[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conclusion:
The psychometric characteristics of Standard-Chinese lexical neighborhood test (LNT) confirmed the lexical effects of the four word categories. The established normative baseline can be used in evaluating the word-recognition performance of the hearing-impaired listeners.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric characteristics and evaluate the reliability of Standard-Chinese LNT in children and adults.
Twenty-six normal-hearing adults and 13 normal-hearing children were recruited. Word recognition was tested with the Standard-Chinese LNT materials that consisted of four types of word list: monosyllable easy words, monosyllable hard words, disyllable easy words, and disyllable hard words.
The thresholds at 50% correct performance for the easy word lists and disyllable word lists were lower than those for the hard word lists and monosyllable word lists, respectively (all p < 0.001). The slopes for disyllable words were steeper than the monosyllable words (p < 0.05). In addition, the recognition threshold of the four categories for children was higher than that for adults (all p < 0.05). The critical difference was on average 26.6% for adults and 30.0% for children.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Acta oto-laryngologica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The purpose of this study was to examine the open-set word recognition performance of Mandarin Chinese-speaking children who had received a multichannel cochlear implant (CI) and examine the effects of lexical characteristics and demographic factors (i.e., age at implantation and duration of implant use) on Mandarin Chinese open-set word recognition in these children.
Participants were 230 prelingually deafened children with CIs. Age at implantation ranged from 0.9 to 16.0 years, with a mean of 3.9 years. The Standard-Chinese version of the Monosyllabic Lexical Neighborhood test and the Multisyllabic Lexical Neighborhood test were used to evaluate the open-set word identification abilities of the children. A two-way analysis of variance was performed to delineate the lexical effects on the open-set word identification, with word difficulty and syllable length as the two main factors. The effects of age at implantation and duration of implant use on open-set, word-recognition performance were examined using correlational/regressional models.
First, the average percent-correct scores for the disyllabic "easy" list, disyllabic "hard" list, monosyllabic "easy" list, and monosyllabic "hard" list were 65.0%, 51.3%, 58.9%, and 46.2%, respectively. For both the easy and hard lists, the percentage of words correctly identified was higher for disyllabic words than for monosyllabic words, Second, the CI group scored 26.3%, 31.3%, and 18.8 % points lower than their hearing-age-matched normal-hearing peers for 4, 5, and 6 years of hearing age, respectively. The corresponding gaps between the CI group and the chronological-age-matched normal-hearing group were 47.6, 49.6, and 42.4, respectively. The individual variations in performance were much greater in the CI group than in the normal-hearing group, Third, the children exhibited steady improvements in performance as the duration of implant use increased, especially 1 to 6 years postimplantation. Last, age at implantation had significant effects on postimplantation word-recognition performance. The benefit of early implantation was particularly evident in children 5 years old or younger.
First, Mandarin Chinese-speaking pediatric CI users' open-set word recognition was influenced by the lexical characteristics of the stimuli. The score was higher for easy words than for hard words and was higher for disyllabic words than for monosyllabic words, Second, Mandarin-Chinese-speaking pediatric CI users exhibited steady progress in open-set word recognition as the duration of implant use increased. However, the present study also demonstrated that, even after 6 years of CI use, there was a significant deficit in open-set, word-recognition performance in the CI children compared with their normal-hearing peers. Third, age at implantation had significant effects on open-set, word-recognition performance. Early implanted children exhibited better performance than children implanted later.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purposes of the present study were to establish the Standard-Chinese version of Lexical Neighborhood Test (LNT) and to examine the lexical and age effects on spoken-word recognition in normal-hearing children.
Six lists of monosyllabic and six lists of disyllabic words (20 words/list) were selected from the database of daily speech materials for normal-hearing (NH) children of ages 3-5 years. The lists were further divided into "easy" and "hard" halves according to the word frequency and neighborhood density in the database based on the theory of Neighborhood Activation Model (NAM). Ninety-six NH children (age ranged between 4.0 and 7.0 years) were divided into three different age groups of 1-year intervals. Speech-perception tests were conducted using the Standard-Chinese monosyllabic and disyllabic LNT.
The inter-list performance was found to be equivalent and inter-rater reliability was high with 92.5-95% consistency. Results of word-recognition scores showed that the lexical effects were all significant. Children scored higher with disyllabic words than with monosyllabic words. "Easy" words scored higher than "hard" words. The word-recognition performance also increased with age in each lexical category. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that neighborhood density, age, and word frequency appeared to have increasingly more contributions to Chinese word recognition.
The results of the present study indicated that performances of Chinese word recognition were influenced by word frequency, age, and neighborhood density, with word frequency playing a major role. These results were consistent with those in other languages, supporting the application of NAM in the Chinese language. The development of Standard-Chinese version of LNT and the establishment of a database of children of 4-6 years old can provide a reliable means for spoken-word recognition test in children with hearing impairment.
No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study demonstrates that two methods of segmentation, i.e. word and character segmentations, produce equivalent results in the Mandarin Hearing in Noise Test (MHINT). Potentially, both methods of segmentation can be used clinically. A majority of the Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant subjects could complete MHINT - with the more relaxed adaptive rules. The results make it possible to compare the performance of cochlear implant users across languages.
The primary purpose of the present study was to evaluate the modified adaptive scoring rules and to develop alternative methods of segmentations in MHINT that are suitable for the Chinese language.
Thirty Mandarin-speaking normal-hearing adults were tested with MHINT using three adaptive rules based on character and/or word segmentation of the sentences. Twenty-three Mandarin-speaking post-lingually deafened cochlear implant patients were also recruited to participate in the testing.
There were no significant differences in the reception threshold for sentences and speech recognition scores obtained with either method of segmentation (p > 0.05). Fifteen of the 23 cochlear implant subjects (65%) could be tested with the modified adaptive scoring rules. The performance-intensity functions of the cochlear implant subjects were shifted at least 8-10 dB to higher signal-to-noise ratios as compared with those of the normal-hearing subjects.
No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Acta oto-laryngologica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To collect the daily speech materials and to discuss the speech development of normal-hearing pre-school children.
Based on the database of daily speech materials of children who are 3 to 5 years old, from separate monosyllabic word to syllable,analysis the frequency of words and compare them with adults.
In the spoken words of children who are 3 to 5 years old, we can find all Mandarin phonemes. With independent sample t test, it was shown that there is no significant difference in the distributing of phonemes between children and adults.
Children who are 3 years old have developed the phonetic system of the language basically.
No preview · Article · May 2008 · Lin chuang er bi yan hou ke za zhi = Journal of clinical otorhinolaryngology