Keiichi I Nakayama

Chiba University, Tiba, Chiba, Japan

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Publications (245)1894.13 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) is an intracellular molecular chaperone that is overexpressed in tumor cells, and has also been detected in extracellular regions such as the blood. HSP72 forms complexes with peptides and proteins that are released from tumors. Accordingly, certain HSP72-binding proteins/peptides present in the blood of cancer patients may be derived from tumor cells. In this study, to effectively identify low-abundance proteins/peptides in the blood as tumor markers, we established a method for isolating HSP72-binding proteins/peptides from serum. Nine HSP72-specific monoclonal antibodies were conjugated to N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide-activated Sepharose beads (NHq) and used to isolate HSP72 complexes from serum samples. Precipitated proteins were then identified by LC–MS/MS analysis. Notably, this approach enabled the isolation of low-abundance proteins from serum without albumin removal. Moreover, by subjecting the serum samples of ten patients with multiple myeloma (MM) to NHq analysis, we identified 299 proteins present in MM HSP72 complexes, including 65 intracellular proteins. Among the intracellular proteins detected, 21 were present in all serum samples tested, while 11 were detected in both the conditioned media from cultured multiple myeloma cells and serum from MM patients. These results suggest that the NHq method can be applied to discover candidate tumor markers.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of proteomics
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    ABSTRACT: Recent progress in deep sequencing technologies has revealed many novel mutations in a variety of genes in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Most of these mutations are thought to be loss-of-functions with some exceptions such as gain-of-function IDH1/2 and SRSF2 mutations. Among the mutations, ASXL1 mutations attract much attention; the ASXL1 mutations are identified in a variety of hematological malignancies and always predicts poor prognostic. It was demonstrated that the C-terminal truncating mutants of ASXL1 or ASXL1 deletion induced MDS-like diseases in mouse. In addition, it has been recently published that ASXL1 mutations are frequently found in clonal hematopoiesis in the healthy elderly people, who frequently progress to hematologic malignancies. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which ASXL1 mutations induce hematological malignancies are not fully understood. Moreover, it has been a controversial issue whether ASXL1 mutations are loss-of-function mutations or dominant-negative or gain-of-function mutations. We here present solid evidence indicating that the C-terminal truncating ASXL1 protein is indeed expressed in the cells harboring homozygous mutations of ASXL1, indicating the ASXL1 mutations are dominant-negative or gain-of-function mutations; for the first time, we detected the truncated ASXL1 proteins in two cell lines lacking the intact ASXL1 gene by mas spectrometry and western blot analyses. Thus, the present result together with our previous result has indicated that the truncating ASXL1 mutant is indeed expressed in MDS cells and may play a role in MDS pathogenesis not previously considered.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Experimental hematology
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    ABSTRACT: HBO1 is a critically important histone acetyltransferase for forming pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) at the replication origin. Pre-RC formation is completed by loading of the MCM2-7 heterohexameric complex, which functions as a helicase in DNA replication. HBO1 recruited at the replication origin by CDT1 acetylates histone H4 to relax chromatin conformation and facilitates loading of the MCM complex onto replication origins. However, the acetylation status and regulation of histone H3 at replication origins remains elusive. HBO1 positively regulates cell proliferation under normal cell growth conditions. Whether HBO1 regulates proliferation in response to DNA damage is poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that HBO1 was degraded after DNA damage to suppress cell proliferation. Ser50 and Ser53 of HBO1 were phosphorylated in an ATM/ATR DNA damage sensor-dependent manner after UV treatment. ATM/ATR-dependent phosphorylated HBO1 preferentially interacted with DDB2 and was ubiquitylated by CRL4DDB2. Replacement of endogenous HBO1 in Ser50/53Ala mutants maintained acetylation of histone H3K14 and impaired cell cycle regulation in response to UV. Our findings demonstrate that HBO1 is one of the targets in the DNA damage checkpoint. These results show that ubiquitin-dependent control of HBO1 protein contributes to cell survival during UV irradiation.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Molecular and Cellular Biology
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    Yu-ichi Tsukada · Tomohiko Akiyama · Keiichi I. Nakayama
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    ABSTRACT: The development of multicellular organisms is accompanied by reprogramming of the epigenome in specific cells, with the epigenome of most cell types becoming fixed after differentiation. Genome-wide reprogramming of DNA methylation occurs in primordial germ cells and in fertilized eggs during mammalian embryogenesis. The 5-methylcytosine (5mC) content of DNA thus undergoes a marked decrease in the paternal pronucleus of mammalian zygotes. This loss of DNA methylation has been thought to be mediated by an active demethylation mechanism independent of replication and to be required for development. TET3-mediated sequential oxidation of 5mC has recently been shown to contribute to the genome-wide loss of 5mC in the paternal pronucleus of mouse zygotes. We now show that TET3 localizes not only to the paternal pronucleus but also to the maternal pronucleus and oxidizes both paternal and maternal DNA in mouse zygotes, although these phenomena are less pronounced in the female pronucleus. Genetic ablation of TET3 in oocytes had no significant effect on oocyte development, maturation, or fertilization or on pregnancy, but it resulted in neonatal sublethality. Our results thus indicate that zygotic 5mC oxidation mediated by maternal TET3 is required for neonatal growth but is not essential for development.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Scientific Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The selective incorporation of appropriate histone variants into chromatin is critical for the regulation of genome function. Although many histone variants have been identified, a complete list has not been compiled. Results: We screened mouse, rat and human genomes by in silico hybridization using canonical histone sequences. In the mouse genome, we identified 14 uncharacterized H3 genes, among which 13 are similar to H3.3 and do not have human or rat counterparts, and one is similar to human testis-specific H3 variant, H3T/H3.4, and had a rat paralog. Although some of these genes were previously annotated as pseudogenes, their tissue-specific expression was confirmed by sequencing the 3'-UTR regions of the transcripts. Certain new variants were also detected at the protein level by mass spectrometry. When expressed as GFP-tagged versions in mouse C2C12 cells, some variants were stably incorporated into chromatin and the genome-wide distributions of most variants were similar to that of H3.3. Moreover, forced expression of H3 variants in chromatin resulted in alternate gene expression patterns after cell differentiation. Conclusions: We comprehensively identified and characterized novel mouse H3 variant genes that encoded highly conserved amino acid sequences compared to known histone H3. We speculated that the diversity of H3 variants acquired after species separation played a role in regulating tissue-specific gene expression in individual species. Their biological relevance and evolutionary aspect involving pseudogene diversification will be addressed by further functional analysis.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Epigenetics & Chromatin
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    ABSTRACT: Mammalian cardiomyocytes actively proliferate during embryonic stages, following which they exit their cell cycle after birth, and the exit is maintained. Previously, we showed that two inhibitory systems (the G1-phase inhibitory system: repression of cyclin D1 expression; the M-phase inhibitory system: inhibition of CDK1 activation) maintain the cell cycle exit of mouse adult cardiomyocytes. We also showed that two CDK inhibitors (CKIs), p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1), regulate the cell cycle exit in a portion of postnatal cardiomyocytes. It remains unknown whether the two inhibitory systems are involved in the cell cycle exit of postnatal cardiomyocytes and whether p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) also inhibit entry to M-phase. Here, we showed that more than 40% of cardiomyocytes entered an additional cell cycle by induction of cyclin D1 expression at postnatal stages, but M-phase entry was inhibited in the majority of cardiomyocytes. Marked cell cycle progression and endoreplication were observed in cardiomyocytes of p21(Cip1) knockout mice at 4 weeks of age. In addition, tri- and tetranucleated cardiomyocytes increased significantly in p21(Cip1) knockout mice. These data showed that the G1-phase inhibitory system and two CKIs (p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1)) inhibit entry to an additional cell cycle in postnatal cardiomyocytes, and that the M-phase inhibitory system and p21(Cip1) inhibit M-phase entry of cardiomyocytes which have entered the additional cell cycle.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Fetal hepatic stem/progenitor cells, hepatoblasts, are highly proliferative cells and the source of both hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. In contrast, mature hepatocytes have a low proliferative potency and high metabolic functions. Cell proliferation is regulated by cell cycle-related molecules. However, the correlation between cell cycle regulation and hepatic maturation are still unknown. To address this issue, we revealed that the cell cycle inhibitor p57(Kip2) was expressed in the hepatoblasts and mesenchymal cells of fetal liver in a spatiotemporal manner. In addition, we found that hepatoblasts in p57(Kip2)-/- mice were highly proliferative and had deficient maturation compared with those in wild-type (WT) mice. However, there were no remarkable differences in the expression levels of cell cycle- and bipotency-related genes except for Ccnd2. Furthermore, p57(Kip2)-/- hepatoblasts could differentiate into mature hepatocytes in p57(Kip2)-/- and WT chimeric mice, suggesting that the intrinsic activity of p57(Kip2) does not simply regulate hepatoblast maturation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Developmental Biology
  • Masaaki Nishiyama · Akihiro Nita · Kanae Yumimoto · Keiichi I Nakayama
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    ABSTRACT: How stem cells maintain their stemness or initiate exit from the stem cell state for differentiation remains largely unknown. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity is a hallmark of stem cells-including embryonic, adult tissue, and cancer stem cells-and is essential for their maintenance. The mechanisms by which ALDH activity is regulated in stem cells have remained poorly understood, however. We now show that the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of ALDH3 mediated by FBXL12 (F box and leucine-rich repeat protein 12) is essential for execution of the differentiation program of trophoblast stem cells (TSCs). FBXL12 is present only in eutherian mammals, and its expression is largely restricted to the placenta during mouse embryogenesis. FBXL12 was found to interact specifically with members of the ALDH3 family and to mediate their polyubiquitylation. Most mice deficient in FBXL12 died during the embryonic or perinatal period probably as a result of abnormal development of the placenta, characterized by impaired formation of the junctional zone. ALDH3 accumulated in the FBXL12-deficient placenta, and forced expression of ALDH3 in wild-type TSCs phenocopied the differentiation defect of FBXL12-deficient TSCs. Conversely, inhibition of ALDH3 activity by gossypol rescued the phenotype of FBXL12 deficiency. Our results suggest that FBXL12 plays a key role in the down-regulation of ALDH3 activity in TSCs and thereby initiates trophoblast differentiation during placental development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Stem Cells
  • Koki Watanabe · Kanae Yumimoto · Keiichi I Nakayama
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    ABSTRACT: Although identification of substrates for ubiquitin ligase (E3) is important for understanding its biological functions, detection of the interaction between an E3 and its substrates has remained challenging. We recently developed a new approach, termed differential proteomics-based identification of ubiquitylation substrates (DiPIUS), for the discovery of substrates of a given E3 ligase. We have now applied this approach to an uncharacterized human F-box protein, FBXO21, which serves as the substrate-recognition subunit of a SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein (SCF)-type E3, thereby identifying EID1 (EP300-interacting inhibitor of differentiation 1) as a candidate substrate. The central and COOH-terminal portion of FBXO21 was found to interact with the COOH-terminal region of EID1 in transfected cells. Over-expression of FBXO21 resulted in the down-regulation of EID1, whereas disruption of the FBXO21 gene with the CRISPR/Cas9 system stabilized EID1 and led to its accumulation in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. An in vitro ubiquitylation assay showed that EID1 is a direct substrate of SCF(FBXO) (21) . Collectively, our results suggest that EID1 is a bona fide substrate of FBXO21 and that the control of EID1 abundance by SCF(FBXO) (21) might affect the transcriptional repression activity of EID1. © 2015 The Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Genes to Cells
  • Kanae Yumimoto · Keiichi I. Nakayama
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    ABSTRACT: Fbxw7 has been identified as an oncosuppressor protein in many types of cancer. We have recently shown that loss of Fbxw7 in bone marrow-derived stromal cells promotes cancer metastasis by increasing production of the chemokine CCL2, which attracts monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells and macrophages to the metastatic niche.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · OncoImmunology
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    ABSTRACT: Gata3 acts as a master regulator for T helper 2 (Th2) cell differentiation by inducing chromatin remodeling of the Th2 cytokine loci, accelerating Th2 cell proliferation and repressing Th1 cell differentiation. Gata3 also directly transactivates the Interleukin-5 (Il5) gene via additional mechanisms that have not been fully elucidated. We herein identified a mechanism whereby the methylation of Gata3 at Arg261 regulates the transcriptional activation of the Il5 gene in Th2 cells. Although the methylation-mimicking Gata3 mutant retained the ability to induce IL-4 and repress IFNγ production, the IL-5 production was selectively impaired. We also demonstrated that Heat shock protein (Hsp) 60 strongly associates with the methylation-mimicking Gata3 mutant and negatively regulates elongation of the Il5 transcript by RNA polymerase II. Thus, arginine methylation appears to play a pivotal role in the organization of Gata3 complexes and the target gene specificity of Gata3. Copyright © 2015, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanism by which adult neural stem cells (NSCs) are established during development is unclear. In this study, analysis of cell cycle progression by examining retention of a histone 2B (H2B)-GFP fusion protein revealed that, in a subset of mouse embryonic neural progenitor cells (NPCs), the cell cycle slows between embryonic day (E) 13.5 and E15.5 while other embryonic NPCs continue to divide rapidly. By allowing H2B-GFP expressed at E9.5 to become diluted in dividing cells until the young adult stage, we determined that a majority of NSCs in the young adult subependymal zone (SEZ) originated from these slowly dividing embryonic NPCs. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57 is highly expressed in this embryonic subpopulation, and the deletion of p57 impairs the emergence of adult NSCs. Our results suggest that a substantial fraction of adult SEZ NSCs is derived from a slowly dividing subpopulation of embryonic NPCs and identify p57 as a key factor in generating this embryonic origin of adult SEZ NSCs.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Nature Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: A GATA family transcription factor GATA binding protein 2 (GATA2) participates in cell growth and differentiation of various cells such as hematopoietic stem cells. Although its expression level is controlled by transcriptional induction and proteolytic degradation, the responsible E3 ligase has not been identified. Here, we demonstrate that F-box/WD repeat-containing protein 7 (Fbw7/Fbxw7), a component of Skp1, Cullin 1, F-box containing complex (SCF)-type E3 ligase, is an E3 ligase for GATA2. GATA2 contains a cell division control protein (CDC) 4-phosphodegron (CPD), a consensus motif for ubiquitylation by Fbw7, which includes Thr-176. Ectopic expression of Fbw7 destabilized GATA2 and promoted its proteasomal degradation. Substitution of threonine 176 to alanine in GATA2 inhibited binding with Fbw7 and the ubiquitylation and degradation of GATA2 by Fbw7 was suppressed. The CPD kinase, which mediates the phosphorylation of Thr-176, was cyclin B-cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 1. Moreover, depletion of endogenous Fbw7 stabilized endogenous GATA2 in K562 cells. Conditional Fbw7-depletion in mice increased GATA2 levels in hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid progenitors at the early stage. Increased GATA2 levels in Fbw7-conditional knockout mice were correlated with a decrease in a c-Kit high expressing population of myeloid progenitor cells. Our results suggest that Fbw7 is a bona fide E3 ubiquitin ligase for GATA2 in vivo. Copyright © 2015, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The gene encoding F-box protein FBXW7 is frequently mutated in many human cancers. Although most previous studies have focused on the tumor-suppressive capacity of FBXW7 in tumor cells themselves, we determined that FBXW7 in the host microenvironment also suppresses cancer metastasis. Deletion of Fbxw7 in murine BM-derived stromal cells induced accumulation of NOTCH and consequent transcriptional activation of Ccl2. FBXW7-deficient mice exhibited increased serum levels of the chemokine CCL2, which resulted in the recruitment of both monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells and macrophages, thereby promoting metastatic tumor growth. Administration of a CCL2 receptor antagonist blocked the enhancement of metastasis in FBXW7-deficient mice. Furthermore, in human breast cancer patients, FBXW7 expression in peripheral blood was associated with serum CCL2 concentration and disease prognosis. Together, these results suggest that FBXW7 antagonizes cancer development in not only a cell-autonomous manner, but also a non-cell-autonomous manner, and that modulation of the FBXW7/NOTCH/CCL2 axis may provide a potential approach to suppression of cancer metastasis.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Clinical Investigation
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    ABSTRACT: Aberrant elevation of JARID1B and histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) is frequently observed in many diseases including prostate cancer (PCa), yet the mechanisms on the regulation of JARID1B and H3K4me3 through epigenetic alterations still remain poorly understood. Here we report that Skp2 modulates JARID1B and H3K4me3 levels in vitro in cultured cells and in vivo in mouse models. We demonstrated that Skp2 inactivation decreased H3K4me3 levels, along with a reduction of cell growth, cell migration and malignant transformation of Pten/Trp53 double null MEFs, and further restrained prostate tumorigenesis of Pten/Trp53 mutant mice. Mechanistically, Skp2 decreased the K63-linked ubiquitination of JARID1B by E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAF6, thus decreasing JARID1B demethylase activity and in turn increasing H3K4me3. In agreement, Skp2 deficiency resulted in an increase of JARID1B ubiquitination and in turn a reduction of H3K4me3, and induced senescence through JARID1B accumulation in nucleoli of PCa cells and prostate tumors of mice. Furthermore, we showed that the elevations of Skp2 and H3K4me3 contributed to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in mice, and were positively correlated in human PCa specimens. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel network of SKP2-JARID1B, and targeting SKP2 and JARID1B may be a potential strategy for PCa control.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Oncotarget
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    ABSTRACT: Cellular homeostasis is regulated by signals through multiple molecular networks that include protein phosphorylation and metabolites. However, where and when the signal flows through a network and regulates homeostasis has not been explored. We have developed a reconstruction method for the signal flow based on time-course phosphoproteome and metabolome data, using multiple databases, and have applied it to acute action of insulin, an important hormone for metabolic homeostasis. An insulin signal flows through a network, through signaling pathways that involve 13 protein kinases, 26 phosphorylated metabolic enzymes, and 35 allosteric effectors, resulting in quantitative changes in 44 metabolites. Analysis of the network reveals that insulin induces phosphorylation and activation of liver-type phosphofructokinase 1, thereby controlling a key reaction in glycolysis. We thus provide a versatile method of reconstruction of signal flow through the network using phosphoproteome and metabolome data.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Cell Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) mRNA is unstable, but is stabilized upon extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, possibly through the binding of certain proteins to the LDLR mRNA 3′-untranslated region (UTR), although the detailed mechanism underlying this stability control is unclear. Here, using a proteomic approach, we show that proteins ZFP36L1 and ZFP36L2 specifically bind to the 3′-UTR of LDLR mRNA and recruit the CCR4-NOT-deadenylase complex, resulting in mRNA destabilization. We also show that the C-terminal regions of ZFP36L1 and ZFP36L2 are directly phosphorylated by p90 ribosomal S6 kinase, a kinase downstream of ERK, resulting in dissociation of the CCR4-NOT-deadenylase complex and stabilization of LDLR mRNA. We further demonstrate that targeted disruption of the interaction between LDLR mRNA and ZFP36L1 and ZFP36L2 using antisense oligonucleotides results in upregulation of LDLR mRNA and protein. These results indicate that ZFP36L1 and ZFP36L2 regulate LDLR protein levels downstream of ERK. Our results also show the usefulness of our method for identifying critical regulators of specific RNAs and the potency of antisense oligonucleotide-based therapeutics.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Nucleic Acids Research
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    ABSTRACT: Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is a secreted morphogen that controls the patterning and growth of various tissues in the developing vertebrate embryo, including the central nervous system. Ablation of the FK506-binding protein 38 (FKBP38) gene results in activation of the Shh signaling pathway in mouse embryos, but the molecular mechanism by which FKBP38 suppresses Shh signaling has remained unclear. With the use of a proteomics approach, we have now identified ANKMY2, a protein with three ankyrin repeats and a MYND (myeloid, Nervy, and DEAF-1)-type Zn2+ finger domain, as a molecule that interacts with FKBP38. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed that endogenous FKBP38 and ANKMY2 interact in the mouse brain. Depletion or overexpression of ANKMY2 resulted in down- and up-regulation of Shh signaling, respectively, in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Furthermore, combined depletion of both FKBP38 and ANKMY2 attenuated Shh signaling in these cells, suggesting that ANKMY2 acts downstream of FKBP38 to activate the Shh signaling pathway. Targeting of the zebrafish ortholog of mouse Ankmy2 (ankmy2a) in fish embryos with an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide conferred a phenotype reflecting loss of function of the Shh pathway, suggesting that the regulation of Shh signaling by ANKMY2 is conserved between mammals and fish. Our findings thus indicate that the FKBP38-ANKMY2 axis plays a key role in regulation of Shh signaling in vivo.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: MDM2 mediates the ubiquitylation and thereby triggers the proteasomal degradation of the tumor suppressor protein p53. However, genetic evidence suggests that MDM2 contributes to multiple regulatory networks independently of p53 degradation. We have now identified the DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX24 as a nucleolar protein that interacts with MDM2. DDX24 was found to bind to the central region of MDM2, resulting in the polyubiquitylation of DDX24 both in vitro and in vivo. Unexpectedly, however, the polyubiquitylation of DDX24 did not elicit its proteasomal degradation but rather promoted its association with preribosomal ribonucleoprotein (pre-rRNP) processing complexes that are required for the early steps of pre-rRNA processing. Consistently with these findings, depletion of DDX24 in cells impaired pre-rRNA processing and resulted both in abrogation of MDM2 function and in consequent p53 stabilization. Our results thus suggest an unexpected role of MDM2 in the nonproteolytic ubiquitylation of DDX24, which may contribute to the regulation of pre-rRNA processing.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Molecular and Cellular Biology

Publication Stats

12k Citations
1,894.13 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • Chiba University
      • Graduate School of Medicine
      Tiba, Chiba, Japan
  • 2007-2015
    • The University of Tokyo
      • • Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Spinal Surgery
      • • Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences
      白山, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Juntendo University
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Fukuoka University
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
    • Tohoku University
      • Graduate School of Medicine
      Sendai, Kagoshima, Japan
  • 2002-2015
    • Kyushu University
      • • Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology
      • • Medical Institute of Bioregulation - MIB Hospital
      • • Department of Molecular Biology
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 2004-2014
    • Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Keio University
      • Department of Molecular Biology
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2011
    • Albert Einstein College of Medicine
      • Department of Cell Biology
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Arkansas at Little Rock
      Little Rock, Arkansas, United States
    • Emory University
      • Center for Neurodegenerative Disease
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 2004-2007
    • Daiichi University
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 2006
    • Tokoha University
      Hamamatu, Shizuoka, Japan
    • Niigata University
      • Division of Neuropathology
      Niahi-niigata, Niigata, Japan
  • 2005
    • Stowers Institute for Medical Research
      Kansas City, Kansas, United States
    • Hokkaido University
      • Department of Oral Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido, Japan
    • Kumamoto University
      Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan
  • 2003
    • Hokkaido University Hospital
      • Division of Ophthalmology
      Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido, Japan
  • 2002-2003
    • Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology
      Bhaganagar, Andhra Pradesh, India