[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Sixty nurses from five countries (Canada, India, Ireland, Japan, and Korea) took part in 11 focus groups that discussed the question: Do you consider your work meaningful? Fostering meaning and mentorship as part of the institutional culture was a central theme that emerged from the discussions. In this article, we begin with a background discussion of meaning and meaningful work as presented in the literature related to existentialism and hardiness. Next, we describe the method and analysis processes we used in our qualitative study asking how nurses find meaning in their very challenging work and report our findings of four themes that emerged from the comments shared by nurses, specifically relationships, compassionate caring, identity, and a mentoring culture. After offering a discussion of our findings and noting the limitations of this qualitative study, we conclude that nursing leaders and a culture of mentorship play an important role in fostering meaningful work and developing hardy employees.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: In this study of ethical ideology and religiosity, 1,255 physicians from Canada, China, Ireland, India, Japan and Thailand participated. Forsyth's (1980) Ethical Position Questionnaire and Rohrbaugh and Jessor's (J Pers 43:136-155, 1975) Religiosity Measure were used as the survey instruments. The results demonstrated that physicians from India, Thailand and China reported significantly higher rates of idealism than physicians from Canada and Japan. India, Thailand and China also scored significantly higher than Ireland. Physicians from Japan and India reported significantly higher rates of relativism than physicians from Canada, Ireland, Thailand and China. Physicians from China also reported higher rates of relativism than physicians from Canada, Ireland and Thailand. Overall, religiosity was positively associated with idealism and negatively associated with relativism. This study is the first to explore the differences between ethical ideology and religiosity among physicians in an international setting as well as the relationship between these two constructs. Both religiosity and ethical ideology are extremely generalized, and the extent to which they may impact the actual professional behaviour of physicians is unknown. This paper sets up a point of departure for future research that could investigate the extent to which physicians actually employ their religious and/or ethical orientation to solve ambiguous medical decisions.
Article · Jun 2012 · Journal of Religion and Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The intent of ethics is to establish a set of standards that will provide a framework to modify, regulate, and possibly enhance moral behaviour. Eleven focus groups were conducted with physicians from six culturally distinct countries to explore their perception of formalized, written ethical guidelines (i.e., codes of ethics, credos, value and mission statements) that attempt to direct their ethical practice. Six themes emerged from the data: lack of awareness, no impact, marginal impact, other codes or value statements supersede, personal codes or values dictate, and ethical guidelines are useful. Overall, codes were valued only when they were congruent with existing personal morality. The findings suggest the need to re-evaluate the purpose, content, and delivery of codes for them to improve their function in promoting ethical conduct.
Article · Jul 2009 · Medicine Health Care and Philosophy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Through discourse with international groups of physicians, we conducted a cross-cultural analysis of the types of ethical dilemmas physicians face. Qualitative analysis was used to categorise the dilemmas into seven themes, which we compared among the physicians by country of practice. These themes were a-theoretically-driven and grounded heavily within the text. We then subjected the dilemmas to an analysis of moral intensity, which represents an important (albeit novel within healthcare research) theoretical perspective of ethical decision making. These constructs (ie, culture and moral intensity) represent salient determinants of ethical behaviour and our cross-cultural sample afforded us the opportunity to consider both the pragmatic aspects of culture, as they are perceived by physicians, as well as the theory-driven concept of moral intensity. By examining both culture and moral intensity, we hope to better elucidate the complexities of ethical decision-making determinants among physicians in their daily practice. Doing so may potentially have practical implications for ethics training of medical students and foreign physicians.