Gunnar Blumenstock

University of Tuebingen, Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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Publications (122)255.6 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Retesting of adolescents with childhood-onset GH deficiency (GHD) is recommended, but age-related reference data are scarce. We aimed to establish a cut-off value for the GHRH-arginine test (GHRH + ARG) at the typical age of retesting at near-adult height.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To report the outcomes of primary transconjunctival 23-gauge (23-G) vitrectomy in the diagnosis and treatment of presumed endogenous fungal endophthalmitis (EFE). Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients with EFE who underwent diagnostic transconjunctival 23-G vitrectomy at a tertiary referral center. Results: Nineteen eyes of 15 patients with EFE were included in the study. Four patients had bilateral and 11 patients unilateral disease. Sixteen eyes of 15 patients underwent 23-G vitrectomy to confirm the diagnosis using vitreous culture, polymerase chain reaction, and histopathologic examinations. All affected eyes were treated with intravitreal amphotericin B 5 µg/0.1 mL. Fourteen patients received additional systemic antifungal therapy. Diagnostic 23-G vitrectomy confirmed the diagnosis of EFE in 75% of the eyes (12/16). Candida was found to be a causative agent in 62.5% and Aspergillus in 12.5% of the eyes. Retinal detachment was the most common complication (42% of eyes). Conclusions: EFE can be easily confirmed using primary 23-G vitrectomy.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of mycophenolate sodium (MPS) in the therapy of children with chronic non-infectious uveitis. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 23 children with chronic uveitis, treated with MPS, with a follow-up of at least 6 months. The main outcome measures were time to uveitis reactivation and corticosteroid-sparing effect under MPS treatment. The secondary outcome measures were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and treatment-related side effects. Results: From 23 patients included in the study, 2 patients had anterior uveitis, 19 had intermediate uveitis and 2 had panuveitis. The probability of reactivation-free survival after MPS initiation was estimated as 65% at both 1 and 2 years. The probability of discontinuing systemic corticosteroids after 1 year of treatment was 39% and after 2 years 51%. The probability to taper corticosteroids to a daily dosage of ≤0.1 mg/kg after 1 and 2 years was 62% and 85%, respectively. BCVA improved or remained stable in 96% of eyes after 1 year of therapy. Treatment-related side effects were found in nine children (rate: 0.17/patient-year). No therapy discontinuation because of side effects was needed. Conclusion: Our data suggest that MPS is useful and well tolerated in children with chronic uveitis. MPS seems to be an effective drug for the treatment of chronic non-infectious uveitis of childhood and may be preferred as a first-line steroid-sparing agent in this form of uveitis.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · British Journal of Ophthalmology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: There is a widely approved influence of novel risk factors like the body fat distribution and the associated metabolic syndrome, subclinical inflammation, insulin resistance and prediabetic disturbances in glucose metabolism on the progression of atherosclerosis. Former studies examining normal values for intima-media thickness (IMT) did not consider all of these new study results in detail. We therefore aimed to assess an update on age-and gender-specific normal values for IMT accounting for these novel risk factors. Patients and methods: We evaluated IMT by high-resolution ultrasound (13 MHz) on the far wall of the common carotid artery in 801 subjects without cardiovascular disease (428 women aged 46.2 +/- 12.9 years; 373 men aged 47.3 +/- 13.3 years). After precise evaluation and exclusion of 14 cardiovascular risk factors, 90% limits of IMT were determined by parametric statistics. Results: The reference limits of IMT according to the age classes 18-29, 30-39, 40-49 and 50-59 years were estimated as 0.47, 0.59, 0.67 and 0.70 mm in women and 0.47, 0.62, 0.72 and 0.80 mm in men. Conclusions: Age and gender-specific normal values for IMT are lower than reported in former studies after additionally accounting for novel cardiovascular risk factors. The still widely regarded upper IMT limit of 1 mm must be strictly regarded as obsolete.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · VASA.: Zeitschrift für Gefässkrankheiten. Journal for vascular diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Aim of this study was to reduce blood loss caused by diagnostic blood sampling and to minimize the development of anemia in a high-risk group of mechanically ventilated medical intensive care patients. We therefore implemented a "blood-saving bundle" (BSB) combining a closed-loop arterial blood sampling system, smaller sampling tubes, reduced frequency of blood drawings, and reduced sample numbers. Methods: The study included all patients from our medical ICU who were ventilated for more than 72 hours. Exclusion criteria were: acute or chronic anemia on admission, bleeding episode(s) during the ICU stay, or end-of-life therapy. The BSB was introduced in 2009 with training and educational support. Patients treated in 2008, before the introduction of the BSB, served as a control group (n = 41, 617 observation days), and were compared with patients treated in 2010 after the introduction of the BSB (BSB group, n = 50, 559 observation days). Primary endpoints were blood loss per day, and development of anemia. Secondary endpoints were numbers of blood transfusions, number of days on mechanical ventilation, and length of the ICU stay. Results: Mean blood loss per ICU day was decreased from 43.3 ml (95% CI: 41.2 to 45.3 ml) in the controls to 15.0 ml (14.3 to 15.7 ml) in the BSB group (P < 0.001). The introduction of a closed-loop arterial blood sampling system was the major contributor to this effect. Mean hemoglobin concentrations showed no significant differences in both groups during the ICU stay. Hemoglobin values <9 g/dl, however, were recorded in 21.2% of observation days in the controls versus 15.4% in the BSB group (P = 0.01). Units of transfused red blood cells per 100 observation days decreased from 7 to 2.3 (P < 0.001). The mean number of ventilation days was 7.1 days (6.1 to 8.3 days) in the controls and 7.5 days (6.6 to 8.5 days) in the BSB group (P = NS). In total, patients in the BSB group stayed in ICU for a mean of 9.9 days (8.6 to 11.3 days), compared to a mean ICU stay of 13.0 days (10.9 to 15.4 days) in the control group (P = 0.014). Due to the longitudinal study design, however, we cannot exclude uncontrolled confounders affecting the transfusion frequency and mean ICU stay. Conclusion: Our BSB could be easily implemented and was able to reduce diagnostic blood loss.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Specific coagulation assays for non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) are relatively slow and often lack availability. Although specific point-of-care tests (POCT) are currently not available, NOAC are known to affect established coagulation POCT. This study aimed at determining the diagnostic accuracy of the CoaguChek POCT to rule out relevant concentrations of rivaroxaban, apixaban, and dabigatran in real-life patients. We consecutively enrolled 60 ischemic stroke patients newly started on NOAC treatment and obtained blood samples at 6 prespecified time points. Samples were tested using the CoaguChek POCT, laboratory-based coagulation assays (prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time, anti-Xa test and Hemoclot), and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for direct determination of NOAC concentrations. Three hundred fifty-six blood samples were collected. The CoaguChek POCT strongly correlated (r=0.82 P<0.001) with rivaroxaban concentrations but did not accurately detect dabigatran or apixaban. If used to estimate the presence of low rivaroxaban concentrations, POCT was superior to predictions based on normal prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time values even if sensitive reagents were used. POCT-results ≤1.0 predicted rivaroxaban concentrations <32 and <100 ng/mL with a specificity of 90% and 96%, respectively. If anti-Xa test is not available, we propose the use of the CoaguChek POCT to guide thrombolysis decisions after individual risk assessment in rivaroxaban-treated patients having acute ischemic stroke. URL: Unique identifier: NCT02371044. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Stroke
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    ABSTRACT: Radiation exposure remains an unceasing concern in angiographic procedures. Modern angiography machines such as analog image intensifiers (AII) or the new flat panel detectors (FPD) aim at a further dose reduction. To present dose area products (DAP) in a broad spectrum of therapeutic angiographic procedures, comparing an AII to an FPD angiography system. A total of 999 peripheral therapeutic angiography procedures performed with an FPD (n = 562) and an AII system (n = 437) were evaluated. DAP, fluoroscopy time, and patients' body mass index (BMI) were recorded. Interventions were classified into five main groups: percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA); PTA and stent placement; intra-arterial thrombolysis; embolization procedures; and specialized interventions. DAP values in therapeutic angiographic procedures were significantly higher when performed with the FPD compared to the AII system. The increase of the FPD versus AII system was 100.1% for PTA, 39.9% for PTA and stent placement, 187% for intra-arterial thrombolysis, 31.3% for embolization procedures, and 361% for specialized interventions. These differences persisted after standardizing DAP values to the geometric mean fluoroscopy duration of each procedure. Fluoroscopy times were shorter in all interventions performed at the FPD as compared to the AII system. DAPs increased with higher BMI, but the DAP increase of both systems with elevated BMI was variable, depending on the individual intervention. In therapeutic angiographic procedures, the FPD system required higher DAPs despite shorter fluoroscopy times as compared to an AII system. Better ergonomics and speediness of the FPD system may be advantageous in the emergency setting. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Acta Radiologica
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    ABSTRACT: Right ventricular failure remains a major cause of mortality during acute pulmonary embolism. Right ventricular function can be assessed with transesophageal echocardiography. However, due to the complex right ventricular anatomy, only a few echocardiographic parameters are reliable and easily obtainable intraoperatively. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion is a validated parameter of global right ventricular function. Data from 81 patients with acute pulmonary embolus undergoing pulmonary embolectomy were evaluated. Transesophageal echocardiography derived parameters of right ventricular function were obtained and compared to tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion measurements. Patients were then divided into two groups (TAPSE < 18 mm and ≥18 mm). The patient population consisted of 46 males and 35 females, mean age 61.0 ± 12.9 years. Patients in the TAPSE <18 mm group had significantly larger diastolic (p=0.0015) and systolic (p=0.0031) right ventricular diameters, lower right ventricular fractional area change (p=0.0065) and greater degrees of tricuspid regurgitation (p=0.0001) compared to patients with TAPSE ≥18 mm. In addition, all patients who needed intraoperative cardiopulmonary resuscitation (11/81) or died intraoperatively (8/81) belonged to the TAPSE <18 mm group. Logistic regression analysis confirmed TAPSE <18 mm as an independent risk factor for intraoperative cardiopulmonary resuscitation and death. Transesophageal echocardiography derived TAPSE is easily obtainable and correlates well with other standardized parameters of right ventricular function. TAPSE <18 mm is an independent predictor of intraoperative cardiopulmonary resuscitation and death in patients undergoing emergent pulmonary embolectomy.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate and compare artefact configuration and diameters in a magnetic resonance (MR)-compatible prototype microwave (MW) applicator and a standard MR-compatible radiofrequency (RF) applicator for MR-guided tumour ablation. Both applicators were tested in a phantom study at 1.5T with three sequences: T1-weighted three-dimensional volume interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE), T1-weighted fast low angle shot (FLASH), T2-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE). Applicator orientation to main magnetic field (B0) and slice orientation were varied. Needle tip location error (TLE) was assessed, and artefact diameters were calculated. Influence of imaging parameters on artefacts was assessed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc testing. MW applicator: the shaft artefact diameter measured 2.3 +/- 0.8 mm. Tip artefact diameter and length measured 2.2 ± 0.8 mm and 2.4 ± 1.3 mm, respectively. A prominent oval artefact (diameter: 16.5 +/- 1.8 mm, length: 19.1 +/- 2.5 mm) appeared close to the tip. TLE: - .3 +/- 0.6 mm. RF applicator: shaft and tip diameter measured 8.9 +/- 4.7 mm and 9.0 +/- .0 mm, respectively. TLE: -0.1 +/- 0.8 mm. Minimal artefacts were measured with RF applicator orientation parallel to B0 (P < 0.0001), whereas no such influence was found for MW applicator. For both applicators, significantly large artefacts were measured with T1 FLASH (P = 0.03). The MW applicator's artefact is satisfactory and seems useable for MR-guided ablation procedures. • MW applicator's artefact appearance is independent of angulation to main magnetic field. • MW applicator's prominent distal artefact may increase visibility under MR-guidance. • RF and MW applicator's artefacts are precise concerning tip depiction. • Largest artefact diameters are measured with T1-weighted fast low angle shot sequence.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · European Radiology
  • Gerhard Binder · Roland Schweizer · Peter Haber · Gunnar Blumenstock · Regina Braun
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the accuracy of inhibin B and the gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist test for the diagnosis of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). We performed a retrospective analysis of data collected 2009-2014 using a strict clinical protocol. All prepubertal nonunderweight girls, aged 13-17.5 years with Tanner breast stage B1/B2 and low estradiol levels, were tested and re-examined at 6-month intervals (n = 21). Constitutional delay of growth and puberty was defined by spontaneous menarche; HH was identified by association with specific causes of HH or no spontaneous progress of puberty during follow-up. Inhibin B was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone (basal and stimulated by triptorelin) were measured using a chemiluminescence immunoassay. The cohort comprised 12 girls with constitutional delay of growth and puberty and 9 girls with HH. The causes of HH included hypopituitarism (n = 3), Prader-Willi syndrome, chromosomal aberration, intellectual disability syndrome with ataxia, and idiopathic causes (n = 2). Each measurement, basal inhibin B <20 pg/mL or stimulated follicle-stimulating hormone (4 hours) <11 IU/L, demonstrated a sensitivity and a specificity of 100% for the detection of HH. Stimulated luteinizing hormone (4 hours) <9 IU/L showed 100% sensitivity but only 83% specificity. Inhibin B seems to be the ideal measurement for detecting HH in girls. The gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist test is an alternative diagnostic modality, although this approach is more invasive and laborious. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · The Journal of pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: A change in German licensing legislation imposed a portfolio for surgical clerks. We aimed to analyze whether the implementation of the portfolio changed the amount of clinical exposure and activities during surgical clerkships. The study was conducted with a modified pre-post design at the University Hospital of Tuebingen, Germany. Before and after the implementation of the portfolio on April 1, 2013, final-year students (n = 557) who had just finished their surgical clerkship were interviewed with an online questionnaire. A total of 21 basic surgical skills were evaluated. Overall, 230 questionnaires were returned and analyzed; 51% were preintervention. Overall clinical activity for the whole study cohort varied for different activities between 98% and 32%. For 16 of 21 parameters, there was more clinical activity in the postintervention (portfolio) group. This difference was statistically significant for the following 7 activities: discharge, analgesia, local infiltration, patient positioning, drain in, blood transfusion, and emergency diagnostics. The implementation of the portfolio did enhance clinical activity for surgical clerks in the study cohort. Nevertheless, overall exposure is still unsatisfactory low for some activities. Additional changes and studies are necessary to further improve surgical education. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Surgical Education

  • No preview · Article · May 2015 · Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the safety and efficacy of intraoperative conversion of unsuccessful canaloplasty technique into 180-degree metal or 360-degree suture trabeculotomy. In this retrospective observational case series, 35 eyes of 35 patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) who had undergone unsuccessful canaloplasty technique and underwent intraoperative conversion were studied. In 17 eyes (group A), the procedure was converted into 180-degree metal trabeculotomy because of unsuccessful circumferential Schlemm's canal (SC) catheterisation. Group B included 18 eyes that were converted into 360-degree trabeculotomy because of cheese wiring of tension suture through the trabecular meshwork (TM) after successful complete catheterisation of SC. Median preoperative IOP was 22.0 mmHg (range 16-34) in group A, and 22.0 mmHg (range 15-48) in group B. Median IOP was significantly reduced in both groups postoperatively, at the 12-month examination to 15.0 mmHg (range 9-21) representing a reduction of 36 % in group A, and to 14.5 mmHg (range 8-21) representing a reduction of 34 % in group B. Median glaucoma medication number decreased significantly from 4 (range 2-4) and 3 (range 1-4) preoperatively to 2 (range 0-4) and 1 (range 0-3) at 12 months in groups A and B respectively. Hyphema was the commonest complication, with an incidence of 76 % in group A and 78 % in group B. 180-degree metal or 360-degree suture/catheter trabeculotomy are safe and effective surgical backup methods to control IOP in cases of unsuccessful intracanalicular placement of tension suture during canaloplasty surgery.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Albrecht von Graæes Archiv für Ophthalmologie
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    ABSTRACT: Very little information on medium- to long-term results is available for surgically treated proximal humeral fractures. The aim of this prospective treatment study was to present long-term results after angular stable plate fixation of displaced proximal humeral fractures and to detect which specific patient- and fracture-related parameters affect the clinical outcome. We performed a prospective clinical and radiologic evaluation of 77 patients with a displaced proximal humeral fracture (28 Neer 2-part, 38 3-part, and 11 4-part fractures; 28 AO A fractures, 30 AO B fractures, and 19 AO C fractures) treated with angular stable plate fixation after a mean follow-up period of 96 months (range, 74-133 months). We assessed outcomes with the Constant, University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA), and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) scores and evaluated specific patient- and fracture-related parameters including complications. The mean Constant, University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA), and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) scores were 79, 31, and 12 points. Reasons for revisions were implant-related impingement (n = 13), screw perforation (n = 10), infection (n = 4), and secondary fracture displacement (n = 1). There was a significant association between worse score results and occurrence of secondary fracture displacement, screw perforation, residual bone deformities, and a rotator cuff defect at follow-up. Good medium- to long-term results after angular stable plate fixation of displaced proximal humeral fracture can be expected. A reconstruction within a range of 15° in both anteroposterior and axillary views and <5-mm tuberosity displacement should be the aim of head-preserving surgery to prevent complications, such as secondary fracture displacement and screw perforation, and a less favorable long-term result. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.]
  • Gerhard Binder · Roland Schweizer · Gunnar Blumenstock · Regina Braun
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The distinction between constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP) and isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) in males with delayed puberty is difficult but important for timely treatment. We assessed the accuracy of the GnRH agonist test (triptorelin 0·1 mg) in comparison with inhibin B alone or in combination with basal LH for the diagnosis of IHH. Patients and measurements: Ninety-seven prepubertal males aged 13·7-17·5 year, with testicular volumes ≤4 ml, were examined every 6 months. CDGP was defined by a testicular volume ≥8 ml after 18 months, and IHH was defined by a testicular volume <5 ml after 24 months follow-up. Inhibin B concentrations were measured by ELISA, and LH concentrations were measured by CLIA. Results: At follow-up, the cohort comprised 52 boys with CDGP and nine with IHH. The other patients were lost for follow-up (n = 10), had not reached follow-up yet (n = 20) or did not reach a definite testicular volume (n = 6). Basal LH <0·3 IU/l, stimulated LH (4 h) <5·3 IU/l or inhibin B <111 pg/ml had 100% sensitivity for IHH. Only LH (4 h) <5·3 IU/l had a specificity of 100%, and the specificities of basal LH <0·3 IU/l (88%) or inhibin B <110 pg/ml (92%) were lower. The combination of LH <0·3 IU/l with inhibin B <111 pg/ml increased the specificity to 98·1%. Conclusions: The LH response 4 h after GnRH agonist stimulation has an excellent accuracy for the diagnosis of IHH in prepubertal boys with delayed puberty. However, the measurement of inhibin B and basal LH in combination is a valid, reliable and less-invasive alternative test.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Clinical Endocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Previous studies have shown a benefit of magnetic resonance (MR)-diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for follow-up after liver radiofrequency (RF) ablation. However, no data are available concerning acute changes of DWI characteristics immediately after RF ablation. Purpose: To analyze and compare the MR-diffusion characteristics of pre-interventional hepatic malignancies and the ablation zone during successful MR-guided RF ablation. Material and methods: This retrospective study was conducted in accordance with the guidelines of the local institutional review board. Forty-seven patients with 29 HCC (24 patients) and 30 hepatic metastases (23 patients) underwent MR-guided radiofrequency ablation including DWI before and immediately after ablation (b = 0, 400, 800 s/mm(2)). Two reviewers (A and B) analyzed DWI with focus on detectability of the tumor before ablation and characteristics of the coagulative area after treatment. Mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was compared between liver, untreated tumor, and hyperintense areas in post-ablative DWI (b = 800 s/mm(2)) with the paired Student's t-test. Results: Pre-ablative: the reviewers classified 19/29 (A) and 23/29 (B) HCC and 25/30 (A and B) metastases as detectable in DWI. Post-ablative: a hyperintense rim surrounding the ablation zone was observed in 28/29 treated HCC and 30/30 treated metastases (A and B). A homogenous hypointense central ablation zone was found in 18/29 (A) and 20/29 (B) treated HCC and 17/30 (A & B) treated metastases in DWI. ADC of the rim was significantly lower than ADC of the liver (P < 0.001). Conclusion: DWI enables visualization of the target tumor in MR-guided liver radiofrequency ablation in most cases. A common post-ablative DWI finding is a hyperintense rim with decreased ADC surrounding the ablation zone.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Acta Radiologica
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    ABSTRACT: Aim of the study was to compare the short-term effects of oxygen therapy via a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) on functional and subjective respiratory parameters in patients with acute hypoxic respiratory failure in comparison to non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and standard treatment via a Venturi mask. Fourteen patients with acute hypoxic respiratory failure were treated with HFNC (FiO2 0.6, gas flow 55 l/min), NIV (FiO2 0.6, PEEP 5 cm H2O Hg, tidal volume 6–8 ml/kg ideal body weight,) and Venturi mask (FiO2 0.6, oxygen flow 15 l/min,) in a randomized order for 30 min each. Data collection included objective respiratory and circulatory parameters as well as a subjective rating of dyspnea and discomfort by the patients on a 10-point scale. In a final interview, all three methods were comparatively evaluated by each patient using a scale from 1 (=very good) to 6 (=failed) and the patients were asked to choose one method for further treatment. PaO2 was highest under NIV (129 ± 38 mmHg) compared to HFNC (101 ± 34 mmHg, p <0.01 vs. NIV) and VM (85 ± 21 mmHg, p <0.001 vs. NIV, p <0.01 vs. HFNC, ANOVA). All other functional parameters showed no relevant differences. In contrast, dyspnea was significantly better using a HFNC (2.9 ± 2.1, 10-point Borg scale) compared to NIV (5.0 ± 3.3, p <0.05), whereas dyspnea rating under HFNC and VM (3.3 ± 2.3) was not significantly different. A similar pattern was found when patients rated their overall discomfort on the 10 point scale: HFNC 2.7 ± 1.8, VM 3.1 ± 2.8 (ns vs. HFNC), NIV 5.4 ± 3.1 (p <0.05 vs. HFNC). In the final evaluation patients gave the best ratings to HFNC 2.3 ± 1.4, followed by VM 3.2 ± 1.7 (ns vs. HFNC) and NIV 4.5 ± 1.7 (p <0.01 vs. HFNC and p <0.05 vs. VM). For further treatment 10 patients chose HFNC, three VM and one NIV. In hypoxic respiratory failure HFNC offers a good balance between oxygenation and comfort compared to NIV and Venturi mask and seems to be well tolerated by patients. Trial registration German clinical trials register: DRKS00005132.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · BMC Anesthesiology
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: To assess the long-term efficacy and tolerability of both derivatives of mycophenolic acid, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and mycophenolate sodium (MPS), in the therapy of patients with birdshot chorioretinopathy (BSCR). Methods: Retrospective analysis of 24 patients (48 eyes) with BSCR, treated with MMF or MPS with a follow-up of at least 1 year. The main outcome measures included control of inflammation, steroid-sparing potential and side effects. Secondary outcome measure was the development of retinal function during the therapy measured by best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), visual field and/or electroretinography (ERG). Results: Twelve patients (50%) were treated with MMF and 12 patients (50%) with MPS. Control of intraocular inflammation, defined as complete lack of clinical and angiographic signs of inflammatory activity, was achieved in 16 of 24 patients (67%). The angiographic signs of activity were significantly reduced during the follow-up (p<0.05). No significant difference was found in the mean BCVA, the visual field and the ERG parameters during the treatment compared with the baseline (p>0.05). In 20 out of 21 patients (95%) who received systemic corticosteroids, the corticosteroids could be tapered to a daily dose of ≤10 mg (rate 0.26/patient-year). Drug-related side effects occurred in 12 patients (50%, rate 0.16/patient-year). In four patients (17%), a therapy switch from MMF to MPS was undertaken due to gastrointestinal discomfort. Conclusions: Derivatives of mycophenolic acid are effective and safe drugs for the treatment of BSCR. In cases with gastrointestinal side effects, a therapy switch from MMF to MPS should be considered.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · British Journal of Ophthalmology

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · International Orthopaedics
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: While in adults not total body- or visceral fat mass, but liver fat content was found to independently determine insulin resistance, it is unclear whether these relationships are already present in obese adolescents. Methods: Thirty-nine overweight/obese adolescents were matched for sex and BMI with 39 adults. To compare the age- and sex-specific BMI values of adolescents and adults, the percentile value of each adolescent was projected to the age of 18. Body fat depots were quantified by whole-body magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Liver fat content was measured with (1)H-MR spectroscopy. Insulin resistance was estimated from the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Results: Compared to overweight and obese adults, adolescents had higher HOMA-IR (P < 0.001) and lower lean body mass (P = 0.002). Furthermore, they had higher total body- (P = 0.02), but lower visceral- (P < 0.001) fat mass, while liver fat content was not significantly different between the groups (P = 0.16). In both groups liver fat content (both P ≤ 0.007), but not total body- or visceral fat mass (all P ≥ 0.64) was an independent predictor of insulin resistance. Conclusions: Having lower visceral fat mass, overweight and obese adolescents are more insulin resistant than sex- and BMI-matched adults. Liver fat content, but not total body- or visceral fat mass, is an independent determinant of insulin resistance in adolescents.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Obesity

Publication Stats

1k Citations
255.60 Total Impact Points


  • 1999-2015
    • University of Tuebingen
      • • Institute for Clinical Epidemiology and Applied Biometry
      • • Department of Urology
      • • Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics
      • • Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2012
    • Universitätsklinikum Tübingen
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2006
    • Universität Heidelberg
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2001-2003
    • Sana Herzchirurgie, Stuttgart
      Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany