[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of twelve breast milk samples were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) operated in selected ion monitoring mode for 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD). Whilst none of the samples contained 3-MCPD above the limit of detection of 3 microg kg(-1) milk, all contained high amounts of 3-MCPD esterified with higher fatty acids. The levels of 3-MCPD released by hydrolysis of these esters (bound 3-MCPD) ranged from the limit of detection (300 microg kg(-1), expressed on a fat basis) to 2195 microg kg(-1); with a mean level of bound 3-MCPD of 1014 microg kg(-1), which corresponded to 35.5 microg kg(-1) milk. The presence of bound 3-MCPD was confirmed using orthogonal gas chromatography coupled with high-speed time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis for four randomly selected breast milk samples. Six breast milks collected from one of the nursing mothers 14-76 days after childbirth contained bound 3-MCPD within the range of 328-2078 microg kg(-1) fat (mean 930 microg kg(-1) fat). The calculated bound 3-MCPD content of these samples was within the range of 6 and 19 microg kg(-1) milk (mean of 12 microg kg(-1) milk). The major types of 3-MCPD esters were the symmetric diesters with lauric, palmitic, and oleic acids, and asymmetric diesters with palmitic acid/oleic acid among which 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol 1,2-dioleate prevailed.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2008 · Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We provide here for the first time the evidence that 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) occurs in foodstuffs in its free form and also in the form of esters with higher fatty acids. These esters represent a new class of food contaminants as 3-MCPD may be released in vivo by a lipase-catalysed hydrolysis reaction. We analysed 20 samples of selected retail food products for their free and bound 3-MCPD content. All samples contained free 3-MCPD at approximately 9.6-82.7 mug/kg food (3 replications, RSD = 0.4-7.0%). The levels of bound 3-MCPD (monoesters and diesters of 3-MCPD with higher fatty acids) found in the foodstuffs analysed varied between the LOD (1.1 mg per kg of fat) and 36.8 mg/kg fat with RSD = 0.3-3.3%. Five foodstuffs of plant origin processed at high temperatures contained elevated levels of bound 3-MCPD (0.14-6.10 mg/kg). A high level of bound 3-MCPD (0.28 mg/kg) was also found in a sample of pickled fish. Some variables potentially influencing the levels of either free or bound 3-MCPD in foodstuffs were determined (pH, water, chlorides, glycerol, fat and its components) and their significance was discussed.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2004 · Czech Journal of Food Sciences