[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Andrographolide (Ap) is a bioactive compound in Andrographis paniculata that is a Chinese herb. The pi class of glutathione S-transferase (GSTP) is one kind of phase II detoxification enzyme. Here we show that induction of GSTP protein and mRNA expression in rat primary hepatocytes by Ap was inhibited by forskolin and a variety of cAMP analogues. The inhibitory effect of the cAMP analogues was partially blocked by pretreatment with H89. In the presence of Ap, forskolin, or both, the expression of phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) was increased. Ap alone had no effect on inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) mRNA expression; however, Ap played a potentiating role in forskolin-induced ICER mRNA expression. An EMSA and immunoprecipitation assay showed that ICER binding to cAMP-response element (CRE) was increased in cells cotreated with Ap and forskolin for 3 and 8 h. Taken together, these results suggest that ICER is likely to be involved in the suppression of Ap-induced GSTP expression caused by the increase of cAMP in rat primary hepatocytes.
No preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Andrographis paniculata (Ap) is a commonly used herb for traditional medicine in many Southeast Asian countries. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Ap on the expression of the pi class of glutathione S-transferase (GSTP) in rat primary hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were treated with 25 or 50 microg/mL of ethanol or ethyl acetate extracts of Ap (ApEE or ApEAE) or 10 or 20 microM andrographolide, which is the major active diterpene lactone of Ap, for 48 h. ApEE, ApEAE, and andrographolide dose-dependently induced GSTP protein and mRNA expression. In a GST activity assay, GST activity was significantly higher in cells treated with the maximum concentrations of ApEE, ApEAE, and andrographolide than in control cells (P<0.05). The pTA-2713 luciferase reporter construct containing rat GSTP enhancer 1 (GPE1) was transiently transfected into Clone 9 liver cells. Cells treated with ApEE, ApEAE, and andrographolide showed a dose-dependent increase in luciferase activity. GPE1 deletion abolished the induction efficiency of Ap. Also, the induction of GSTP expression by Ap was inhibited by wortmannin, which is an inhibitor of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. These results indicate that ApEE, ApEAE, and andrographolide induce GSTP expression. This induction is likely related to the PI3K/Akt pathway, and GPE1, an enhancer element in GSTP promoter, is essential for the induction.
No preview · Article · Mar 2008 · Food and Chemical Toxicology