[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have shown previously that sperm surface arylsulfatase A (ASA) of mouse, pig, and human is involved in sperm-egg zona pellucida (ZP) binding. By treating capacitated mouse sperm with A23187 to induce the acrosome reaction, we demonstrated by immunoblotting that ASA also existed in the acrosomal content and on the inner acrosomal membrane. Since mZP2 and mZP3 are known as sperm receptors, whereas mZP1 as a cross-linker of mZP2/mZP3, we determined whether purified ASA bound to mZP2 and mZP3 selectively. The three mZP glycoproteins were purified from solubilized ovarian ZP by size exclusion column chromatography. Immuno-dot blot analyses revealed that purified sperm ASA bound to mZP2 at the highest level followed by mZP3, whereas the binding of ASA to mZP1 was minimal. The results confirmed the physiological significance of sperm ASA in the ZP binding process. The binding of ASA to mZP2 and mZP3 was, however, not dependent on the active site pocket amino acids, Cys69, Lys123, and Lys302, which are pertinent to the capturing of an arylsulfate substrate, since ASA mutant with Ala substitution at these three residues still bound to mZP2 and mZP3. The availability of the active site pocket of ASA bound to the ZP suggested that ASA would still retain enzymatic activity, which might be important for subsequent sperm penetration through the ZP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arylsulfatase A (AS-A) is a lysosomal enzyme, which catalyzes the desulfation of certain sulfogalactolipids, including sulfogalactosylglycerolipid (SGG), a molecule implicated in cell adhesion. In this report, immunocytochemistry revealed the selective presence of AS-A in the corpus luteum of mouse ovaries. Immunoblotting indicated that mouse corpus luteum AS-A had a molecular mass of 66 kDa, similar to AS-A of other tissues. Corpus luteum AS-A was active, capable of desulfating the artificial substrate, p-nitrocatechol sulfate, at the optimum pH of five. To understand further the role of AS-A in female reproduction, levels of AS-A were determined during corpus luteum development in pseudopregnant mice and during luteolysis after cessation of pseudopregnancy. Immunocytochemistry, immunoblotting and desulfation activity showed that AS-A expression was evident at the onset of pseudopregnancy in the newly formed corpora lutea, and its level increased steadily during gland development. The increase in the expression and activity of AS-A continued throughout luteolysis after the decrease in serum progesterone levels. We also observed the selective presence of SGG on the luteal cell surface in developed corpora lutea, as shown by immunofluorescence of mouse ovary sections as well as high-performance thin-layer chromatography of lipids isolated from mouse and pig corpora lutea. The identity of the "SGG" band on the thin layer silica plate was further validated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Significantly, SGG disappeared in regressing corpora lutea. Therefore, lysosomal AS-A may be involved in cell-surface remodeling during luteolysis by desulfating SGG after its endocytosis and targeting to the lysosome.