[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding the structure of water near cell membranes is crucial for characterizing water-mediated events such as molecular transport. To obtain structural information of water near a membrane, it is useful to have a surface-selective technique that can probe only interfacial water molecules. One such technique is vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy. As model systems for studying membrane headgroup/water interactions, in this paper we consider lipid and surfactant monolayers on water. We adopt a theoretical approach combining molecular dynamics simulations and phase-sensitive VSFG to investigate water structure near these interfaces. Our simulated spectra are in qualitative agreement with experiments and reveal orientational ordering of interfacial water molecules near cationic, anionic, and zwitterionic interfaces. OH bonds of water molecules point toward an anionic interface leading to a positive VSFG peak, whereas the water hydrogen atoms point away from a cationic interface leading to a negative VSFG peak. Coexistence of these two interfacial water species is observed near interfaces between water and mixtures of cationic and anionic lipids, as indicated by the presence of both negative and positive peaks in their VSFG spectra. In the case of a zwitterionic interface, OH orientation is toward the interface on the average, resulting in a positive VSFG peak.
Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · The Journal of Chemical Physics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Water clustering and connectivity around lipid bilayers strongly influences the properties of membranes and is important for functions such as proton and ion transport. Vibrational anisotropic pump-probe spectroscopy is a powerful tool for understanding such clustering, as the measured anisotropy depends upon the time-scale and degree of intra- and intermolecular vibrational energy transfer. In this article, we use molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical vibrational spectroscopy to help interpret recent experimental measurements of the anisotropy of water in lipid multi-bilayers as a function of both lipid hydration level and isotopic substitution. Our calculations are in satisfactory agreement with the experiments of Piatkowski, Heij, and Bakker, and from our simulations we can directly probe water clustering and connectivity. We find that at low hydration levels, many water molecules are in fact isolated, although up to 70% of hydration water forms small water clusters or chains. At intermediate hydration levels, water forms a wide range of cluster sizes, while at higher hydration levels, the majority of water molecules are part of a large, percolating water cluster. Therefore, the size, number, and nature of water clusters are strongly dependent on lipid hydration level, and the measured anisotropy reflects this through its dependence on intermolecular energy transfer.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · The Journal of Chemical Physics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infrared spectroscopy of the water OH stretch provides a sensitive probe of the local hydrogen-bonding structure and dynamics of water molecules. Previously, we have utilized a mixed quantum/classical model to calculate vibrational spectroscopic observables for bulk water, ice, the liquid/vapor interface, and small water clusters, as well as water interacting with ions and biological molecules. These studies rely on spectroscopic maps that relate the OH stretching frequency and transition dipole to the local environment around a water molecule. Our spectroscopic maps were parametrized based on water clusters taken from bulk water simulations; in this article, we test the robustness of these maps for water in nonbulk-liquid environments. We find that the frequency, transition dipole, and coupling maps work as well for the water surface, ice Ih, and the water hexamer as they do for liquid water. This suggests that these maps may be generally applied to study the vibrational spectroscopy of water in diverse, potentially heterogeneous environments.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using our newly developed explicit three-body (E3B) water model, we simulate the surface of liquid water. We find that the timescale for hydrogen-bond switching dynamics at the surface is about three times slower than that in the bulk. In contrast, with this model rotational dynamics are slightly faster at the surface than in the bulk. We consider vibrational two-dimensional (2D) sum-frequency generation (2DSFG) spectroscopy as a technique for observing hydrogen-bond rearrangement dynamics at the water surface. We calculate the nonlinear susceptibility for this spectroscopy for two different polarization conditions, and in each case we see the appearance of cross-peaks on the timescale of a few picoseconds, signaling hydrogen-bond rearrangement on this timescale. We thus conclude that this 2D spectroscopy will be an excellent experimental technique for observing slow hydrogen-bond switching dynamics at the water surface.
Preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Noticeable differences between the vibrational (IR and Raman) spectra of neat H2O and D2O ice Ih are observed experimentally. Here we employ our theoretical mixed quantum/classical approach to investigate these differences. We find reasonable agreement between calculated and experimental line shapes at both high and low temperatures. From understanding the structure of ice Ih and its vibrational exciton Hamiltonian, we provide assignments of the IR and Raman spectral features for both H2O and D2O ice Ih. We find that in H2O ice these features are due to strong and weak intermolecular coupling, and not to intramolecular coupling. The differences between H2O and D2O ice spectra are attributed to the significantly stronger intramolecular coupling in D2O ice. Our conclusion for both H2O and D2O ice is that the molecular symmetric and anti-symmetric normal modes do not form a useful basis for understanding OH or OD stretch spectroscopy.
No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · The Journal of Physical Chemistry B
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding liquid water’s behavior at the molecular level is essential to progress in fields as disparate as biology and atmospheric sciences. Moreover, the properties of water in bulk and water at interfaces can be very different, making the study of the hydrogen-bonding networks therein very important. With recent experimental advances in vibrational spectroscopy, such as ultrafast pulses and heterodyne detection, it is now possible to probe the structure and dynamics of bulk and interfacial water in unprecedented detail.
Preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Accounts of Chemical Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a previous report, we calculated the infrared absorption spectrum and both the isotropic and anisotropic pump-probe signals for the OD stretch of isotopically dilute water in dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC) multi-bilayers as a function of the lipid hydration level. These results were then compared to recent experimental measurements and are in generally good agreement. In this paper, we will further investigate the structure and dynamics of hydration water using molecular dynamics simulations and calculations of the two-dimensional infrared and vibrational echo peak shift observables for hydration water in DLPC membranes. These observables have not yet been measured experimentally, but future comparisons may provide insight into spectral diffusion processes and hydration water heterogeneity. We find that at low hydration levels the motion of water molecules inside the lipid membrane is significantly arrested, resulting in very slow spectral diffusion. At higher hydration levels, spectral diffusion is more rapid, but still slower than in bulk water. We also investigate the effects of several common approximations on the calculation of spectroscopic observables by computing these observables within multiple levels of theory. The impact of these approximations on the resulting spectra affects our interpretation of these measurements and reveals that, for example, the cumulant approximation, which may be valid for certain systems, is not a good approximation for a highly heterogeneous environment such as hydration water in lipid multi-bilayers.
Preview · Article · Oct 2011 · The Journal of Chemical Physics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The vibrational spectroscopy of hydration water in dilauroylphosphatidylcholine lipid multi-bilayers is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations and a mixed quantum/classical model for the OD stretch spectroscopy of dilute HDO in H(2)O. FTIR absorption spectra, and isotropic and anisotropic pump-probe decay curves have been measured experimentally as a function of the hydration level of the lipid multi-bilayer, and our goal is to make connection with these experiments. To this end, we use third-order response functions, which allow us to include non-Gaussian frequency fluctuations, non-Condon effects, molecular rotations, and a fluctuating vibrational lifetime, all of which we believe are important for this system. We calculate the response functions using existing transition frequency and dipole maps. From the experiments it appears that there are two distinct vibrational lifetimes corresponding to HDO molecules in different molecular environments. In order to obtain these lifetimes, we consider a simple two-population model for hydration water hydrogen bonds. Assuming a different lifetime for each population, we then calculate the isotropic pump-probe decay, fitting to experiment to obtain the two lifetimes for each hydration level. With these lifetimes in hand, we then calculate FTIR spectra and pump-probe anisotropy decay as a function of hydration. This approach, therefore, permits a consistent calculation of all observables within a unified computational scheme. Our theoretical results are all in qualitative agreement with experiment. The vibrational lifetime of lipid-associated OD groups is found to be systematically shorter than that of the water-associated population, and the lifetimes of each population increase with decreasing hydration, in agreement with previous analysis. Our theoretical FTIR absorption spectra successfully reproduce the experimentally observed red-shift with decreasing lipid hydration, and we confirm a previous interpretation that this shift results from the hydrogen bonding of water to the lipid phosphate group. From the pump-probe anisotropy decay, we confirm that the reorientational motions of water molecules slow significantly as hydration decreases, with water bound in the lipid carbonyl region undergoing the slowest rotations.
Preview · Article · Aug 2011 · The Journal of Chemical Physics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Semiclassical approximations to quantum mechanics can include quantum coherence effects in dynamical calculations based on classical mechanics. The Herman-Kluk (HK) semiclassical propagator has been demonstrated to reproduce quantum effects in nonlinear vibrational response functions of anharmonic oscillators but does not provide a practical numerical route to calculations for multiple degrees of freedom. In an HK calculation of a response function, quantum coherence effects enter through interference between pairs of classical trajectories. We have previously elucidated the mechanism by which the HK approximation reproduces quantum effects in response functions in the regime of quasiperiodic dynamics. We have applied this understanding to significantly simplify the semiclassical calculation of response functions in this dynamical regime. The phase space difference between trajectories is treated perturbatively in anharmonicity, allowing integration over these differences to be performed analytically and leaving integration over mean trajectories to be performed numerically. This mean-trajectory (MT) approximation has been applied to linear and nonlinear vibrational response functions for isolated and coupled anharmonic motions. Here, we derive an MT approximation for the Liouville space time evolution operator or superoperator that propagates the density operator. This analysis provides a form of the MT approximation that is readily applicable to other dynamical quantities besides response functions and clarifies the connection between semiclassical quantization of propagators for the wave function and for the density operator.
No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · The Journal of Physical Chemistry B
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Observables in linear and nonlinear infrared spectroscopy may be computed from vibrational response functions describing nuclear dynamics on a single electronic surface. We demonstrate that the Herman-Kluk (HK) semiclassical approximation to the quantum propagator yields an accurate representation of quantum coherence effects in linear and nonlinear response functions for coupled anharmonic oscillators. A considerable numerical price is paid for this accuracy; the calculation requires a multidimensional integral over a highly oscillatory integrand that also grows without bound as a function of evolution times. The interference among classical trajectories in the HK approximation produces quantization of good action variables. By treating this interference analytically, we develop a mean-trajectory (MT) approximation that requires only the propagation of classical trajectories linked by transitions in action. The MT approximation accurately reproduces coherence effects in response functions of coupled anharmonic oscillators in a regime in which the observables are strongly influenced by these interactions among vibrations.
No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · The Journal of Chemical Physics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Observables in nonlinear and multidimensional infrared spectroscopy may be calculated from nonlinear response functions. Numerical challenges associated with the fully quantum-mechanical calculation of these dynamical response functions motivate the development of semiclassical methods based on the numerical propagation of classical trajectories. The Herman-Kluk frozen Gaussian approximation to the quantum propagator has been demonstrated to produce accurate linear and third-order spectroscopic response functions for thermal ensembles of anharmonic oscillators. However, the direct application of this propagator to spectroscopic response functions is numerically impractical. We analyze here the third-order response function with Herman-Kluk dynamics with the two related goals of understanding the origins of the success of the approximation and developing a simplified representation that is more readily implemented numerically. The result is a semiclassical approximation to the nth-order spectroscopic response function in which an integration over n pairs of classical trajectories connected by distributions of discontinuous transitions is collapsed to a single phase-space integration, in which n continuous trajectories are linked by deterministic transitions. This significant simplification is shown to retain a full description of quantum effects.
Preview · Article · Oct 2008 · The Journal of Chemical Physics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Application of the Herman-Kluk semiclassical propagator to the calculation of spectroscopic response functions for anharmonic oscillators has demonstrated the quantitative accuracy of these approximate dynamics. In this approach, spectroscopic response functions are expressed as multiple phase-space integrals over pairs of classical trajectories and their associated stability matrices. Here we analyze the Herman-Kluk semiclassical approximation to a linear response function and determine the origin of the capacity of this method to reproduce quantum effects in a response function from classical dynamical information. Our analysis identifies those classical trajectories that contribute most significantly to the response function on different time scales. This finding motivates a procedure for computing the linear response function in which the interference between pairs of classical trajectories is treated approximately, resulting in an integral over a single average trajectory, as in a purely classical calculation.
No preview · Article · Apr 2008 · The Journal of Chemical Physics