[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus continues to infect animals and humans. We compared the infectivity and pathogenesis of H5N1 virus in domestic cats and dogs to find out which animal is more susceptible to H5N1 influenza virus. When cats and dogs were infected with the H5N1 virus, cats suffered from severe outcomes including death, whereas dogs did not show any mortality. Viruses were shed in the nose and rectum of cats and in the nose of dogs. Viruses were detected in brain, lung, kidney, intestine, liver, and serum in the infected cats, but only in the lung in the infected dogs. Genes encoding inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, Toll-like receptors, and apoptotic factors were more highly expressed in the lungs of cats than in those of dogs. Our results suggest that the intensive monitoring of dogs is necessary to prevent human infection by H5N1 influenza virus, since infected dogs may not show clear clinical signs, in contrast to infected cats.
Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Archives of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that the H7N9 avian influenza virus cannot be transmitted efficiently between ferrets via respiratory droplets. Here, we studied the infectivity of the H7N9 avian influenza virus in chickens and its transmissibility from infected to naïve chickens and ferrets. The H7N9 virus (A/Anhui/1/2013) replicated poorly in chickens and could not be transmitted efficiently from infected chickens to naïve chickens and ferrets. H7N9 virus was shed from chicken tracheae for only 2 days after infection and from chicken cloacae for only 1 day after infection, while the H9N2 avian influenza virus, which is endemic in chickens in many Asian countries, was shed from tracheae and cloacae for 8 days after infection. Taken together, our results suggest that chickens may be a poor agent of transmission for the H7N9 virus to other chickens and to mammals, including humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study on pathogenesis of influenza B virus during pregnancy is limited. Here, we showed using a mouse model that influenza B virus could cause severe disease including death during pregnancy. Infected pregnant mice resulted in 40% mortality, but infected age-matched non-pregnant mice did not show any death. Infected pregnant mice contained high viral loads in lungs with the elevated inductions of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines than infected non-pregnant mice. Infected pregnant mice delivered lower number of neonates than uninfected pregnant mice, suggesting adverse effects of influenza B virus on fetuses. Progesterone which is important for maintaining pregnancy was reduced in uteruses of infected pregnant mice than in those of uninfected pregnant mice. Taken together, our results suggest that influenza B virus can cause severe disease during pregnancy, and that preventive measures including vaccination may be important for protecting women during pregnancy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 influenza virus is endemic in many countries and has a great potential for a pandemic in humans. The immune-enhancing prowess of ginseng has been known for millennia. We aimed to study whether mice and ferrets fed with Red Ginseng could be better protected from the lethal infections of HP H5N1 influenza virus than the infected unfed mice and ferrets. We fed mice and ferrets with Red Ginseng prior to when they were infected with HP H5N1 influenza virus. The mice and ferrets fed with a 60-day diet containing Red Ginseng could be protected from lethal infections by HP H5N1 influenza virus (survival rate of up to 45% and 40%, respectively). Interferon-α and -γ antiviral cytokines were significantly induced in the lungs of mice fed Red Ginseng, compared to mice fed an unsupplemented diet. These data suggest that the diet with the immune-enhancing Red Ginseng could help humans to overcome the infections by HP H5N1 influenza virus.
Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of ginseng research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dogs are companion animals that live in close proximity with humans. Canine H3N2 influenza virus has been isolated from pet dogs that showed severe respiratory signs and other clinical symptoms such as fever, reduced body weight, and interstitial pneumonia. The canine H3N2 influenza virus can be highly transmissible among dogs via aerosols. When we analyzed global gene expression in the lungs of infected dogs, the genes associated with the immune response and cell death were greatly elevated. Taken together, our results suggest that canine H3N2 influenza virus can be easily transmitted among dogs, and that severe pneumonia in the infected dogs may be partially due to the elevated expression of genes related to inflammation and apoptosis.
Preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Veterinary Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The in vivo role of alveolar macrophages in the infections with 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus is not as yet known. Ferret study shows that alveolar macrophages are critical for lowering the risk of severe outcomes in 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infections. Up to 40% of the infected ferrets depleted of alveolar macrophages died, with elevated body temperature and major loss of body weight in contrast to infected ferrets not depleted of alveolar macrophages. The higher viral titers in the lungs were detected in infected ferrets depleted of alveolar macrophages than infected ferrets not depleted of alveolar macrophages 5 days after infection. The inflammatory chemokines were induced at greater levels in the lungs of infected ferrets depleted of alveolar macrophages than in those of infected ferrets not depleted of alveolar macrophages. Our study implies that alveolar macrophages are important for controlling the infections of 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Pregnant women can experience high mortality, high rates of abortion, and severe pneumonia when infected with pandemic influenza viruses. In this context, the severity of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus compared with seasonal H1N1 influenza virus is not clear. Presently, in a mouse model of pregnancy, the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus killed up to 60% of pregnant mice and caused abortion in up to 40%, whereas a circulating seasonal H1N1 influenza virus did not cause any deaths or abortions. Higher viral titers and levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, RANTES, monocyte chemotactic protein, and KC (CXCL1), were detected in the lungs of pregnant mice infected with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, compared with the seasonal H1N1 influenza virus. The results of our study with pregnant mice suggest that the observed higher pathogenesis in pregnant women infected with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus than the seasonal H1N1 influenza virus may be due to higher viral replication, elevated induction of inflammatory chemokines, and reduced progesterone.
No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Viral immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Please cite this paper as: Nang et al. (2013) Live attenuated H5N1 vaccine with H9N2 internal genes protects chickens from infections by both Highly Pathogenic H5N1 and H9N2 Influenza Viruses. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 7(2) 120–131.
Background The highly pathogenic H5N1 and H9N2 influenza viruses are endemic in many countries around the world and have caused considerable economic loss to the poultry industry.
Objectives We aimed to study whether a live attenuated H5N1 vaccine comprising internal genes from a cold-adapted H9N2 influenza virus could protect chickens from infection by both H5N1 and H9N2 viruses.
Methods We developed a cold-adapted H9N2 vaccine virus expressing hemagglutinin and neuraminidase derived from the highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus using reverse genetics.
Results and Conclusions Chickens immunized with the vaccine were protected from lethal infections with homologous and heterologous H5N1 or H9N2 influenza viruses. Specific antibody against H5N1 virus was detected up to 11 weeks after vaccination (the endpoint of this study). In vaccinated chickens, IgA and IgG antibody subtypes were induced in lung and intestinal tissue, and CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes expressing interferon-gamma were induced in the splenocytes. These data suggest that a live attenuated H5N1 vaccine with cold-adapted H9N2 internal genes can protect chickens from infection with H5N1 and H9N2 influenza viruses by eliciting humoral and cellular immunity.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ducks have been regarded as animals that can perpetuate most avian influenza viruses since they generally do not show the clear clinical signs such as death and reduced body weight when they are infected. Here, we characterized two H3N2 and one H3N6 avian influenza viruses isolated from ducks on the local farms in Korea from 2005 to 2007. Genetic analysis of these viruses showed that most segments of isolates except NP genes belonged to Eurasian lineage. NP genes of two H3N2 isolates, A/Duck/Korea/S71/07, and A/Duck/Korea/S72/07 belonged to North American lineage. Our results suggest that the genetic reassortment among avian influenza viruses can occur in domestic ducks.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aquatic birds are a reservoir of all known influenza A viruses. Avian influenza viruses have played a major role in the creation of pandemic influenza viruses in humans. In this study, we genetically characterized genes of nine isolates from waterfowl in Eulsukdo, a congregating place for migratory birds on the flyway of migration from Siberia, which is located in the southern part of South Korea. Phylogenic analysis showed that HA and NA genes of isolates belonged to Eurasian lineage, and lineage analysis showed that NS, PB1, PA, NP, and M genes of isolates clustered with Eurasian lineage, and PB2 genes of isolates belonged to North American or Eurasian lineage. Results suggest that the interregional transmission of genes of avian influenza viruses may occur in the migratory birds.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alveolar macrophages constitutively reside in the respiratory tracts of pigs and humans. An in vivo role of alveolar macrophages in defending against influenza viruses in mice infected with a reassorted influenza virus, 1918 HA/NA:Tx/91, was reported, but there has been no report on an in vivo role of alveolar macrophages in a natural host such as a pig using currently circulating human influenza virus. Here we show that in vivo depletion of alveolar macrophages in pigs by dichloromethylene diphosphonate (MDPCL2) treatment results in 40% mortality when pigs are infected with currently circulating human H1N1 influenza viruses, while none of the infected control pigs died. All infected pigs depleted of alveolar macrophages suffered from more severe respiratory signs than infected control pigs. Induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha in the infected pigs depleted of alveolar macrophages was significantly lower than that in the lungs of infected control pigs, and the induction of interleukin-10, an immunosuppressive cytokine, significantly increased in the lungs of infected pigs depleted of alveolar macrophages compared to infected control pigs. When we measured antibody titers and CD8(+) T lymphocytes expressing gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), lower antibody titers and a lower percentage of CD8(+) T lymphocytes expressing IFN-gamma were detectable in MDPCL2-treated infected pigs than in phosphate-buffered saline- and liposome-treated and infected pigs. Taken together, our findings suggest that alveolar macrophages are essential for controlling H1N1 influenza viruses in pigs.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · Journal of Virology