- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Established genetic susceptibility loci for type 1 diabetes are important in immune regulation and may play a role also in atopic disorders, potentially explaining the inverse association between childhood eczema and subsequent risk for type 1 diabetes previously reported. We aimed to directly assess whether HLA-DQ, CTLA4, and PTPN22 genes could explain the putative association between childhood eczema and lower subsequent risk of type 1 diabetes observed in several case-control studies. We designed a case-control study with 339 incident cases of type 1 diabetes identified in the Norwegian childhood diabetes registry, and 985 population-based control children. DNA was collected, and physician-diagnosed childhood eczema was ascertained by a questionnaire administered to the parents of children with and without type 1 diabetes. The previously reported association between childhood eczema and lower risk of type 1 diabetes was confirmed (odds ratio,OR, 0.61, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.40-0.95] and this was consistent in subgroups defined by HLA-DQ, CTLA4, and PTPN22 genotypes. The OR was essentially not influenced by adjustment for genetic variation at these loci (OR simultaneously adjusted for the three genetic loci: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.32-0.92). The ratio of the unadjusted to adjusted OR was 1.12, with a corresponding 95% CI from 0.84 to 1.50. In this first study of its kind, we demonstrated directly that the observed inverse association between childhood eczema and type 1 diabetes is not likely to be explained by the established diabetes susceptibility genes HLA-DQ, CTLA4, or PTPN22.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and allergic asthma are immune-mediated diseases. Pattern recognition receptors are proteins expressed by cells in the immune system to identify microbial pathogens and endogenous ligands. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and CD14 are members of this family and could represent a molecular link between microbial infections and immune-mediated diseases. Diverging hypotheses regarding whether there exists a common or inverse genetic etiology behind these immune-mediated diseases have been presented. We aimed to test whether there exist common or inverse associations between polymorphisms in the pattern recognition receptors TLR2, TLR4 and CD14 and T1D and allergic asthma. Eighteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in TLR2 (2), TLR4 (12) and CD14 (4) in 700 T1D children, 357 nuclear families with T1D children and 796 children from the 'Environment and Childhood Asthma' study. Allele and haplotype frequencies were analyzed in relation to diseases and in addition transmission disequilibrium test analyses were performed in the family material. Both T1D and allergic asthma were significantly associated with the TLR2 rs3804100 T allele and further associated with the haplotype including this SNP, possibly representing a susceptibility locus common for the two diseases. Neither TLR4 nor CD14 were associated with T1D or allergic asthma.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HLA, INS, PTPN22 and CTLA4 are considered to be confirmed type 1 diabetes susceptibility genes. HLA, PTPN22 and CTLA4 are known to be involved in immune regulation. Few studies have systematically investigated the joint effect of multiple genetic variants. We evaluated joint effects of the four established genes on the risk of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. We genotyped 421 nuclear families, 1,331 patients and 1,625 controls for polymorphisms of HLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1, the insulin gene (INS, -23 HphI), CTLA4 (JO27_1) and PTPN22 (Arg620Trp). The joint effect of HLA and PTPN22 on type 1 diabetes risk was significantly less than multiplicative in the case-control data, but a multiplicative model could not be rejected in the trio data. All other two-way gene-gene interactions fitted multiplicative models. The high-risk HLA genotype conferred a very high risk of type 1 diabetes (OR 20.6, using the neutral-risk HLA genotype as reference). When including also intermediate-risk HLA genotypes together with risk genotypes at the three non-HLA loci, the joint odds ratio was 61 (using non-risk genotypes at all loci as reference). Most established susceptibility genes seem to act approximately multiplicatively with other loci on the risk of disease except for the joint effect of HLA and PTPN22. The joint effect of multiple susceptibility loci conferred a very high risk of type 1 diabetes, but applies to a very small proportion of the general population. Using multiple susceptibility genotypes compared with HLA genotype alone seemed to influence the prediction of disease only marginally.
Data: Supplementary Material
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The FOXP3 gene encodes a transcription factor thought to be essential for the development and function of T regulatory cells. Two previous studies have tested common polymorphisms in FOXP3 for association with type 1 diabetes (T1D) with conflicting results. The aim of our study was to see whether there is any evidence of association between the FOXP3 polymorphisms previously reported to be associated with T1D, in a Caucasian population regarding T1D and coeliac disease (CD). We further looked for evidence of interaction between FOXP3 polymorphisms and HLA-DR3 in conferring susceptibility to T1D. Initially, we analysed two microsatellites in the FOXP3 gene in 363 T1D nuclear families. Our results indicated an association between FOXP3 and T1D (global p=0.004) and a possible interaction between FOXP3 and the HLA-DR3-DQ2 susceptibility haplotype. We then genotyped an additional independent set of 826 T1D patients and 1459 controls as well as one CD dataset consisting of 325 families. A similar tendency was revealed in the CD family material (pnc=0.055 for the associated allele). On the other hand, we were unable to reproduce our initial findings in the T1D case-control dataset (global p=0.6). Our results suggest that the tested FOXP3 markers do not have any major impact on susceptibility for these diseases.