Duanjun Tan

State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, United States

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Publications (3)12.9 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are frequent in breast tumors, but the etiology of these mutations is unknown. We hypothesized that these mutations are associated with exposures that affect oxidative stress such as alcohol metabolism. Using archived tumor blocks from incident breast cancer cases in a case control study, the Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer (WEB) study, analysis of mtDNA mutations was conducted on 128 breast cancer cases selected based on extremes of alcohol intake. Temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) was used to screen the entire mtDNA genome and sequencing was completed for all TTGE positive samples. Case-case comparisons were completed using unconditional logistic regression to determine the relative prevalence of the mutations by exposures including alcohol consumption, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) genotype, nutrient intake related to oxidative stress and established breast cancer risk factors. Somatic mtDNA mutations were found in 60 of the 128 tumors examined. There were no differences in the prevalence of mtDNA mutations by alcohol consumption, MnSOD genotype or dietary intake. The likelihood of mtDNA mutations was reduced among those with a positive family history for breast cancer (OR = 0.33, CI = 0.12-0.92), among postmenopausal women who used hormone replacement therapy (OR = 0.46, CI = 0.19-1.08, P = 0.08) and was increased for ER negative tumors (OR = 2.05, CI = 0.95-4.43, P = 0.07). Consistent with previous studies, we found that mtDNA mutations are a frequent occurrence in breast tumors. An understanding of the etiology of mtDNA mutations may provide insight into breast carcinogenesis.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
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    ABSTRACT: Low-nicotine and nicotine-free cigarettes are commercially available under the brand-name Quest. Some consumers may believe that these are safer cigarettes, and they may smoke more cigarettes or inhale more smoke to compensate for low nicotine yields. Thus, we have studied the toxicological effects of these two cigarettes and compared them with the Kentucky reference cigarette 2R4F. Also, the availability of nicotine-free cigarettes allows for the assessing the role of nicotine in cigarette smoke. In addition to nicotine, some tobacco-specific nitrosamines, aldehydes, and volatile organic compounds were also reduced in the Quest cigarettes compared to the 2R4F. However, aromatic amines were higher in the nicotine-free compared with low nicotine cigarettes. The Ames test revealed that cigarette smoke condensates from the nicotine-free (CSC-F), low nicotine (CSC-L) and 2R4F (CSC-R) cigarettes had a similar mutagenic potency. Exposure to any CSC caused a similar dose-dependent LDH leakage from normal human bronchial epithelial cells. However, CSC-F had more inhibitory effects on the cell growth than CSC-L and CSC-R. Adding nicotine to the CSC-F attenuated this inhibition. Both Quest CSCs decreased gap junction intercellular communication and caused cell cycle arrest. CSC exposure increased cytoplasmic nucleosomes, sub-G1/G0 population and apoptotic comet tails. Proapoptotic protein Bax increased independent of p53 induction after exposure to CSC-F. In conclusion, these studies are not consistent with a perception that low-nicotine or nicotine-free cigarettes may have less toxicity in human cells. Nicotine, as it exists in CSC, attenuates cytotoxicity possibly in part through inhibition of apoptotic pathways.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · Toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: DNA alterations in mitochondria are believed to play a role in carcinogenesis and are found in smoking-related cancers. We sought to replicate earlier findings for the association of smoking with increased mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in buccal cells and further hypothesized that there would be an increased number of somatic mtDNA mutations in smokers. Buccal cells and blood lymphocytes were studied from 42 healthy smokers and 30 non-smokers. Temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis screening and sequencing was used to identify mtDNA mutations. The relative mtDNA content was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Assuming that mtDNA in lymphocytes represents the inherited sequence, it was found that 31% of smokers harbored at least one somatic mtDNA mutation in buccal cells with a total of 39 point mutations and 8 short deletions/insertions. In contrast, only 23% of non-smokers possessed mutations with a total of 10 point mutations and no insertions/deletions detected. mtDNA somatic mutation density was higher in smokers (0.68/10 000 bp per person) than in non-smokers (0.2/10 000 bp per person). There was a statistically significant difference in the pattern of homoplasmy and heteroplasmy mutation changes between smokers and non-smokers. Whereas non-smokers had the most mutations in D-loop region (70%), smokers had mutations in both messenger RNA encoding gene (36%) and D-loop region (49%). The mean ratio of buccal cells to lymphocytes of mtDNA content in smokers was increased (2.81) when compared with non-smokers (0.46). These results indicate that cigarette smoke exposure affects mtDNA in buccal cells of smokers. Additional studies are needed to determine if mitochondrial mutation assays provide new or complementary information for estimating cigarette smoke exposure at the cellular level or as a cancer risk biomarker.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2008 · Carcinogenesis