[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postoperative peritoneal adhesions are major concerns
in abdominal surgery. In this experimental study, the
effects of 4 % icodextrin and omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FA)
on prevention of postoperative peritoneal adhesions were evaluated.
Twenty-four Wistar albino rats were divided into three
groups. After laparotomy, serosal abrasion was carried out by
cecal brushing. Intraperitoneally 3 cm3 0.9% NaCl, 3 cm34%
icodextrin, and 200 mg/kg ω-3 FAs for each group were
applied, and then the abdomen was closed. All subjects
sacrificed 10 days postoperatively. Macroscopic and histopathological
cellular reactions as a function of giant cell,
lymphocyte/plasmocyte, neutrophil, histiocyte, intracellular
adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and platelet endothelial cell
adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) were assessed and hydroxyproline
levels were measured in all three groups and
compared using Kruskal–Wallis and ANOVA tests when
appropriate. Macroscopically, both ω-3 FAs and 4 % icodextrin
reduced adhesion formation but the difference was not
statistically significant (P00.253). Histopathological examination
revealed that there was no statistical significance in
terms of giant cell, lymphocyte/plasmocyte, neutrophil,
ICAM-1, and PECAM-1 scores; however, both ω-3 FAs
and 4 % icodextrin were found to be prone to reduce fibrosis
(P00.047), whereas in the ω-3 FA group, histiocytic reaction
was significantly increased (P00.001), and hydroxyproline
levels were significantly lower than other groups (P00.044).
In this study, ω-3 FAs were found to be superior to 4 %
icodextrin with the lower hydroxyproline level and greater
histiocytic reaction. Considering these results,ω-3 FAs can be
a promising agent in the prevention of adhesion formation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignant blue nevi (MBN) are extremely rare dermal melanocytic tumors that arise in association with atypical cellular blue nevi (ACBN), cellular blue nevi (CBN), common blue nevi (BN), or de novo. The frequency of BRAF, NRAS, and KIT mutations in malignant melanoma varies according to histological subtype and localization. These mutations are rarely observed in blue nevi, which have recently been shown to carry activating mutations in GNAQ/GNA11 genes. Only few small molecular studies of MBN have been published. The aim of the present study was to analyze in MBN and related blue lesions such as ACBN, CBN, and BN the prevalence of BRAF, NRAS, KIT, GNAQ, and GNA11 gene mutations and their association with clinicopathological features. We included in our study 12 MBN, 6 ACBN, 29 CBN, and 35 common BN diagnosed between 1996 and 2014. Sanger sequencing method was used for mutation analysis. Overall, GNAQ exon 5 mutation was the most frequent alteration (46 %), in 2 of 12 (17 %) MBN, 1 of 6 (17 %) ACBN, 22 of 29 (76 %) CBN, and 13 of 35 (37 %) common BN. BRAF V600E and GNA11 exon 5 mutations were respectively detected in 3 of 12 (25 %) and in 2 of 12 (17 %) MBN while none in ACBN, CBN, and common BN. None of the cases harbored NRAS exon 2/3, KIT exon 9/11/13/17/18, or GNAQ/GNA11 exon 4 mutations. GNAQ gene exon 5 mutations are rare in MBN and ACBN but frequent in CBN and common BN. Remarkably, BRAF V600E and GNA11 exon 5 mutations were only detected in MBN, whereas none were found in ACBN, CBN, or common BN. Our data contribute new elements to the limited data on molecular alterations in MBN.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: KIT and mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade are important for melanomagenesis. In the present study, we analyzed the frequency of BRAF, NRAS, KIT, GNAQ and GNA11 gene mutations and investigated their association with clinicopathological features of melanomas in Turkish population.
Forty-seven primary cutaneous melanomas were included in our study. Sanger sequencing method was used for mutation analysis in all cases.
Mean age was 62.1 (29-101) years. Female:male ratio was 17:30. Among 47 melanomas, 14 (29.8%) BRAF, 10 (21.3%) NRAS, 4 (8.5%) KIT and 1(2.1%) GNAQ gene mutations were detected. Two of the KIT mutations were found in acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM). In the head and neck region, mutation frequency was significantly lower than in other locations (P = 0.035). The only GNAQ gene mutation (p.Q209L) was detected in a melanoma arising from blue nevus located on the scalp. None of the melanomas harbored NRAS exon 2, KIT exon 13/17/18, GNAQ exon 4 and GNA11 exon 4/5 mutations. Overall mutation frequency did not show significant difference between metastatic (8/14, 57.1%) and nonmetastatic (18/33, 54.5%) patients. We did not observe any significant association between mutation status and gender or age of various patients.
Our results support that BRAF and NRAS gene mutations are common in cutaneous melanomas. The activating mutations of KIT gene are rare and especially seen in ALM. GNAQ and GNA11 mutations are infrequent in cutaneous melanomas and may be associated only with melanomas arising from blue nevus.
No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A definitive relationship between Helicobacter pylori (HP) and upper respiratory tract disorders has not been established. In this case–control study, we investigated the relationship between HP and laryngeal carcinoma by
real-time PCR method in Turkey. 74 subjects were enrolled from patients who were admitted to the Otolaryngology Department. Formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded tissue samples with laryngeal cancer were used and all samples were evaluated by real-time PCR method. Our study population included 72 males and 2 females with a mean age range of 62.7 years. Helicobacter Pylori was detected in only one case. The positive case was also investigated with histopathologic evaluation and HP immunohistochemistry. However, we could not detect HP in this case with both methods. This study revealed that HP might not contribute to the pathogenesis of laryngeal carcinoma. A definitive relationship between HP and upper respiratory tract disorders has not been established.
No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Archiv für Klinische und Experimentelle Ohren- Nasen- und Kehlkopfheilkunde
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: EGFR and KRAS mutation profile in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) shows wide variations due to geographic and ethnic background. We aimed to determine the frequency and types of EGFR and KRAS mutations in a sample group of Turkish NSCLC cases. The study included 14 adenocarcinomas (ACs), 11 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients selected from archival material including small biopsy or surgical specimens. Their formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissues were used for genomic DNA extraction for EGFR exon 19 and 21, and KRAS exon 2 mutations. Eleven NSCLCs (44 %) had EGFR mutations. Exon 19 and 21 mutations were found in 8 (32 %) and 5 (20 %) cases. Two cases showed double EGFR mutations. In ACs, 5 (35.7 %) patients had EGFR gene mutation, 3 in exon 19 and 3 in exon 21. In SCCs, 6 (54.5 %) cases had EGFR mutation, 5 in exon 19 and 2 in exon 21. All exon 19 mutations were deletion-type mutations. For exon 21, 3 cases had L858R point mutation (CTG>CGG) and two cases showed deletion-type mutations. Six (24 %) NSCLCs showed KRAS mutations (three ACC, three SCC), 5 codon 12 mutations (G>T, T>C, G>A) and one codon 13 mutation (G>T). Three NSCLC cases showed both EGFR and KRAS mutations together. The profile of KRAS mutation in our AC cases was quite similar to those seen in the Western countries; however, frequency and clustering of EGFR mutations were similar to those seen in the Eastern countries.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Medical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
We examined expression profiles of 16 micro RNAs (miRNAs) in triple negative breast cancers to identify their potential as biomarkers for lymph node metastasis.
The expression profiles of miR-9, miR-21, miR-30a, miR-30d, miR-31, miR-34a, miR-34c, miR-100, miR-122, miR-125b, miR-146a, miR-146b, miR-155, miR-181a, miR-200c, and miR-205 were examined by using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in tumor samples and corresponding benign breast tissues. Their associations with histopathological features and prognostic parameters were assessed.
When compared with the expression in benign breast tissues, seven of the miRNAs (miR-31, miR-205, miR-34a, miR-146a, miR-125b, miR-34c, and miR-181a) were downregulated more than 1.5-fold in tumor tissues, whereas, only miR-21 was found to be upregulated more than 1.5-fold in tumor tissues. Although miR-200c levels were decreased only 1.12-fold in tumor tissues, the reduced expressions of miR-200c and miR-205 were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (p=0.021 and p=0.016, respectively).
Our results demonstrate that miR-205 and miR-200c expression levels may be useful in predicting lymph node metastasis in triple negative breast cancer patients.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Breast Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postoperative peritoneal adhesions are major concerns in abdominal surgery. In this experimental study, the effects of 4 % icodextrin and omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FA) on prevention of postoperative peritoneal adhesions were evaluated. Twenty-four Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups. After laparotomy, serosal abrasion was carried out by cecal brushing. Intraperitoneally 3 cm3 0.9 % NaCl, 3 cm3 4 % icodextrin, and 200 mg/kg ω-3 FAs for each group were applied, and then the abdomen was closed. All subjects sacrificed 10 days postoperatively. Macroscopic and histopathological cellular reactions as a function of giant cell, lymphocyte/plasmocyte, neutrophil, histiocyte, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) were assessed and hydroxyproline levels were measured in all three groups and compared using Kruskal–Wallis and ANOVA tests when appropriate. Macroscopically, both ω-3 FAs and 4 % icodextrin reduced adhesion formation but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.253). Histopathological examination revealed that there was no statistical significance in terms of giant cell, lymphocyte/plasmocyte, neutrophil, ICAM-1, and PECAM-1 scores; however, both ω-3 FAs and 4 % icodextrin were found to be prone to reduce fibrosis (P = 0.047), whereas in the ω-3 FA group, histiocytic reaction was significantly increased (P = 0.001), and hydroxyproline levels were significantly lower than other groups (P = 0.044). In this study, ω-3 FAs were found to be superior to 4 % icodextrin with the lower hydroxyproline level and greater histiocytic reaction. Considering these results, ω-3 FAs can be a promising agent in the prevention of adhesion formation.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Indian Journal of Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to investigate bladder cancer risk with reference to polymorphic variants of cytochrome p450 (CYP) 1A1, CYP1B1, glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1, and GSTT1 genes in a case control study. Polymorphisms were examined in 114 bladder cancer patients and 114 age and sex-matched cancer-free subjects. Genotypes were determined using allele specific PCR for CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 genes, and by multiplex PCR and melting curve analysis for GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes. Our results revealed a statistically significant increased bladder cancer risk for GSTT1 null genotype carriers with an odds ratio of 3.06 (95% confidence interval=1.39-6.74, p=0.006). Differences of CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and GSTM1 genotype frequencies were not statistically significant between patients and controls. However, the specific combination of GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null, and CYP1B1 codon 119 risk allele carriers and specific combination of GSTM1 present, GSTT1 null, and CYP1B1 432 risk allele carriers exhibited increased cancer risk in the combined analysis. We did not observe any association between different genotype groups and prognostic tumor characteristics of bladder cancer. Our results indicate that inherited absence of GSTT1 gene may be associated with bladder cancer susceptibility, and specific combinations of GSTM1, GSTT1 and CYP1B1 gene polymorphisms may modify bladder cancer risk in the Turkish population, without any association being observed for CYP1A1 gene polymorphism and bladder cancer risk.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The number of mitotic figures in a predefined area is essential in pathologic evaluation for most tumors. This information sometimes provides clues in differentiating neoplastic lesions from nonneoplastic ones and sometimes in defining and grading of the tumors as well as prognosticating expected lifetime of the patient. As a generally accepted concept, scanning a certain number of consecutive nonoverlapping areas that are rich in viable tumor cells is required. Invasion fronts or the periphery of the tumors is preferred for counting mitosis. The target area to be counted for mitotic activity for various tumors is standardized as the number of mitosis in an established number of high-power fields. However, suggested mitotic counts, which constitute the basis of these studies, were obtained via the old microscopes, which usually had narrower visual fields than the state-of-the-art microscopes. Because the visual fields of the present microscopes provide larger areas compared with the older ones, corrections in mitosis counting are needed to make them compatible with the criteria, which had been put forward in the original reference studies.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Annals of diagnostic pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenomas (PRMCs) are extremely rare tumors and their association with sarcoma-like mural nodules (SLMNs) has not been described thoroughly. The aim of this study is to characterize the gross and microscopic features and the immunohistochemical profile of the first case of PRMC with SLMN and to discuss the differential diagnosis of SLMNs. The literature related to primary retroperitoneal mucinous tumors is reviewed in an attempt to clarify the histogenesis of the epithelial and sarcomatoid components of the associated mural nodules. A 34-yr-old woman presented with a 14-cm retroperitoneal cystic lesion with a 6-cm mural nodule. An immunohistochemical study with a panel of 19 antibodies and a histochemical study for mucin stains were performed. The epithelial component of the PRMC showed positive staining for cytokeratin (CK) 7, CK AE1/3, epithelial membrane antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen, and calretinin. The neoplasm was not immunoreactive for CK 20, CK 5/6, and the other antibodies used in this study. In addition, it stained positively for mucin by mucicarmine, periodic acid-Schiff, and Alcian blue. The stromal cells of the cyst showed estrogen receptor positivity. SLMN cells were negative for all CKs and other epithelial markers used in the study, but they showed diffuse positive staining for vimentin and CD68, and positive staining for Ki-67 was demonstrated in 25% of these cells. The immunohistochemical and histochemical profiles of PRMC were similar to those of ovarian mucinous neoplasms and the mesothelium. The formation of SLMNs seems to be related to subepithelial hemorrhage and some reactive epithelial changes near the mural nodules. The specific immunohistochemical and morphologic features of SLMNs are helpful in differentiating them from malignant mural nodules, including true sarcomas, osteoclast-rich undifferentiated carcinomas, and carcinosarcomas. Such a differentiation is critical in view of its significant impact on the management of these neoplasms, particularly in young patients who desire to preserve their fertility.
No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · International journal of gynecological pathology: official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postsurgical abdominal adhesions are common, serious postoperative complications. The present study compared the usefulness of 4% icodextrin and canola oil in preventing postoperative peritoneal adhesions.
Twenty-four Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups. Following a laparotomy, a serosal abrasion was made by brushing the cecum, and 3 mL of 0.9% NaCl, 4% icodextrin, or 3 mL of canola oil were intraperitoneally administered for the control, icodextrin, and canola oil groups, respectively. The abdomen was then closed. All of the rats were sacrificed at day 10. Macroscopic, histopathological, and biochemical evaluations were performed. The results were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and ANOVA tests.
Macroscopic analyses revealed that both canola oil and 4% icodextrin reduced adhesion formation, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.17). The histopathological examinations revealed no significant differences in terms of giant cell, lymphocyte/plasmocyte, neutrophil, ICAM1, or PECAM1 scores. However, both canola oil and 4% icodextrin significantly reduced fibrosis (p = 0.025). In the canola oil group, the histiocytic reactions were significantly increased (p = 0.001), and the hydroxyproline levels were significantly lower than those in the other groups (p = 0.034).
In the present study, canola oil was determined to be superior to 4% icodextrin in lowering hydroxyproline levels and increasing histiocytic reactions. Considering these results, we believe that canola oil is a promising agent for preventing adhesion formation.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine whether pathological T2 subgroups of prostate cancer can be predicted using preoperative data and to investigate whether there is any difference between pathological T2 subgroups in terms of biochemical recurrence. Materials and methods: Patients who underwent radical prostatectomy in our clinic between 2001 and 2010 and who had a tumor confined to the prostate were classified into pathological T2 subgroups according to the 1992/2002 and 1997 TNM staging system. These patients were compared in terms of clinical stage, preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA), biopsy tumor percentage, biopsy and prostatectomy Gleason score, and biochemical recurrence. Results: According to the 1992/200 2 TNM staging system, the clinical stages, biopsy Gleason scores, and tumor size of the pT2 subgroups were different, while the biopsy tumor percentage, preoperative PSA, and prostatectomy Gleason scores of the pT2 subgroups were similar. There was no correlation between biopsy tumor percentage and tumor volume. PSA recurred in 1, 1, and 2 patients in the pT2a, pT2b, and pT2c subgroups, respectively. According to the 1997 TNM classification, the clinical stage, biopsy and prostatectomy Gleason scores, biopsy tumor percentage and preoperative PSA of pT2 subgroups were similar, while the tumor volumes differed among the pT2 subgroups. Conclusion: It is impossible to predict T2 subgroups using preoperative data. There is no difference among groups in terms of the rates of biochemical recurrence. It is not convenient to use the biopsy tumor percentage in order to predict tumor volumes or pathological subgroups.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Turk Uroloji Dergisi