D. Kocevski

NASA, Вашингтон, West Virginia, United States

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Publications (263)1194.92 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a study investigating the sizes and morphologies of redshift 4 < z < 8 galaxies in the CANDELS (Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey) GOODS-S (Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey southern field), HUDF (Hubble Ultra-Deep Field) and HUDF parallel fields. Based on non-parametric measurements and incorporating a careful treatment of measurement biases, we quantify the typical size of galaxies at each redshift as the peak of the lognormal size distribution, rather than the arithmetic mean size. Parametrizing the evolution of galaxy half-light radius as r50 ∝ (1 + z)n, we find n = −0.20 ± 0.26 at bright UV-luminosities (0.3L*(z = 3) < L < L*) and n = −0.47 ± 0.62 at faint luminosities (0.12L* < L < 0.3L*). Furthermore, simulations based on artificially redshifting our z ∼ 4 galaxy sample show that we cannot reject the null hypothesis of no size evolution. We show that this result is caused by a combination of the size-dependent completeness of high-redshift galaxy samples and the underestimation of the sizes of the largest galaxies at a given epoch. To explore the evolution of galaxy morphology we first compare asymmetry measurements to those from a large sample of simulated single Sérsic profiles, in order to robustly categorize galaxies as either ‘smooth’ or ‘disturbed’. Comparing the disturbed fraction amongst bright (M1500 ≤ −20) galaxies at each redshift to that obtained by artificially redshifting our z ∼ 4 galaxy sample, while carefully matching the size and UV-luminosity distributions, we find no clear evidence for evolution in galaxy morphology over the redshift interval 4 < z < 8. Therefore, based on our results, a bright (M1500 ≤ −20) galaxy at z ∼ 6 is no more likely to be measured as ‘disturbed’ than a comparable galaxy at z ∼ 4, given the current observational constraints.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2016 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results from a study of the morphologies of moderate luminosity X-ray selected AGN host galaxies in comparison to a carefully mass-matched control sample at 0.5 < z < 3 in the CANDELS GOODS-S field. We apply a multi-wavelength morphological decomposition analysis to these two samples and report on the differences between the morphologies as fitted from single Sersic and multiple Sersic models, and models which include an additional nuclear point-source component. Thus, we are able to compare the widely adopted single Sersic fits from previous studies to the results from a full morphological decomposition, and address the issue of how biased the inferred properties of AGN hosts are by a potential nuclear contribution from the AGN itself. We find that the AGN hosts are mixed systems which have higher bulge fractions than the control sample in our highest redshift bins at the >99.7% confidence level, according to all model fits even those which adopt a point-source component. This serves to alleviate concerns that previous, purely single Sersic, analyses of AGN hosts could have been spuriously biased towards higher bulge fractions. This dataset allows us to further probe the physical nature of these point-source components; we find no strong correlation between the point-source component and AGN activity, and that these point-source components are best modelled physically by nuclear starbursts. Our analysis of the bulge and disk fractions of these AGN hosts in comparison to a mass-matched control sample reveals a similar morphological evolutionary track for both the active and non-active populations, providing further evidence in favour of a model where AGN activity is triggered by secular processes.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present a catalog of visual like H-band morphologies of $\sim50.000$ galaxies ($H_{f160w}<24.5$) in the 5 CANDELS fields (GOODS-N, GOODS-S, UDS, EGS and COSMOS). Morphologies are estimated with Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNets). The median redshift of the sample is $ \sim1.25$. The algorithm is trained on GOODS-S for which visual classifications are publicly available and then applied to the other 4 fields. Following the CANDELS main morphology classification scheme, our model retrieves the probabilities for each galaxy of having a spheroid, a disk, presenting an irregularity, being compact or point source and being unclassifiable. ConvNets are able to predict the fractions of votes given a galaxy image with zero bias and $\sim10\%$ scatter. The fraction of miss-classifications is less than $1\%$. Our classification scheme represents a major improvement with respect to CAS (Concentration-Asymmetry-Smoothness)-based methods, which hit a $20-30\%$ contamination limit at high z. The catalog is released with the present paper via the $\href{http://rainbowx.fis.ucm.es/Rainbow_navigator_public}{Rainbow\,database}$
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
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    ABSTRACT: We derive the total cold gas, atomic hydrogen, and molecular gas masses of approximately 24 000 galaxies covering four decades in stellar mass at redshifts 0.5 < z < 3.0, taken from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey survey. Our inferences are based on the inversion of a molecular hydrogen based star formation law, coupled with a prescription to separate atomic and molecular gas. We find that: (1) there is an increasing trend between the inferred cold gas (H i and H2), H i, and H2 mass and the stellar mass of galaxies down to stellar masses of 108 M⊙ already in place at z = 3; (2) the molecular fractions of cold gas increase with increasing stellar mass and look-back time; (3) there is hardly any evolution in the mean H i content of galaxies at fixed stellar mass; (4) the cold gas fraction and relative amount of molecular hydrogen in galaxies decrease at a relatively constant rate with time, independent of stellar mass; (5) there is a large population of low stellar mass galaxies dominated by atomic gas. These galaxies are very gas rich, but only a minor fraction of their gas is molecular; 6) the ratio between star formation rate (SFR) and inferred total cold gas mass (H i + H2) of galaxies (i.e. star formation efficiency; SFE) increases with star formation at fixed stellar masses. Due to its simplicity, the presented approach is valuable to assess the impact of selection biases on small samples of directly observed gas masses and to extend scaling relations down to stellar mass ranges and redshifts that are currently difficult to probe with direct measurements of gas content.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We examine the host morphologies of heavily obscured active galactic nuclei (AGN) at $z\sim1$ to test whether obscured supermassive black hole growth at this epoch is preferentially linked to galaxy mergers. Our sample consists of 154 obscured AGN with $N_{\rm H}>10^{23.5}$ cm$^{-2}$ and $z<1.5$. Using visual classifications, we compare the morphologies of these AGN to control samples of moderately obscured ($10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$ $<N_{\rm H}< 10^{23.5}$ cm$^{-2}$) and unobscured ($N_{\rm H}<10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$) AGN. These control AGN are matched in redshift and intrinsic X-ray luminosity to our heavily obscured AGN. We find that heavily obscured AGN at z~1 are twice as likely to be hosted by late-type galaxies relative to unobscured AGN ($65.3^{+4.1}_{-4.6}\%$ vs $34.5^{+2.9}_{-2.7}\%$) and three times as likely to exhibit merger or interaction signatures ($21.5^{+4.2}_{-3.3}\%$ vs $7.8^{+1.9}_{-1.3}\%$). The increased merger fraction is significant at the 3.8$\sigma$ level. We also find that the incidence of point-like morphologies is inversely proportional to obscuration. If we exclude all point sources and consider only extended hosts, we find the correlation between merger fraction and obscuration is still evident, however at a reduced statistical significance ($2.5\sigma$). The fact that we observe a different disk/spheroid fraction versus obscuration indicates that viewing angle cannot be the only thing differentiating our three AGN samples, as a simple unification model would suggest. The increased fraction of disturbed morphologies with obscuration supports an evolutionary scenario, in which Compton-thick AGN are a distinct phase of obscured SMBH growth following a merger/interaction event. Our findings also suggest that some of the merger-triggered SMBH growth predicted by recent AGN fueling models may be hidden among the heavily obscured, Compton-thick population.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The spatial fluctuations of the extragalactic background light trace the total emission from all stars and galaxies in the Universe. A multiwavelength study can be used to measure the integrated emission from first galaxies during reionization when the Universe was about 500 million years old. Here we report arcmin-scale spatial fluctuations in one of the deepest sky surveys with the Hubble Space Telescope in five wavebands between 0.6 and 1.6 μm. We model-fit the angular power spectra of intensity fluctuation measurements to find the ultraviolet luminosity density of galaxies at redshifts greater than 8 to be . This level of integrated light emission allows for a significant surface density of fainter primeval galaxies that are below the point-source detection level in current surveys.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Nature Communications
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    ABSTRACT: We study the evolution of the core (r<1 kpc) and effective (r<r_e) stellar-mass surface densities, in star-forming and quiescent galaxies. Since z=3, both populations occupy distinct, linear relations in log(Sigma_e) and log(Sigma_1) vs. log(M). These structural relations exhibit slopes and scatter that remain almost constant with time while their normalizations decline. For SFGs, the normalization declines by less than a factor of 2 from z=3, in both Sigma_e and Sigma_1. Such mild declines suggest that SFGs build dense cores by growing along these relations. We define this evolution as the structural main sequence (Sigma-MS). Quiescent galaxies follow different relations (Sigma^Q_e, Sigma^Q_1) off the Sigma-MS by having higher densities than SFGs of the same mass and redshift. The normalization of Sigma^Q_e declines by a factor of 10 since z=3, but only a factor of 2 in Sigma^Q_1. Thus, the common denominator for quiescent galaxies at all redshifts is the presence of a dense stellar core, and the formation of such cores in SFGs is the main requirement for quenching. Expressed in 2D as deviations off the SFR-MS and off Sigma^Q_1 at each redshift, the distribution of massive galaxies forms a universal, L-shaped sequence that relates two fundamental physical processes: compaction and quenching. Compaction is a process of substantial core-growth in SFGs relative to that in the Sigma-MS. This process increases the core-to-total mass and Sersic index, thereby, making compact SFGs. Quenching occurs once compact SFGs reach a maximum central density above Sigma^Q_1 > 9.5 M_sun/kpc^2. This threshold provides the most effective selection criterion to identify the star-forming progenitors of quiescent galaxies at all redshifts.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Supernovae (SNe) exploding in a dense circumstellar medium (CSM) are hypothesized to accelerate cosmic rays in collisionless shocks and emit GeV γ-rays and TeV neutrinos on a timescale of several months. We perform the first systematic search for γ-ray emission in Fermi Large Area Telescope data in the energy range from to from the ensemble of 147 SNe Type IIn exploding in a dense CSM. We search for a γ-ray excess at each SNe location in a one-year time window. In order to enhance a possible weak signal, we simultaneously study the closest and optically brightest sources of our sample in a joint-likelihood analysis in three different time windows (1 year, 6 months, and 3 months). For the most promising source of the sample, SN 2010jl (PTF 10aaxf), we repeat the analysis with an extended time window lasting 4.5 years. We do not find a significant excess in γ-rays for any individual source nor for the combined sources and provide model-independent flux upper limits for both cases. In addition, we derive limits on the γ-ray luminosity and the ratio of γ-ray-to-optical luminosity ratio as a function of the index of the proton injection spectrum assuming a generic γ-ray production model. Furthermore, we present detailed flux predictions based on multi-wavelength observations and the corresponding flux upper limit at a 95% confidence level (CL) for the source SN 2010jl (PTF 10aaxf). © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we perform a comprehensive study of the main sources of random and systematic errors in stellar mass measurement for galaxies using their Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs). We use mock galaxy catalogs with simulated multi-waveband photometry (from U-band to mid-infrared) and known redshift, stellar mass, age and extinction for individual galaxies. Given different parameters affecting stellar mass measurement (photometric S/N ratios, SED fitting errors, systematic effects, the inherent degeneracies and correlated errors), we formulated different simulated galaxy catalogs to quantify these effects individually. We studied the sensitivity of stellar mass estimates to the codes/methods used, population synthesis models, star formation histories, nebular emission line contributions, photometric uncertainties, extinction and age. For each simulated galaxy, the difference between the input stellar masses and those estimated using different simulation catalogs, $\Delta\log(M)$, was calculated and used to identify the most fundamental parameters affecting stellar masses. We measured different components of the error budget, with the results listed as follows: (1). no significant bias was found among different codes/methods, with all having comparable scatter; (2). A source of error is found to be due to photometric uncertainties and low resolution in age and extinction grids; (3). The median of stellar masses among different methods provides a stable measure of the mass associated with any given galaxy; (4). The deviations in stellar mass strongly correlate with those in age, with a weaker correlation with extinction; (5). the scatter in the stellar masses due to free parameters are quantified, with the sensitivity of the stellar mass to both the population synthesis codes and inclusion of nebular emission lines studied.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present the infrared (IR) and X-ray properties of a sample of 33 mid-IR luminous quasars (νL6 μm ≥ 6 × 1044 erg s−1) at redshift z ≈ 1–3, identified through detailed spectral energy distribution analyses of distant star-forming galaxies, using the deepest IR data from Spitzer and Herschel in the GOODS–Herschel fields. The aim is to constrain the fraction of obscured, and Compton-thick (CT, NH > 1.5 × 1024 cm−2) quasars at the peak era of nuclear and star formation activities. Despite being very bright in the mid-IR band, ≈30 per cent of these quasars are not detected in the extremely deep 2 and 4 Ms Chandra X-ray data available in these fields. X-ray spectral analysis of the detected sources reveals that the majority (≈67 per cent) are obscured by column densities NH > 1022 cm−2; this fraction reaches ≈80 per cent when including the X-ray-undetected sources (9 out of 33), which are likely to be the most heavily obscured, CT quasars. We constrain the fraction of CT quasars in our sample to be ≈24–48 per cent, and their space density to be Φ = (6.7 ± 2.2) × 10−6 Mpc−3. From the investigation of the quasar host galaxies in terms of star formation rates (SFRs) and morphological distortions, as a sign of galaxy mergers/interactions, we do not find any direct relation between SFRs and quasar luminosity or X-ray obscuration. On the other hand, there is tentative evidence that the most heavily obscured quasars have, on average, more disturbed morphologies than the unobscured/moderately obscured quasar hosts, which preferentially live in undisturbed systems. However, the fraction of quasars with disturbed morphology amongst the whole sample is ≈40 per cent, suggesting that galaxy mergers are not the main fuelling mechanism of quasars at z ≈ 2.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: To understand the processes driving galaxy morphology and star formation, we need a robust method to classify the structural elements of galaxies. Important but rare and subtle features may be missed by traditional spiral, elliptical, irregular or S\'ersic bulge/disc classifications. To overcome this limitation, we use a principal component analysis of non-parametric morphological indicators (concentration, asymmetry, Gini coefficient, $M_{20}$, multi-mode, intensity and deviation) measured at rest-frame $B$-band (corresponding to HST/WFC3 F125W at 1.4 $< z <$ 2) to trace the natural distribution of massive ($>10^{10} M_{\odot}$) galaxy morphologies. Principal component analysis (PCA) quantifies the correlations between these morphological indicators and determines the relative importance of each. The first three principal components (PCs) capture $\sim$75 per cent of the variance inherent to our sample. We interpret the first principal component (PC) as bulge strength, the second PC as dominated by concentration and the third PC as dominated by asymmetry. Both PC1 and PC2 correlate with the visual appearance of a central bulge and predict galaxy quiescence. We divide the PCA results into 10 groups using an agglomerative hierarchical clustering method. Unlike S\'ersic, this classification scheme separates quenched compact galaxies from larger, smooth proto-elliptical systems, and star-forming disc-dominated clumpy galaxies from star-forming bulge-dominated asymmetric galaxies. Distinguishing between these galaxy structural types in a quantitative manner is an important step towards understanding the connections between morphology, galaxy assembly and star-formation.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present Keck-I MOSFIRE spectroscopy in the Y and H bands of GDN-8231, a massive, compact, star-forming galaxy (SFG) at a redshift $z\sim1.7$. Its spectrum reveals both H$_{\alpha}$ and [NII] emission lines and strong Balmer absorption lines. The H$_{\alpha}$ and Spitzer MIPS 24 $\mu$m fluxes are both weak, thus indicating a low star formation rate of SFR $\lesssim5-10$ M$_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$. This, added to a relatively young age of $\sim700$ Myr measured from the absorption lines, provides the first direct evidence for a distant galaxy being caught in the act of rapidly shutting down its star formation. Such quenching allows GDN-8231 to become a compact, quiescent galaxy, similar to 3 other galaxies in our sample, by $z\sim1.5$. Moreover, the color profile of GDN-8231 shows a bluer center, consistent with the predictions of recent simulations for an early phase of inside-out quenching. Its line-of-sight velocity dispersion for the gas, $\sigma^{\rm{gas}}_{\!_{\rm LOS}}=127\pm32$ km s$^{-1}$, is nearly 40% smaller than that of its stars, $\sigma^{\star}_{\!_{\rm LOS}}=215\pm35$ km s$^{-1}$. High-resolution hydro-simulations of galaxies explain such apparently colder gas kinematics of up to a factor of $\sim1.5$ with rotating disks being viewed at different inclinations and/or centrally concentrated star-forming regions. A clear prediction is that their compact, quiescent descendants preserve some remnant rotation from their star-forming progenitors.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We have conducted a detailed object-by-object study of a mass-complete (M*>10^11 M_sun) sample of 56 galaxies at 1.4 < z < 2 in the GOODS-South field, showing that an accurate de-blending in MIPS/24um images is essential to properly assign to each galaxy its own star formation rate (SFR), whereas an automatic procedure often fails. This applies especially to galaxies with SFRs below the Main Sequence (MS) value, which may be in their quenching phase. After that, the sample splits evenly between galaxies forming stars within a factor of 4 of the MS rate (~45%), and sub-MS galaxies with SFRs ~10-1000 times smaller (~55%). We did not find a well defined class of intermediate, transient objects below the MS, suggesting that the conversion of a massive MS galaxy into a quenched remnant may take a relatively short time (<1 Gyr), though a larger sample should be analyzed in the same way to set precise limits on the quenching timescale. X-ray detected AGNs represent a ~30% fraction of the sample, and are found among both star-forming and quenched galaxies. The morphological analysis revealed that ~50% of our massive objects are bulge-dominated, and almost all MS galaxies with a relevant bulge component host an AGN. We also found sub-MS SFRs in many bulge-dominated systems, providing support to the notion that bulge growth, AGN activity and quenching of star formation are closely related to each other.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We use data from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey to study how the spatial variation in the stellar populations of galaxies relate to the formation of galaxies at $1.5 < z < 3.5$. We use the Internal Color Dispersion (ICD), measured between the rest-frame UV and optical bands, which is sensitive to age (and dust attenuation) variations in stellar populations. The ICD shows a relation with the stellar masses and morphologies of the galaxies. Galaxies with the largest variation in their stellar populations as evidenced by high ICD have disk-dominated morphologies (with S\'{e}rsic indexes $< 2$) and stellar masses between $10 < \mathrm{Log~M/ M_\odot}< 11$. There is a marked decrease in the ICD as the stellar mass and/or the S\'ersic index increases. By studying the relations between the ICD and other galaxy properties including sizes, total colors, star-formation rate, and dust attenuation, we conclude that the largest variations in stellar populations occur in galaxies where the light from newly, high star-forming clumps contrasts older stellar disk populations. This phase reaches a peak for galaxies only with a specific stellar mass range, $10 < \mathrm{Log~M/ M_\odot} < 11$, and prior to the formation of a substantial bulge/spheroid. In contrast, galaxies at higher or lower stellar masses, and/or higher S\'{e}rsic index ($n > 2$) show reduced ICD values, implying a greater homogeneity of their stellar populations. This indicates that if a galaxy is to have both a quiescent bulge along with a star forming disk, typical of Hubble Sequence galaxies, this is most common for stellar masses $10 < \mathrm{Log~M/M_\odot} < 11$ and when the bulge component remains relatively small ($n<2$).
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We combine HST/WFC3 imaging and G141 grism observations from the CANDELS and 3D-HST surveys to produce a catalog of grism spectroscopic redshifts for galaxies in the CANDELS/GOODS-South field. The WFC3/G141 grism spectra cover a wavelength range of 1.1<lambda<1.7 microns with a resolving power of R~130 for point sources, thus providing rest-frame optical spectra for galaxies out to z~3.5. The catalog is selected in the H-band (F160W) and includes both galaxies with and without previously published spectroscopic redshifts. Grism spectra are extracted for all H-band detected galaxies with H<24 and a CANDELS photometric redshift z_phot > 0.6. The resulting spectra are visually inspected to identify emission lines and redshifts are determined using cross-correlation with empirical spectral templates. To establish the accuracy of our redshifts, we compare our results against high-quality spectroscopic redshifts from the literature. Using a sample of 411 control galaxies, this analysis yields a precision of sigma_NMAD=0.0028 for the grism-derived redshifts, which is consistent with the accuracy reported by the 3D-HST team. Our final catalog covers an area of 153 square arcmin and contains 1019 redshifts for galaxies in GOODS-S. Roughly 60% (608/1019) of these redshifts are for galaxies with no previously published spectroscopic redshift. These new redshifts span a range of 0.677 < z < 3.456 and have a median redshift of z=1.282. The catalog contains a total of 234 new redshifts for galaxies at z>1.5. In addition, we present 20 galaxy pair candidates identified for the first time using the grism redshifts in our catalog, including four new galaxy pairs at z~2, nearly doubling the number of such pairs previously identified.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · The Astronomical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: In order to derive the AGN contribution to the cosmological ionizing emissivity we have selected faint AGN candidates at $z>4$ in the CANDELS GOODS-South field which is one of the deepest fields with extensive multiwavelength coverage from Chandra, HST, Spitzer and various groundbased telescopes. We have adopted a relatively novel criterion. As a first step high redshift galaxies are selected in the NIR $H$ band down to very faint levels ($H\leq27$) using reliable photometric redshifts. This corresponds at $z>4$ to a selection criterion based on the galaxy rest-frame UV flux. AGN candidates are then picked up from this parent sample if they show X-ray fluxes above a threshold of $F_X\sim 1.5\times 10^{-17}$ cgs (0.5-2 keV). We have found 22 AGN candidates at $z>4$ and we have derived the first estimate of the UV luminosity function in the redshift interval $4<z<6.5$ and absolute magnitude interval $-22.5\lesssim M_{1450} \lesssim -18.5$ typical of local Seyfert galaxies. The faint end of the derived luminosity function is about two/four magnitudes fainter at $z\sim 4-6$ than that derived from previous UV surveys. We have then estimated ionizing emissivities and hydrogen photoionization rates in the same redshift interval under reasonable assumptions and after discussion of possible caveats, the most important being the large uncertainties involved in the estimate of photometric redshift for sources with featureless, almost power-law SEDs and/or low average escape fraction of ionizing photons from the AGN host galaxies. We argue that, under reasonable evaluations of possible biases, the probed AGN population can produce at $z=4-6.5$ photoionization rates consistent with that required to keep highly ionized the intergalactic medium observed in the Lyman-$\alpha$ forest of high redshift QSO spectra, providing an important contribution to the cosmic reionization.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We constrain the deviation of adiabatic evolution of the Universe using the data on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropies measured by the Planck satellite and a sample of 481 X-ray selected clusters with spectroscopically measured redshifts. To avoid antenna beam effects, we bring all the maps to the same resolution. We use a CMB template to subtract the cosmo-logical signal while preserving the Thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (TSZ) anisotropies; next, we remove galactic foreground emissions around each cluster and we mask out all known point sources. If the CMB black-body temperature scales with redshift as T (z) = T 0 (1 + z) 1−α , we constrain deviations of adiabatic evolution to be α = −0.007 ± 0.013, consistent with the temperature-redshift relation of the standard cosmological model. This result could suffer from a potential bias associated with the CMB template, that we quantify it to be less than −0.02, but is free from those biases associated with using TSZ selected clusters; it represents the best constraint to date of the temperature-redshift relation of the Big-Bang model, confirming previous results.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present the public release of the stellar mass catalogs for the GOODS-S and UDS fields obtained using some of the deepest near-IR images available, achieved as part of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) project. We combine the effort from ten different teams, who computed the stellar masses using the same photometry and the same redshifts. Each team adopted their preferred fitting code, assumptions, priors, and parameter grid. The combination of results using the same underlying stellar isochrones reduces the systematics associated with the fitting code and other choices. Thanks to the availability of different estimates, we can test the effect of some specific parameters and assumptions on the stellar mass estimate. The choice of the stellar isochrone library turns out to have the largest effect on the galaxy stellar mass estimates, resulting in the largest distributions around the median value (with a semi interquartile range larger than 0.1 dex). On the other hand, for most galaxies, the stellar mass estimates are relatively insensitive to the different parameterizations of the star formation history. The inclusion of nebular emission in the model spectra does not have a significant impact for the majority of galaxies (less than a factor of 2 for ~80% of the sample). Nevertheless, the stellar mass for the subsample of young galaxies (age < 100 Myr), especially in particular redshift ranges (e.g., 2.2 < z < 2.4, 3.2 < z < 3.6, and 5.5 < z < 6.5), can be seriously overestimated (by up to a factor of 10 for < 20 Myr sources) if nebular contribution is ignored.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Galaxies with stellar masses near M* contain the majority of stellar mass in the universe, and are therefore of special interest in the study of galaxy evolution. The Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31) have present day stellar masses near M*, at 5x10^10 Msol (MW-mass) and 10^11 Msol (M31-mass). We study the typical progenitors of these galaxies using ZFOURGE, a deep medium-band near-IR imaging survey, which is sensitive to the progenitors of these galaxies out to z~3. We use abundance-matching techniques to identify the main progenitors of these galaxies at higher redshifts. We measure the evolution in the stellar mass, rest-frame colors, morphologies, far-IR luminosities, and star-formation rates combining our deep multiwavelength imaging with near-IR HST imaging from CANDELS, and far-IR imaging from GOODS-H and CANDELS-H. The typical MW-mass and M31-mass progenitors passed through the same evolution stages, evolving from blue, star-forming disk galaxies at the earliest stages, to redder dust-obscured IR-luminous galaxies in intermediate stages, and to red, more quiescent galaxies at their latest stages. The progenitors of the MW-mass galaxies reached each evolutionary stage at later times (lower redshifts) and with stellar masses that are a factor of 2-3 lower than the progenitors of the M31-mass galaxies. The process driving this evolution, including the suppression of star-formation in present-day M* galaxies requires an evolving stellar-mass/halo-mass ratio and/or evolving halo-mass threshold for quiescent galaxies. The effective size and star-formation rates imply that the baryonic cold-gas fractions drop as galaxies evolve from high redshift to z~0 and are strongly anticorrelated with an increase in the S\'ersic index. Therefore, the growth of galaxy bulges in M* galaxies corresponds to a rapid decline in the galaxy gas fractions and/or a decrease in the star-formation efficiency.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) at high-z provides key information on star-formation history and mass assembly in the young Universe. We aimed to use the unique combination of deep optical/NIR/MIR imaging provided by HST, Spitzer and the VLT in the CANDELS-UDS, GOODS-South, and HUDF fields to determine the GSMF over the redshift range 3.5<z<7.5. We utilised the HST WFC3/IR NIR imaging from CANDELS and HUDF09, reaching H~27-28.5 over a total area of 369 arcmin2, in combination with associated deep HST ACS optical data, deep Spitzer IRAC imaging from the SEDS programme, and deep Y and K-band VLT Hawk-I images from the HUGS programme, to select a galaxy sample with high-quality photometric redshifts. These have been calibrated with more than 150 spectroscopic redshifts in the range 3.5<z<7.5, resulting in an overall precision of sigma_z/(1+z)~0.037. We have determined the low-mass end of the high-z GSMF with unprecedented precision, reaching down to masses as low as M*~10^9 Msun at z=4 and ~6x10^9 Msun at z=7. We find that the GSMF at 3.5<z<7.5 depends only slightly on the recipes adopted to measure the stellar masses, namely the photo-z, the SFHs, the nebular contribution or the presence of AGN on the parent sample. The low-mass end of the GSMF is steeper than has been found at lower redshifts, but appears to be unchanged over the redshift range probed here. Our results are very different from previous GSMF estimates based on converting UV galaxy luminosity functions into mass functions via tight M/L relations. Integrating our evolving GSMF over mass, we find that the growth of stellar mass density is barely consistent with the time-integral of the SFR density over cosmic time at z>4. These results confirm the unique synergy of the CANDELS+HUDF, HUGS, and SEDS surveys for the discovery and study of moderate/low-mass galaxies at high redshifts.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,194.92 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014-2015
    • NASA
      Вашингтон, West Virginia, United States
    • Colby College
      WVL, Maine, United States
  • 2011-2015
    • University of Kentucky
      • Department of Physics & Astronomy
      Lexington, Kentucky, United States
  • 2012-2014
    • University of California Observatories
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
  • 2009-2014
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Physics
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 2013
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2012-2013
    • University of Nottingham
      • • School of Physics and Astronomy
      • • Centre for Astronomy and Particle Theory
      Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011-2013
    • University of California, Santa Cruz
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
  • 2007-2012
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Physics
      Davis, California, United States
  • 2006-2012
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Astronomy
      Berkeley, California, United States