[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: CC-486, the oral formulation of azacitidine (AZA), is an epigenetic modifier and DNA methyltransferase inhibitor in clinical development for treatment of hematologic malignancies. CC-486 administered for 7 days per 28-day treatment cycle was evaluated in a phase 1 dose-finding study. AZA has a short plasma half-life and DNA incorporation is S-phase-restricted; extending CC-486 exposure may increase the number of AZA-affected diseased target cells and maximize therapeutic effects. Patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) received 300 mg CC-486 once daily for 14 days (n=28) or 21 days (n=27) of repeated 28-day cycles. Median patient age was 72 years (range 31-87) and 75% of patients had IPSS Intermediate-1 risk MDS. Median number of CC-486 treatment cycles was 7 (range 2-24) in the 14-day dosing schedule and 6 (1-24) in the 21-day schedule. Overall Response (complete or partial remission, red blood cell [RBC] or platelet transfusion independence [TI], or hematologic improvement, (IWG 2006) was attained by 36% of patients receiving 14-day dosing and 41% receiving 21-day dosing. RBC TI rates were similar with both dosing schedules (31 and 38%, respectively). CC-486 was generally well-tolerated. Extended dosing schedules of oral CC-486 may provide effective long-term treatment for patients with lower-risk MDS.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 07 October 2015. doi:10.1038/leu.2015.265.
Full-text available · Article · Oct 2015 · Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: CC-486 (oral azacitidine) is an epigenetic modifier in development for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia. In part 1 of this two-part study, a 7-day CC-486 dosing schedule showed clinical activity, was generally well tolerated, and reduced DNA methylation. Extending dosing of CC-486 beyond 7 days would increase duration of azacitidine exposure. We hypothesized that extended dosing would therefore provide more sustained epigenetic activity. Reported here are the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profiles of CC-486 extended dosing schedules in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) from part 2 of this study. PK and/or PD data were available for 59 patients who were sequentially assigned to 1 of 4 extended CC-486 dosing schedules: 300mg once-daily or 200mg twice-daily for 14 or 21 days per 28-day cycle. Both 300mg once-daily schedules and the 200mg twice-daily 21-day schedule significantly (all P < .05) reduced global DNA methylation in whole blood at all measured time points (days 15, 22, and 28 of the treatment cycle), with sustained hypomethylation at cycle end compared with baseline. CC-486 exposures and reduced DNA methylation were significantly correlated. Patients who had a hematologic response had significantly greater methylation reductions than non-responding patients. These data demonstrate that extended dosing of CC-486 sustains epigenetic effects through the treatment cycle.
Full-text available · Article · Aug 2015 · PLoS ONE
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Two multicenter, single-arm, single-infusion, open-label studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of ketoconazole (a strong CYP3A inhibitor] or rifampin (a strong CYP3A inducer] daily for 5 days on the pharmacokinetics (PK] and safety of romidepsin (8 mg/m(2) IV 4-hour infusion for the ketoconazole study or a 14 mg/m(2) IV 4-hour infusion for the rifampin study] in patients with advanced cancer. Romidepsin co-administered with ketoconazole (400 mg] or rifampin (600 mg] were not bioequivalent to romidepsin alone. With ketoconazole, mean romidepsin AUC and Cmax were increased by approximately 25% and 10%, respectively. With rifampin, mean romidepsin AUC and Cmax were unexpectedly increased by approximately 80% and 60%, respectively; this is likely due to inhibition of active liver uptake. For both studies, romidepsin clearance and volume of distribution were decreased, terminal half-life was comparable, and median Tmax was similar. Overall, the safety profile of romidepsin was not altered by co-administration with ketoconazole or rifampin, except a higher incidence and greater severity of thrombocytopenia was observed when romidepsin was given with rifampin. The use of romidepsin with rifampin and strong CYP3A inducers should be avoided. Toxicity related to romidepsin exposure should be monitored when romidepsin is given with strong CYP3A inhibitors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article · Jun 2015 · The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Parenteral azacitidine improves overall survival in higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes. An oral azacitidine formulation would allow extended dosing schedules, potentially improving safety and/or efficacy. Two Phase 1 studies evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PK) of oral azacitidine in subjects with hematologic malignancies. Study 1 evaluated different oral formulations (immediate release tablet [IRT], enteric-coated tablet, and capsule; N = 16). Study 2 assessed the effect of food (Part 1; N = 17) and gastric pH modulation with omeprazole (Part 2; N = 14) on oral azacitidine PK. Azacitidine plasma concentration-time profiles for IRT and capsule formulations were similar, with more rapid time to maximum plasma concentration (Tmax ) than the enteric-coated tablet. Study 2 evaluated only IRT formulations of oral azacitidine. Under fed condition, Tmax was delayed ∼1.5 hour but area under the concentration-time curve (AUC∞ ) and maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax ) were comparable under fed and fasted conditions. Mean azacitidine AUC∞ and Cmax increased upon omeprazole co-administration (18.3% and 13.2%, respectively, vs. oral azacitidine alone), but not to a clinically meaningful extent. High inter-subject variability in AUC∞ and Cmax (%CV range 46.4-68.9%) was observed. Oral azacitidine is rapidly absorbed with little or no effect of food on PK parameters and does not require dose adjustments when taking a proton pump inhibitor.
Article · Jun 2014 · The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To assess the dose proportionality of azacitidine pharmacokinetics (PK) after single subcutaneous (SC) doses of 25–100 mg/m2, and determine the effect of renal impairment on PK after single and multiple 75 mg/m2 SC azacitidine doses. Multicenter, phase I, open-label, parallel group study. Community clinics and major academic centers. Twenty-seven patients with solid or hematologic malignancies. Part 1 evaluated azacitidine dose proportionality in patients with normal renal function randomized to single 25, 50, 75, or 100 mg/m2 SC doses. The 75 mg/m2 dosing group received 4 additional days of SC azacitidine. In Part 2, patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 ml/min/1.73 m2 Cockcroft-Gault adjusted) received azacitidine 75 mg/m2 for 5 consecutive days. PK parameters were determined using noncompartmental methods. In patients with normal renal function (n=21), azacitidine area under the plasma-time curve (AUC0–∞) and maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax) were dose proportional within the 25–100 mg/m2 range. Concentration versus time profiles after single and multiple azacitidine 75 mg/m2 doses were similar in shape for patients with normal (n=6) or impaired renal function (n=6), with higher mean concentrations in the latter group. Higher mean exposures (AUC0–∞ and Cmax) in renally impaired patients were observed; however, individual exposure values were, with few exceptions, within the same range in both groups. No drug accumulation after multiple doses was observed in either group. Terminal half-life and time to maximum plasma concentration were comparable between groups. Azacitidine tolerability was similar in patients with normal or impaired renal function. Azacitidine is dose proportional over the 25–100 mg/m2 dosing range. Overall, renal impairment had no important effect on azacitidine PK. Therefore, no initial azacitidine dose adjustment in patients with renal impairment is required.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Apremilast (CC-10004), a PDE4 enzyme inhibitor, is under clinical development for the treatment of inflammatory immune-mediated disorders. Since apremilast is extensively metabolised via multiple routes, impact of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of apremilast and M12 metabolite was evaluated. Thirty-two subjects were enrolled in a two-centre, open-label, and single-dose study. Subjects with moderate hepatic impairment and their healthy matches received a single 30-mg dose and subjects with severe hepatic impairment and their healthy matches received a single 20-mg dose of apremilast. Plasma concentrations of apremilast and M12 were measured, PK parameters calculated, and statistically compared. During the study, single doses of apremilast were well tolerated, with no clinically meaningful safety findings observed. PK parameters were comparable between hepatic impaired and healthy subjects, and there was no evidence to suggest that the PK of apremilast is affected by moderate and severe hepatic impairment. Therefore, no dose adjustment is required.
Full-text available · Article · Jan 2014 · International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Azacitidine is a cytidine analog used in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia. The pharmacological effect of azacitidine arises after incorporation into the DNA and RNA. To this end, the drug first has to be converted into its triphosphate forms. This paper describes the development of an assay for quantitative determination of azacitidine triphosphate (aza-CTP) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). To quantify aza-CTP, separation from the endogenous nucleotides cytidine triphosphate (CTP) and uridine triphosphate (UTP) is required. This was a challenge as the structures of these nucleotides are highly similar and the monoisotopic molecular masses of aza-CTP, UTP and the naturally occurring [(13)C]- and [(15)N]-isotopes of CTP differ less than 0.02Da. Efforts to select a specific MS(2)-fragment for aza-CTP using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer remained without success. Therefore, we investigated the feasibility to separate these highly resembling nucleotides based on accurate mass spectrometry using a linear trap quadrupole (LTQ) coupled with an Orbitrap. The LTQ-Orbitrap was able to differentiate between aza-CTP and the endogenous nucleotides UTP and [(13)C]-CTP. There was no baseline resolution between aza-CTP and [(15)N]-CTP, but the [(15)N]-CTP interference was low. For quantification, extracted ion chromatograms were obtained for the accurate m/z window of the aza-CTP product ion. The assay was able to determine aza-CTP concentrations in PBMC lysate from 40.7 to 281nM. Assuming that an average cell suspension extracted from 16mL blood contains 10 to 42 million PBMCs per mL, this range corresponds with 2.58/10.9-17.8/74.9pmol aza-CTP per million PBMCs. Intra-assay accuracies were between -1.1 and 9.5% deviation and coefficient of variation values were ≤13.2%. The assay was successfully applied to quantify aza-CTP in samples from two patients treated with azacitidine. Aza-CTP concentrations up to 19.0pmol per million PBMCs were measured. This is the first time that aza-CTP concentrations were quantified in PBMCs from patients treated with azacitidine.
Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles, and clinical activity of an oral formulation of azacitidine in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), or acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
Patients received 1 cycle of subcutaneous (SC) azacitidine (75 mg/m2) on the first 7 days of cycle 1, followed by oral azacitidine daily (120 to 600 mg) on the first 7 days of each additional 28-day cycle. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles were evaluated during cycles 1 and 2. Adverse events and hematologic responses were recorded. Cross-over to SC azacitidine was permitted for nonresponders who received ≥ 6 cycles of oral azacitidine.
Overall, 41 patients received SC and oral azacitidine (MDSs, n = 29; CMML, n = 4; AML, n = 8). Dose-limiting toxicity (grade 3/4 diarrhea) occurred at the 600-mg dose and MTD was 480 mg. Most common grade 3/4 adverse events were diarrhea (12.2%), nausea (7.3%), vomiting (7.3%), febrile neutropenia (19.5%), and fatigue (9.8%). Azacitidine exposure increased with escalating oral doses. Mean relative oral bioavailability ranged from 6.3% to 20%. Oral and SC azacitidine decreased DNA methylation in blood, with maximum effect at day 15 of each cycle. Hematologic responses occurred in patients with MDSs and CMML. Overall response rate (i.e., complete remission, hematologic improvement, or RBC or platelet transfusion independence) was 35% in previously treated patients and 73% in previously untreated patients.
Oral azacitidine was bioavailable and demonstrated biologic and clinical activity in patients with MDSs and CMML.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To assess the potential inhibitory and inductive effects of azacitidine on cytochrome P450 isozymes in vitro.
The inhibitory effects of azacitidine on various CYP isozymes were determined in human liver microsomes. In addition, the ability of azacitidine to induce CYP enzymes in cultured human hepatocytes was evaluated.
Azacitidine did not inhibit CYP2B6-, CYP2C8-, CYP2C9-, CYP2C19-, CYP2D6-, and CYP3A4-mediated activities in human liver microsomes up to a concentration of 100 microM, while weak inhibition (<30% inhibition) of CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 activities was observed at 100 microM azacitidine. In vitro azacitidine did not induce CYP1A2, CYP2C19, or CYP3A4/5 activities in cultured human hepatocytes.
Azacitidine is not an inhibitor or inducer of the cytochrome P450 isozymes tested; therefore, clinically relevant pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions are unlikely to occur between azacitidine and co-administered substrates of these CYP isozymes.
Article · Apr 2010 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: MGCD0103 is an isotype-selective inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs) targeted to isoforms 1, 2, 3, and 11. In a phase 1 study in patients with leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), MGCD0103 was administered orally 3 times weekly without interruption. Twenty-nine patients with a median age of 62 years (range, 32-84 years) were enrolled at planned dose levels (20, 40, and 80 mg/m(2)). The majority of patients (76%) had acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). In all, 24 (83%) of 29 patients had received 1 or more prior chemotherapies (range, 0-5), and 18 (62%) of 29 patients had abnormal cytogenetics. The maximum tolerated dose was determined to be 60 mg/m(2), with dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea observed at higher doses. Three patients achieved a complete bone marrow response (blasts <or= 5%). Pharmacokinetic analyses indicated absorption of MGCD0103 within 1 hour and an elimination half-life in plasma of 9 (+/- 2) hours. Exposure to MGCD0103 was proportional to dose up to 60 mg/m(2). Analysis of peripheral white cells demonstrated induction of histone acetylation and dose-dependent inhibition of HDAC enzyme activity. In summary, MGCD0103 was safe and had antileukemia activity that was mechanism based in patients with advanced leukemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: MGCD0103 is a novel isotype-selective inhibitor of human histone deaceylases (HDACs) with the potential to regulate aberrant gene expression and restore normal growth control in malignancies.
A phase I trial of MGCD0103, given as a three-times-per-week oral dose for 2 of every 3 weeks, was performed in patients with advanced solid tumors. Primary end points were safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamic (PD) assessments of HDAC activity, and histone acetylation status in peripheral WBCs.
Six dose levels ranging from 12.5 to 56 mg/m(2)/d were evaluated in 38 patients over 99 cycles (median, 2; range, 1 to 11). The recommended phase II dose was 45 mg/m(2)/d. Dose-limiting toxicities consisting of fatigue, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and dehydration were observed in three (27%) of 11 and two (67%) of three patients treated at the 45 and 56 mg/m(2)/d dose levels, respectively. Disease stabilization for four or more cycles was observed in five (16%) of 32 patients assessable for efficacy. PK analyses demonstrated interpatient variability which was improved by coadministration with low pH beverages. Elimination half-life ranged from 6.7 to 12.2 hours, and no accumulation was observed with repeated dosing. PD evaluations confirmed inhibition of HDAC activity and induction of acetylation of H3 histones in peripheral WBCs from patients by MGCD0103.
At doses evaluated, MGCD0103 appears tolerable and exhibits favorable PK and PD profiles with evidence of target inhibition in surrogate tissues.
Full-text available · Article · May 2008 · Journal of Clinical Oncology