[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are critical in controlling adaptive immunity, but the mechanisms governing cytokine expression remain incompletely defined. Analogues of prostaglandin (PG)I(2), such as iloprost, can modulate functions of myeloid dendritic cells, but their involvement in the regulation of human pDCs remains unknown. To this end, the regulatory role of PGI(2) analogues on cytokine expression in pDCs was investigated. Circulating pDCs were magnetically sorted with BDCA-4 cell isolation kits from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and treated with varying concentrations of iloprost with or without the addition of Toll-like receptor agonists, or an I prostanoid (IP) receptor antagonist, CAY10449. The levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon (IFN)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-10 were measured by ELISA. Iloprost induced IL-10 expression, but suppressed CpG oligodeoxynucleotide- (or imiquimod-) induced TNF-alpha and IFN-alpha production in pDCs. This effect was reversed by the addition of CAY10449. Forskolin, a cyclic adenosine monophosphate activator, conferred a similar modulating effect to that noted in iloprost-treated pDCs, although a higher concentration of forskolin was required to exert the same effect. Iloprost enhanced interleukin-10 and suppressed Toll-like receptor-mediated tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-alpha production of human plasmacytoid dendritic cells via the I prostanoid receptor and, in part, the cyclic adenosine monophosphate pathway.
Preview · Article · Mar 2009 · European Respiratory Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is unknown whether formoterol and salmeterol, two long-acting beta(2)-adrenoreceptor agonists, have regulatory functions in the production of T-helper cell (Th) type 2- and Th1-related chemokines by monocytes and bronchial epithelial cells. In the present study, the effects of formoterol and salmeterol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of the Th2-related chemokine macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC; CCL22) and the Th1-related chemokine interferon-gamma-inducible protein (IP)-10 (CXCL10) were investigated in a monocytic cell line, THP-1, and in human primary monocytes. In addition, their effects on the expression of the Th2-related chemokine thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC; CCL17) were evaluated in an epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. Formoterol enhanced MDC but suppressed IP-10 production in monocytes induced by LPS. Higher doses of salmeterol were required to enhance LPS-induced MDC expression in THP-1 cells. Formoterol and salmeterol could significantly suppress TARC expression in BEAS-2B cells. These effects could be reversed by a selective beta(2)-adrenoreceptor antagonist, ICI-118551. Formoterol- and LPS-induced MDC expression was inhibited by budesonide. Both long-acting beta(2)-adrenoreceptor agonists suppressed thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine expression in bronchial epithelial cells mediated via beta(2)-adrenoreceptors. Formoterol at physiological concentrations could suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced T-helper cell type 1-related chemokine (interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10) but enhance T-helper cell type 2-related chemokine (macrophage-derived chemokine) expression in human monocytes. Long-acting beta(2)-adrenoreceptor agonists may increase T-helper cell type 2-related chemokine expression in monocytes and T-helper cell type 2 recruitment and, therefore, long-acting beta(2)-adrenoreceptor agonist monotherapy may not be an appropriate therapeutic option for asthma.
No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · European Respiratory Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asthma is a complex disorder, which is known to be affected by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. The human Eotaxin 1 and CCR3 attract eosinophils and Th2-lymphocytes to migrate to the inflammatory foci that could represent a key mechanism in allergy and asthma.
We hypothesized that Eotaxin1 gene Ala23Thr and A-384 G, and CCR3 gene T51C polymorphisms are associated with plasma Eotaxin levels and predispose individuals to asthma pathogenesis.
One hundred seventy-eight hospital-based asthmatic children and 277 community-based controls aged from 5 to 12 years were recruited in southern Taiwan. Whole blood samples and questionnaires were collected. In this study, we addressed genetic effects of Eotaxin 1 and CCR3 genes on asthma, plasma IgE and Eotaxin 1 levels.
In comparison with subjects with Ala23Ala genotype, Ala23Thr polymorphism of the Eotaxin 1 gene showed a significant protective effect on asthma (AOR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.37-0.92). We demonstrated that the mean Eotaxin 1 concentration was significantly higher in subjects with Ala23Ala than in subjects with Thr23Thr (P = 0.005) or Ala23Thr (P = 0.07), which showed a gene-dose dependent relationship. But, we observed that the A-384G polymorphism of Eotaxin 1 gene and T51C polymorphism of CCR3 gene are not associated with asthma.
This study finding provide a strong evidence that Eotaxin 1 Thr23Thr homozygote has a protective effect on asthma and significantly decreases plasma Eotaxin 1 concentrations in asthmatics in Taiwan.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asthma is a multi-factorial disorder caused by complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. IFN-gamma and IFN regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) affect Th1/Th2 cytokine balance, and influence the differentiation of Th2 cells, which influence the development of asthma.
This study investigated CA repeats polymorphism of the IFN-gamma gene and GT repeats polymorphism of the IRF-1 gene, which may predispose individuals to asthma pathogenesis.
In the present study, we used the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) to investigate the relationship between asthma and the IFN-gamma and IRF-1 polymorphisms by studying 348 subjects composed of 232 parents and 116 asthmatic children.
For global TDT test, IFN-gamma CA repeats and IRF-1 GT repeat polymorphisms showed a significant association with asthma in children (P=0.009 and 0.017, respectively). We demonstrated that 13 CA repeats (138 bp) of IFN-gamma gene and 11 GT repeats (306 bp) of IRF-1 gene are significantly preferentially transmitted to asthmatic children (T/NT=89/61, chi2=8.43, P<0.005 and T/NT=75/49, chi2=8.18, P<0.005, respectively). The offspring will have an increased risk of asthma when their parents transmit IFN-gamma 13 CA repeats (OR=1.83, P=0.009) and IRF1 11 GT repeats (OR=1.88, P=0.007) to them. But we observed that the IFN-gamma and IRF-1 polymorphisms are not associated with IgE concentrations.
These findings provide strong evidence of which IFN-gamma CA repeat and IRF-1 GT repeat polymorphisms influence the risk of asthma for children in Taiwan.