Jacob Glower

North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota, United States

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Publications (9)4.8 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Similar to most biological studies, beef contamination classification studies using artificial neural networks are restricted to small datasets. This study evaluates multivariate normal (MVN) technique of synthetic sample generation on small datasets associated with Salmonella contamination in beef. Six experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of integrated sensor system towards identification of Salmonella contaminated beef packages. Pattern recognition involved using wavelet packet transform for feature extraction from sensor array responses and radial basis function network (RBFN) based classification of contaminated beef packages from uncontaminated packages. The MVN generated synthetic olfactory sensor signatures were used to train and test the RBFN classifiers. For the datasets analyzed in this study, genetic algorithm optimized RBF networks conferred average contamination test classification accuracies of 90.33% +/- 7.68% (mean +/- std. dev.) which were higher compared to the bootstrapped quadratic discriminant analysis based average accuracies. RBFN classifier based average overall classification accuracies of six synthetically generated datasets were in the range of 86.66% -98.89% with highest average overall classification accuracies of 98.89% +/- 1.92%. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past decade, researchers have shown significant advances in the area of radio frequency identification (RFID) and metamaterials. RFID is being applied to a wide spectrum of industries and metamaterial-based antennas are beginning to perform just as well as existing larger printed antennas. This paper presents two novel metamaterial-based antennas for passive ultra-high frequency (UHF) RFID tags. It is shown that by implementing omega-like elements and split-ring resonators into the design of an antenna for an UHF RFID tag, the overall size of the antenna can be significantly reduced to dimensions of less than 0.15λ 0 , while preserving the performance of the antenna.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The interaction between passive Low Frequency (LF) and Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) tags in a dual frequency Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tag is studied. This interaction is observed by building a dual frequency system from commercially available readers and experimentally determining the read range with the mutual coupling effects between the antennas. It is shown that by proper placement of the tags the individual performance of each tag can be preserved in the presence of mutual coupling.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Jul 2009
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    Benjamin D. Braaten · Michael Reich · Jacob Glower
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    ABSTRACT: A new planar meander-line antenna for passive UHF radio frequency identification (RFID) tags is presented. Specifically, a meander-line antenna is loaded periodically with coplanar waveguide (CPW) LC elements traditionally found in right/left-handed waveguide structures. It is shown that by using the antenna presented in this letter in a prototype passive UHF RFID tag, effective read ranges up to 4.87 m can be achieved. Many different dielectric substrates and CPW-LC load dimensions are investigated to illustrate how the input impedance, gain, and overall dimensions of the antenna are affected by these structural differences. It is shown that the overall dimension of the meander-line antenna can be reduced by slightly more than 18% with the introduction of the CPW-LC elements to the design. Several of the simulation results are validated by comparison with measurements.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2009 · IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
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    ABSTRACT: This paper developed three control schemes to coordinate maximum power extraction and voltage control for doubly fed induction generators wind turbines during wind fluctuation. Via PWM, the rotor-side converter can generate a controllable AC voltage with controllable magnitude and frequency. Based on PWM, control schemes: slip control, flux magnitude and angle (FMA) control and vector control are developed. Wind turbine aerodynamics are modeled in dynamic simulation and to obtain a lookup table for torque/power control. In slip control, the voltage is coordinated with torque via voltage/Hz type control. In FMA control, the inner feedback loops of rotor flux magnitude and angle are developed. Torque control loop is added outside the flux angle control loop while voltage control loop is added outside of the flux magnitude control loop. In vector control, the power control loop and voltage control loop are added as the outside control loops while the current control loops is designated as the inner control loops. The purpose of the voltage control is to keep a constant stator voltage, and the power/torque control is used to get maximum wind power under varying wind speeds. Dynamic performance and robustness of the three control schemes are analyzed via linear system analysis tools (Bode plots). Matlab-based time-domain simulations are performed to verify the analysis results and the proposed control schemes.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Dec 2008
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    ABSTRACT: A printed Rampart line antenna with a dielectric superstrate for passive radio frequency identification (RFID) tags is presented. A design process is outlined to determine the number of elements used in the rampart line antenna to achieve the required gain for the desired read range. An inductive loop is then added to the port to match the antenna with the passive tag circuitry. It is shown that a passive tag with a printed Rampart line antenna and a dielectric superstrate can achieve comparable read ranges to commercially available passive RFID tags.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · May 2008
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    ABSTRACT: A novel metal oxide based electronic nose system was designed and developed to detect Salmonella contamination in packaged meat (beef). This system contained an array of metal oxide detectors and custom made electronics for acquiring olfactory signature of the volatile organic compounds in the headspace of the meat packages produced by detector arrays. The acquired signals were processed using three wavelet packet transforms (WPT) for simultaneous noise reduction and compression. The coefficients of wavelet packets were used as features for developing statistical classification models using bootstrapped linear and quadratic discriminant analysis techniques. The average total classification accuracies for classifying Salmonella contaminated meat samples were higher than 82% with highest average accuracy of about 88%.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Mar 2008
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    ABSTRACT: In case of meat contamination studies, the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) generated by microorganisms provide important information about the presence of pathogenic bacteria in meat. Our current meat contaminations experiments have used headspace output of meat packages at 24 h intervals. However, it is also important to observe the VOC pattern change at every 3-4 h interval. This paper describes a specially designed automated headspace sampler to extract headspace from control and Salmonella spiked meat at user defined time intervals (4h, 8h and 12h) under anaerobic conditions. The collected headspace samples were analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS) and TF-module electronic nose sensor.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jan 2007
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    ABSTRACT: The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) generated by microorganisms provide important information about the presence of bacteria in meat and their proliferation over time. Our previous meat spoilage and contamination experiments have used headspace of meat packages at every 24 h interval. Distribution of VOCs at different time scale (< 24 h) of packaged meat (beef) under aerobic conditions have been studied and reported here. The headspace was acquired using an automated headspace sampling system at 0, 4, 8 and 12 h (4 h intervals) from the meat samples that was spoiled at room temperature. The acquired headspace samples were analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS). The temporal analysis revealed that the compounds such as carbon dioxide, acetone, acetic acid, 2-butanone-3-OH, toluene, N,N-dimethyl-formamide and hexanal were present thought-out the meat spoilage period. The microbial analysis revealed that microflora such as Pseudomonas, lactic acid bacteria and enterobacteroasese were found to be growing throughout the spoilage period.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2007