[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elisidepsin is a marine-derived anti-tumor agent with unique mechanism of action. It has been suggested to induce necrosis associated with severe membrane damage. Since indirect evidence points to the involvement of ErbB receptor tyrosine kinases and lipid rafts in the mechanism of action of elisidepsin, we investigated the effect of the drug on the distribution of ErbB proteins and systematically compared the elisidepsin sensitivity of cell lines overexpressing ErbB receptors. Stable expression of a single member of the ErbB family (ErbB1-3) or co-transfection of ErbB2 and ErbB3 did not modify the elisidepsin sensitivity of CHO and A431 cells. However, elisidepsin induced the redistribution of ErbB3 and two GPI-anchored proteins (transfected GPI-anchored eGFP and placental alkaline phosphatase) from the plasma membrane to intracellular vesicles without comparable effects on ErbB1 and ErbB2. Elisidepsin increased the binding of a conformational sensitive anti-ErbB3 antibody without modifying the binding of other ErbB2 or ErbB3 antibodies, and it decreased the homoassociation of both ErbB2 and ErbB3. We also found that elisidepsin decreased the fluorescence anisotropy of a membrane specific fluorescent probe and induced a blue shift in the emission spectrum of Laurdan pointing to significant changes in the order of the plasma membrane possibly associated with the formation of liquid ordered domains. Although the distribution of ErbB proteins is preferentially altered by elisidepsin, our data question their role in determining sensitivity to the drug. We assume that induction of liquid ordered domains is the primary action of elisidepsin leading to all the other observed changes.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · European journal of pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The intensity-based ratiometric FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) method is a powerful technique for following molecular interactions in living cells. Since it is not based on irreversibly destroying the donor or the acceptor fluorophores, the time course of changes in FRET efficiency values can be monitored by this method. ImageJ, a sophisticated software tool for many types of image processing allows users to extend it with programs for various purposes. Implementing intensity-based ratiometric FRET with ImageJ vastly enhances the applicability of the FRET method. We developed an efficient ImageJ plugin, RiFRET, which calculates FRET efficiency on a pixel-by-pixel basis from ratiometric FRET images. It allows the user to correct for channel cross-talk (bleed-through) and to calculate FRET from image stacks, i.e., from 3D data sets. Semiautomatic processing for larger datasets is also included in the program. Furthermore, several options for calibrating FRET efficiency calculations were tested and their applicability to various expression systems is discussed. Although the ratiometric FRET method is widely applied, our plugin is the first freely available software for evaluating such FRET data. The program is user friendly and provides reliable, standardized results.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PI4K230, an isoform of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, known primarily as a cytoplasmic membrane-bound enzyme, was detected recently also in the nucleolus of several cells. Here we provide mechanistic insight on the targeting function of its putative nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequences using molecular modeling, digitonin-permeabilized HeLa cells and binding to various importins. The synthetic sequence 916NFNHIHKRIRRVADKYLSG934 comprising a putative monopartite NLS (NLS1), targeted covalently bound fluorescent BSA to the nucleoplasm via classical importin α/β mechanism employing importins α1 and α3 but not α5. This transport was inhibited by wheat germ agglutinin and GTPγS. The sequence 1414SKKTNRGSQLHKYYMKRRTL1433, a putative bipartite NLS (NLS2) proved ineffective in nuclear targeting if conjugated to fluorescently labeled BSA. Nonetheless, NLS2 or either of its basic clusters directed to the nucleolus soybean trypsin inhibitor that can pass the nuclear pore complex passively; moreover, an expressed 58 kDa fragment of PI4K230 (AA1166–1667) comprising NLS2 was also imported into the nucleus by import factors of reticulocyte lysate or by importin α1/β or α3/β complexes and localized to the nucleolus. We conclude that the putative bipartite NLS itself is a nucleolar targeting signal, and for nuclear import PI4K230 requires a larger sequence around it or, alternatively, the monopartite NLS.
No preview · Article · Aug 2008 · Experimental Cell Research