[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is an intercellular signaling lipid that regulates multiple cellular functions, acting through specific G-protein coupled receptors (LPA1-6). Our previous studies using viable Malaga variant maLPA1-null mice demonstrated the requirement of the LPA1 receptor for normal proliferation, differentiation, and survival of the neuronal precursors. In the cerebral cortex LPA1 is expressed extensively in differentiating oligodendrocytes, in parallel with myelination. Although exogenous LPA-induced effects have been investigated in myelinating cells, the in vivo contribution of LPA1 to normal myelination remains to be demonstrated. This study identified a relevant in vivo role for LPA1 as a regulator of cortical myelination. Immunochemical analysis in adult maLPA1-null mice demonstrated a reduction in the steady-state levels of the myelin proteins MBP, PLP/DM20, and CNPase in the cerebral cortex. The myelin defects were confirmed using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Stereological analysis limited the defects to adult differentiating oligodendrocytes, without variation in the NG2(+) precursor cells. Finally, a possible mechanism involving oligodendrocyte survival was demonstrated by the impaired intracellular transport of the PLP/DM20 myelin protein which was accompanied by cellular loss, suggesting stress-induced apoptosis. These findings describe a previously uncharacterized in vivo functional role for LPA1 in the regulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination in the CNS, underlining the importance of the maLPA1-null mouse as a model for the study of demyelinating diseases.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Brain Structure and Function
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a lipid mediator enriched in serum, stimulates cell migration, proliferation and other functions in many cell types. LPA acts on six known G protein-coupled receptors, termed LPA(1-6), showing both overlapping and distinct signaling properties. Here we show that, unexpectedly, LPA and serum almost completely inhibit the transwell migration of B16 melanoma cells, with alkyl-LPA(18:1) being 10-fold more potent than acyl-LPA(18:1). The anti-migratory response to LPA is highly polarized and dependent on protein kinase A (PKA) but not Rho kinase activity; it is associated with a rapid increase in intracellular cAMP levels and PIP3 depletion from the plasma membrane. B16 cells express LPA(2), LPA(5) and LPA(6) receptors. We show that LPA-induced chemorepulsion is mediated specifically by the alkyl-LPA-preferring LPA(5) receptor (GPR92), which raises intracellular cAMP via a noncanonical pathway. Our results define LPA(5) as an anti-migratory receptor and they implicate the cAMP-PKA pathway, along with reduced PIP3 signaling, as an effector of chemorepulsion in B16 melanoma cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a new, intercellular signalling molecule in the brain that has an important role in adult hippocampal plasticity. Mice lacking the LPA(1) receptor exhibit motor, emotional and cognitive alterations. However, the potential relationship among these concomitant impairments was unclear. Wild-type and maLPA(1)-null mice were tested on the hole-board for habituation and spatial learning. MaLPA(1)-null mice exhibited reduced exploration in a novel context and a defective intersession habituation that also revealed increased anxiety-like behaviour throughout the hole-board testing. In regard to spatial memory, maLPA(1) nulls failed to reach the controls' performance at the end of the reference memory task. Moreover, their defective working memory on the first training day suggested a delayed acquisition of the task's working memory rule, which is also a long term memory component. The temporal interval between trials and the task's difficulty may explain some of the deficits found in these mice. Principal components analysis revealed that alterations found in each behavioural dimension were independent. Therefore, exploratory and emotional impairments did not account for the cognitive deficits that may be attributed to maLPA(1) nulls' hippocampal malfunction.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2010 · Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has emerged as a new regulatory molecule in the brain. Recently, some studies have shown a role for this molecule and its LPA(1) receptor in the regulation of plasticity and neurogenesis in the adult brain. However, no systematic studies have been conducted to investigate whether the LPA(1) receptor is involved in behavior. In this study, we studied the phenotype of maLPA(1)-null mice, which bear a targeted deletion at the lpa(1) locus, in a battery of tests examining neurologic performance, habituation in exploratory behavior in response to low and mild anxiety environments and spatial memory. MaLPA(1)-null mutants showed deficits in both olfaction and somesthesis, but not in retinal or auditory functions. Sensorimotor co-ordination was impaired only in the equilibrium and grasping reflexes. The mice also showed impairments in neuromuscular strength and analgesic response. No additional differences were observed in the rest of the tests used to study sensoriomotor orientation, limb reflexes and co-ordinated limb use. At behavioral level, maLPA(1)-null mice showed an impaired exploration in the open field and increased anxiety-like response when exposed to the elevated plus maze. Furthermore, the mice exhibit impaired spatial memory retention and reduced use of spatial strategies in the Morris water maze. We propose that the LPA(1) receptor may play a major role in both spatial memory and response to anxiety-like conditions.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · Genes Brain and Behavior
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurogenesis persists in certain regions of the adult brain including the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus wherein its regulation is essential, particularly in relation to learning, stress and modulation of mood. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is an extracellular signaling phospholipid with important neural regulatory properties mediated by specific G protein-coupled receptors, LPA(1-5). LPA(1) is highly expressed in the developing neurogenic ventricular zone wherein it is required for normal embryonic neurogenesis, and, by extension may play a role in adult neurogenesis as well. By means of the analyses of a variant of the original LPA(1)-null mutant mouse, termed the Malaga variant or "maLPA(1)-null," which has recently been reported to have defective neurogenesis within the embryonic cerebral cortex, we report here a role for LPA(1) in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Proliferation, differentiation and survival of newly formed neurons are defective in the absence of LPA(1) under normal conditions and following exposure to enriched environment and voluntary exercise. Furthermore, analysis of trophic factors in maLPA(1)-null mice demonstrated alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and insulin growth factor 1 levels after enrichment and exercise. Morphological analyses of doublecortin positive cells revealed the anomalous prevalence of bipolar cells in the subgranular zone, supporting the operation of LPA(1) signaling pathways in normal proliferation, maturation and differentiation of neuronal precursors.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a simple phospholipid with extracellular signaling properties mediated by specific G protein–coupled
receptors. At least 2 LPA receptors, LPA1 and LPA2, are expressed in the developing brain, the former enriched in the neurogenic ventricular zone (VZ), suggesting a normal
role in neurogenesis. Despite numerous studies reporting the effects of exogenous LPA using in vitro neural models, the first
LPA1 loss-of-function mutants reported did not show gross cerebral cortical defects in the 50% that survived perinatal demise.
Here, we report a role for LPA1 in cortical neural precursors resulting from analysis of a variant of a previously characterized LPA1-null mutant that arose spontaneously during colony expansion. These LPA1-null mice, termed maLPA1, exhibit almost complete perinatal viability and show a reduced VZ, altered neuronal markers, and increased cortical cell
death that results in a loss of cortical layer cellularity in adults. These data support LPA1 function in normal cortical development and suggest that the presence of genetic modifiers of LPA1 influences cerebral cortical development.