[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze the epidemiology and characteristics of primary recurrent headaches in Indian adolescents.
This cross sectional study was conducted in three urban public schools. Adolescents of 9(th) to 12(th) grades were included and they were given a questionnaire in their classrooms in the presence of at least one of the authors, who assisted them in filling it. They were asked to provide responses based on most severe recurrent headache they had experienced rather than the more frequent one. Diagnosis was based upon the information contained in questionnaire, however, where it was inadequate, those subjects were approached telephonically. Statistical analysis was done with the help of SPSS v. 11.0. Descriptive analysis, Chi-Square test, Fisher's Exact test, and independent sample't' test were run.
2235 adolescents were included in the present study (boys: girls 1.6:1). 57.5% adolescents reported recurrent headaches in past one year. Migraine was the most prevalent (17.2%) headache followed by unspecified (14.9%) and tension type headache (11%). Family history of headache was more common in adolescents with headache (p < 0.001) compared to those without headache. Average age of headache onset was 11.33 yr (10.72 yr in girls vs. 11.75 years in boys; p < 0.001). 37.1% adolescents complained of progression of headache since its onset. A significantly higher proportion of girls suffered headache (p=0.018), particularly migraine, than boys. However, other characteristics of headache were not dependent upon gender. Headache was more prevalent in higher grades.
Primary Recurrent headaches are prevalent in Indian adolescents and migraine is comparatively the most prevalent type of headache. Female gender and increasing age is associated with higher chances to have headache, particularly migraine. It progresses in approximately one third of sufferers and aura increases the chances of worsening of headache.
Full-text · Article · May 2009 · The Indian Journal of Pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Headache patients commonly report sleep disruption and sleep disorders. Available literature suggests that the sleep pattern of headache sufferers is different from the control group. Patients in these studies were recruited from headache clinics; they did not include tension type headache.
The aim of this study is to find out whether primary headaches affect sleep patterns.
Community based cross sectional study
This study was conducted in three high schools. Children in the 12-19 age group were allowed to participate. They were given a questionnaire in the presence of at least one of the authors, who assisted them in filling it. They were asked to provide responses based on most severe recurrent headache that they had experienced rather than the more frequent ones. The questionnaire included questions regarding demographic data and the characteristics of headache according to International Classification of Headache Disorders-2 criteria. Part B of the questionnaire contained questions regarding sleep habits. The children were asked to provide data regarding sleep habits on a normal school day. Diagnosis was based upon the information contained in the questionnaire. A telephonic interview was also done, where the information provided was found inadequate.
Analysis was done with the help of SPSS v. 11.0., descriptive analysis, Chi square, and one way ANOVA with post hoc analysis. Kruskall-Wallis tests were run.
A total of 1862 subjects were included in the study. Migraineurs and tension type headache sufferers comprised 35.7% and 13.4% of the group respectively. Migraineurs had the highest prevalence of nocturnal awakenings (P < 0.001), abnormal movements (P=0.001) and breathing problems during sleep (P < 0.001). Approximately half the migraineurs felt sleepy during the day (P< 0.001) and spent around 1.17 hours in sleep during the day (P = 0.007). Similarly, values for frequency of nocturnal awakenings per week (P < 0.001), wake time after sleep onset and offset (P < 0.001 and 0.002 respectively) were the maximum in migraineurs. Only 32.8% migraineurs reported refreshing sleep (P< 0.001). Post hoc analysis revealed that migraineurs were different from the other two groups on most of the parameters.
Sleep disruption is more common in migraineurs than those in the tension type headache sufferers and the control group.
No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology