ways of measurement. Specifically, we review evidence suggesting that patients suffering from depression and schizophrenia show impairments in wanting and learning, while some aspects of conscious liking seem surprisingly intact. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that anhedonia is heterogeneous across psychiatric disorders, depending on which parts of the pleasure networks are most affected. This in turn has implications for diagnosis and treatment of anhedonia.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The Sniffin’ Sticks 12-Identification test (SIT-12) is the most commonly applied Danish olfaction screening tool, however, it has never been validated in a Danish population. The screening score depends on familiarity with descriptors, which is strongly influenced by linguistic and cultural factors, why validation is mandatory. This study aims to validate the SIT-12 in a Danish population. Design: Prospective controlled study. Setting: Otorhinolaryngology department. Participants: The SIT-12 was applied to 100 normosmic, healthy adult Danish participants. Main outcome measures: Choice of descriptors was registered, along with nasal endoscopic examination, screening for cognitive impairment, depression, and sinonasal symptoms. Descriptors of the original version of SIT-12 were evaluated in 50 participants and misleading descriptors were identified. Modifications to these descriptors were subsequently validated in a comparable group of 50 participants. Results: Mean odorant identification score in the evaluation group was 11.0 of a possible 12, and 11.6 in the validation group (p<0.001). Among all odorant identification errors in the evaluation group, 60% were due to two incorrect descriptors having close resemblance to the correct descriptors, lemon and cinnamon. Two additional descriptors were unfamiliar to more than half the participants. There was a significant difference in the distribution of wrong identification answers between odorants in the evaluation group (p<0.001), but not in the validation group. Conclusions: The identified systematically wrong descriptors have been modified and validated in the Danish SIT-12.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Clinical otolaryngology: official journal of ENT-UK; official journal of Netherlands Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology & Cervico-Facial Surgery

Publication Stats

8k Citations
767.33 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008-2015
    • Aarhus University
      • Centre of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience CFIN
      Aarhus, Central Jutland, Denmark
  • 2000-2015
    • University of Oxford
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics
      • • Department of Experimental Psychology
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • University of Jyväskylä
      Jyväskylä, Central Finland, Finland
  • 2000-2013
    • Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust
      • Nuffield Department of Surgery
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom