Publications (2)9.01 Total impact
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ABSTRACT: Recent evidence supports the idea that insulin signaling through the insulin receptor substrate/phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway is involved in the maintenance of beta-cell mass and function. We previously identified the insulin-response element binding protein-1 (IRE-BP1) as an effector of insulin-induced Akt signaling in the liver, and showed that the 50-kDa carboxyl fragment confers the transcriptional activity of this factor. In this investigation we found that IRE-BP1 is expressed in the alpha, beta, and delta-cells of the islets of Langerhans, and is localized to the cytoplasm in beta-cells in normal rats, but is reduced and redistributed to the islet cell nuclei in obese Zucker rats. To test whether IRE-BP1 modulates beta-cell function and insulin secretion, we used the rat insulin II promoter to drive expression of the carboxyl fragment in beta-cells. Transgenic expression of IRE-BP1 in FVB mice increases nuclear IRE-BP1 expression, and produces a phenotype similar to that of type 2 diabetes, with hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and increased body weight. IRE-BP1 increased islet type I IGF receptor expression, potentially contributing to the development of islet hypertrophy. Our findings suggest that increased gene transcription mediated through IRE-BP1 may contribute to beta-cell dysfunction in insulin resistance, and allow for the hypothesis that IRE-BP1 plays a role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes.
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ABSTRACT: One of the major mechanisms by which insulin modulates glucose homeostasis is through regulation of gene expression. Therefore, reduced expression of transcription factors that are required for insulin-regulated gene expression may contribute to insulin resistance. We recently identified insulin response element-binding protein-1 (IRE-BP1) as a transcription factor that binds and transactivates multiple insulin-responsive genes, but the regulation of IRE-BP1 in vivo is largely unknown. In this study, we show that IRE-BP1 interacts with the insulin response sequence of the IGF-I, IGFBP-1, and IGFBP-3 genes using chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Furthermore, activation by IRE-BP1 is sequence specific and mimics that of the insulin effect on gene transcription. Tissue expression of IRE-BP1 is 50- to 200-fold higher in classical insulin target compared with nontarget tissues in lean animals, with a significantly reduced level of expression in the skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in obese and diabetic animals. In the liver, IRE-BP1 is localized to the nucleus in lean rats but is sequestered to the cytoplasm in obese and diabetic animals. Cytoplasmic sequestration appears to be related to inhibition of insulin-mediated phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase signaling. Therefore, in diabetes and obesity, the mechanisms involved in reducing the transactivation of the insulin response sequence by IRE-BP1 include decreased gene transcription and nuclear exclusion to prevent DNA binding. Our study supports the notion that IRE-BP1 may be relevant to the action of insulin in vivo and may play a role in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes.
University of Louisville
Louisville, Kentucky, United States
- Department of Medicine