[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: JAK2(V617F) is a gain of function mutation that promotes cytokine-independent growth of myeloid cells and accounts for a majority of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). Mutations in p53 are rarely found in these diseases before acute leukemia transformation, but this does not rule out a role for p53 deregulation in disease progression. Using Ba/F3-EPOR cells and ex vivo cultured CD34(+) cells from MPN patients, we demonstrate that expression of JAK2(V617F) affected the p53 response to DNA damage. We show that E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 accumulated in these cells, due to an increased translation of MDM2 mRNA. Accumulation of the La autoantigen, which interacts with MDM2 mRNA and promotes its translation, was responsible for the increase in MDM2 protein level and the subsequent degradation of p53 after DNA damage. Downregulation of La protein or cell treatment with nutlin-3, a MDM2 antagonist, restored the p53 response to DNA damage and the cytokine-dependence of Ba/F3-EPOR-JAK2(V617F) cells. Altogether, these data indicate that the JAK2(V617F) mutation affects p53 response to DNA damage through the upregulation of La antigen and accumulation of MDM2. They also suggest that p53 functional inactivation accounts for the cytokine hypersensitivity of JAK2(V617F) MPN and might have a role in disease progression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have shown previously that PI3K/Akt pathway is active after cell differentiation in HL60 cells. In the present study, we have investigated whether additional molecules, such as protein kinase C (PKC), are involved in the regulation, not only of telomerase, but also of leukemia cell differentiation. We show that PKC activates telomerase and is, itself, activated following VD3- or ATRA-induced differentiation of HL60 cells, as was observed for PI3K/Akt. To clarify the significance of PI3K/Akt and PKC pathway activation in leukemia cell differentiation, we examined the active proteins in either the downstream or upstream regulation of these pathways. In conjunction with the activation of Akt or PKC, mTOR and S6K were phosphorylated and the protein expression levels of Rictor were increased, compared with Raptor, following cell differentiation. Silencing by Rictor siRNA resulted in the attenuation of Akt phosphorylation on Ser473 and PKCα/βII phosphorylation, as well as the inhibition of Rictor itself, suggesting that Rictor is an upstream regulator of both Akt and PKC. In addition, in cells induced to differentiate by ATRA or VD3, Nitroblue-tetrazolium (NBT) reduction and esterase activity, were blocked either by LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, or by BIM, a PKC inhibitor, without affecting cell surface markers such as CD11b or CD14. Intriguingly, the silencing of Rictor by its siRNA also suppressed the reducing ability of NBT following VD3-induced cell differentiation. Taken together, our results show that Rictor associated with mTOR (mTORC2) regulates the activity of both Akt and PKC that are involved in cell functions such as NBT reduction and esterase activity induced by leukemia cell differentiation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TELIN, a newly developed catalytic blocker of telomerase, was assessed for its antiproliferative activity against human tumor cells in in vitro cell culture assay. TELlN suppressed cell proliferations of several blood tumor cells with telomere shortening and the appearance of apoptotic small cells, but did not affect hTERT mRNA expression, suggesting that TELIN catalytically inhibited telomerase activity within the cells. TELIN also suppressed cell proliferation of adherent tumor cells, whereas it did not affect the growth of normal fibroblasts. Delivery efficiency of TELIN was significantly different between several delivery carriers, and ß-cyclodextrin was found to be a suitable carrier.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical course of human papillomavirus (HPV) associated with Bowenoid papulosis and condyloma acuminatum of anogenital tumors are still unknown. Here we evaluated molecules that are relevant to cellular proliferation and regulation of apoptosis in HPV associated anogenital tumors.
We investigated the levels of telomerase activity, and inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) family (c-IAP1, c-IAP2, XIAP) and c-Myc mRNA expression levels in 20 specimens of Bowenoid papulosis and 36 specimens of condyloma acuminatum in anogenital areas. Overall, phosphorylated (p-) AKT, p-ribosomal protein S6 (S6) and p-4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) expression levels were examined by immunohistochemistry in anogenital tumors both with and without positive telomerase activity.
Positive telomerase activity was detected in 41.7% of Bowenoid papulosis and 27.3% of condyloma acuminatum compared to normal skin (p < 0.001). In contrast, the expression levels of Bowenoid papulosis indicated that c-IAP1, c-IAP2 and XIAP mRNA were significantly upregulated compared to those in both condyloma acuminatum samples (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.022, respectively) and normal skin (p < 0.001, p = 0.002, p = 0.034, respectively). Overall, 30% of Bowenoid papulosis with high risk HPV strongly promoted IAPs family and c-Myc but condyloma acuminatum did not significantly activate those genes. Immunohistochemically, p-Akt and p-S6 expressions were associated with positive telomerase activity but not with p-4EBP1 expression.
Combined analysis of the IAPs family, c-Myc mRNA expression, telomerase activity levels and p-Akt/p-S6 expressions may provide clinically relevant molecular markers in HPV associated anogenital tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We identify an autosomal mutation in the CSF3R gene in a family with a chronic neutrophilia. This T617N mutation energetically favors dimerization of the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) receptor transmembrane domain, and thus, strongly promotes constitutive activation of the receptor and hypersensitivity to G-CSF for proliferation and differentiation, which ultimately leads to chronic neutrophilia. Mutant hematopoietic stem cells yield a myeloproliferative-like disorder in xenotransplantation and syngenic mouse bone marrow engraftment assays. The survey of 12 affected individuals during three generations indicates that only one patient had a myelodysplastic syndrome. Our data thus indicate that mutations in the CSF3R gene can be responsible for hereditary neutrophilia mimicking a myeloproliferative disorder.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the level of telomerase activity (TA) in 17 specimens of non-genital Bowen's disease (BD) and in 14 specimens of skin without sun exposure (non-exposed skin) using a non-isotopic PCR-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay. Expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT; the catalytic subunit of telomerase) was also evaluated by immunochemistry in the non-genital BD tissues. Moderate to high levels of TA were detected in 41.2% of 17 non-genital BD specimens (P = 0.001). In contrast, TA was not evident in non-exposed skin. Recently, nucleolin was reported to be associated with hTERT, so we used this antibody instead of hTERT antibody. Immunohistochemistry showed that nucleolin expression was associated with high TA levels in non-genital BD. Our results also revealed differences of TA levels among non-genital BD specimens. High levels of TA in those specimens were not age related. Five out of 7 specimens (71.4%) with moderate to high TA levels were from sun-exposed sites, while the remaining 10 specimens with low levels of TA were from non-exposed sites. These results suggested that cellular DNA damage caused by ultraviolet irradiation might be associated with an increase of TA in non-genital BD. Among non-genital BD specimens, 4 out of 17 (23.5%) showed high levels of TA (median relative TA value: 79.8%; P = 0.003), which might be associated with immortalization or transformation to invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
No preview · Article · Mar 2009 · Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The JAK2(V617F) mutation is frequently observed in classical myeloproliferative disorders, and disease progression is associated with a biallelic acquisition of the mutation occurring by mitotic recombination. In this study, we examined whether JAK2 activation could lead to increased homologous recombination (HR) and genetic instability. In a Ba/F3 cell line expressing the erythropoietin (EPO) receptor, mutant JAK2(V617F) and, to a lesser extent, wild-type (wt) JAK2 induced an increase in HR activity in the presence of EPO without modifying nonhomologous end-joining efficiency. Moreover, a marked augmentation in HR activity was found in CD34(+)-derived cells isolated from patients with polycythemia vera or primitive myelofibrosis compared with control samples. This increase was associated with a spontaneous RAD51 foci formation. As a result, sister chromatid exchange was 50% augmented in JAK2(V617F) Ba/F3 cells compared with JAK2wt cells. Moreover, JAK2 activation increased centrosome and ploidy abnormalities. Finally, in JAK2(V617F) Ba/F3 cells, we found a 100-fold and 10-fold increase in mutagenesis at the HPRT and Na/K ATPase loci, respectively. Together, this work highlights a new molecular mechanism for HR regulation mediated by JAK2 and more efficiently by JAK2(V617F). Our study might provide some keys to understand how a single mutation can give rise to different pathologies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using three different differentiation agents (1alpha, 25 dihydroxyvitamin D3, all-trans-retinoic acid, and Am80), down-regulation of telomerase activity was found to be a common response during the monocytic or granulocytic differentiation of human acute myeloblastic leukemia cell line 60 (HL60) cells. Rapid down-regulation of telomerase transcription occurred during early differentiation of HL60 cells prior to G(1) arrest. Akt kinase activity was suppressed after 6 h of differentiation along with inhibition of telomerase activity, and the extent of the suppression that occurred while maintaining telomerase protein expression suggested the post-translational regulation of telomerase activity. Recombinant Akt dose-dependently increased telomerase activity, and telomerase was inhibited at the transcriptional and post-translational levels by LY294002, suggesting that PI-3K/Akt is one of the key signaling proteins involved in telomerase regulation. Each of the three differentiation agents caused a significant increase of signaling proteins (including Akt) at 3 days after the initiation of differentiation. Changes of acetyl-histone H4, which regulates transcription of the telomerase gene, were observed before the activation of Akt. This finding suggests that epigenetic control of telomerase transcription occurs before activation of Akt during the late stage of differentiation. These results indicate that telomerase activity is regulated by at least two mechanisms during granulocytic and monocytic differentiation, with one mechanism being transcriptional and the other being post-translational.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · Journal of Leukocyte Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe an 81-year-old Japanese woman who had a palm-sized, erythematous plaque with a nodular lesion on the lateral abdomen. The biopsy specimens taken from the erythematous plaque and reddish nodule show that bowenoid changes were present in the epidermis and epidermis to dermis, respectively. A sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) was performed with blue dye and radioisotope in her right groin region and two lymph nodes were found to be occupied by many atypical cells. The erythematous plaque with nodular lesion was completely removed with a 3-cm margin under general anesthesia, and complete regional lymph node dissection was also performed. In addition, high telomerase activity was seen in the erythema plaque while using a telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay. In conclusion, some instances of Bowen's disease might have high telomerase activity in the atypical cells and can progress to Bowen's carcinoma. The SNB was regarded as a useful method to detect early lymph node metastases in this case.
No preview · Article · Dec 2007 · The Journal of Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Telomerase is active in immature somatic cells, but not in differentiated cells. However, the regulation during cell differentiation is not well understood. In this study, a human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line (K562) was induced to differentiate into megakaryocytes by TPA, and erythroid by STI571. A human acute myeloblastic leukemia cell line (HL60) was also induced to differentiate into monocytes by TPA and VD3, and granulocyte by ATRA. TPA induced transient increase of telomerase activity (mainly nuclear fraction) during megakaryocytic differentiation, while the expression of hTERT decreased gradually throughout the same period. Pretreatment with PKC inhibitors inhibited the megakaryocytic differentiation, transient increase of telomerase activity, while recombinant PKC increased telomerase activity. ChIP assay resulted STAT3 and STAT5 dissociated from the hTERT promoter, indicating that STAT3 and STAT5 are one of the transcriptional regulators. These results suggest that telomerase activity is regulated by two mechanisms during megakaryocytic differentiation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Telomerase is active in immature somatic cells, but not in differentiated cells. However, the mechanism by which telomerase is regulated in relation to cell differentiation is not well understood. In this study, the human erythroid leukemia cell line K562 was induced to differentiate into megakaryocytes by TPA and into erythroid by STI571. The human acute myeloblastic leukemia cell line HL60 was also induced to differentiate into monocytes by TPA. Telomerase activity, the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase, hTERT, and the cell cycle were examined. TPA induced a transient increase in telomerase activity during the megakaryocytic differentiation while the message of hTERT decreased gradually throughout the same period. This suggests the existence of a regulatory mechanism other than transcription of hTERT. Cell cycle analysis revealed that cells in G(2)/M phase increased in number in accordance with the changes in telomerase activity. Pretreatment with PKC inhibitors inhibited the megakaryocytic differentiation, transient increase in telomerase activity, and G(2)/M arrest. These results suggest that PKC acts as a transient post-translational activator of telomerase during megakaryocytic differentiation.
No preview · Article · Mar 2004 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications