[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic susceptibility is known to play a large part in the predisposition to the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) known as Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The IL2/IL21 locus on 4q27 is known to be a common risk locus for inflammatory disease (shown in coeliac disease, type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and psoriasis), while the roles that interleukin 2 (IL2) and IL21 play in the immune response also make them attractive candidates for IBD. The objective of this study was to test for association between the IL2/IL21 locus and the IBDs.
The four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL2/IL21 locus most associated with coeliac disease were genotyped in 1590 subjects with IBD and 929 controls from The Netherlands, and then replicated in a North American cohort (2387 cases and 1266 controls) and an Italian cohort (805 cases and 421 controls), yielding a total of 4782 cases (3194 UC, 1588 CD) and 2616 controls. Allelic association testing and a pooled analysis using a Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test were performed.
All four SNPs were strongly associated with UC in all three cohorts and reached genome-wide significance in the pooled analysis (rs13151961 p = 1.35 x 10(-10), rs13119723 p = 8.60 x 10(-8), rs6840978 p = 3.0 7x 10(-8), rs6822844 p = 2.77 x 10(-9)). A moderate association with CD was also found in the pooled analysis (p value range 0.0016-9.86 x 10(-5)).
A strong association for the IL2/IL21 locus with UC was found, which also confirms it as a general susceptibility locus for inflammatory disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disorder caused by multiple factors in a genetically susceptible host. Significant advances in the study of genetic susceptibility have highlighted the importance of the innate immune system in this disease. We previously completed a genome-wide linkage study and found a significant locus (IBD6) on chromosome 19p. We were interested in identifying the causal variant in IBD6. We performed a two-stage association mapping study. In stage 1, 1530 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected from the HapMap database and genotyped in 761 patients with IBD. Among the SNPs that passed the threshold for replication, 26 were successfully genotyped in 754 additional patients (stage 2). One intronic variant, rs273506, located in the microtubule-associated serine/threonine-protein kinase gene-3 (MAST3), was found to be associated in both stages (pooled P=1.8 x 10(-4)). We identified four MAST3 coding variants, including a non-synonymous SNP rs8108738, correlated to rs273506 and associated with IBD. To test whether MAST3 was expressed in cells of interest, we performed expression assays, which showed abundant expression of MAST3 in antigen-presenting cells and in lymphocytes. The knockdown of MAST3 specifically decreased Toll-like receptor-4-dependent NF-kappaB activity. Our findings are additional proofs of the pivotal role played by modulators of NF-kappaB activity in IBD pathogenesis.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2008 · Genes and immunity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)--Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC)--and celiac disease are intestinal inflammatory disorders with a complex genetic background. Recently, two novel genes were found to be associated with IBD susceptibility. One, an uncommon coding variant (rs11209026) in the gene encoding for the interleukin-23 receptor (IL23R), conferred strong protection against CD. The other, rs2241880 in the autophagy-related 16-like 1 gene (ATG16L1), was associated with CD. We performed a case-control study for the association of IBD with IL23R and ATG16L1 in a Dutch cohort. We also looked at the association of IL23R and ATG16L1 with celiac disease.
Five hundred eighteen Dutch white IBD patients (311 CD and 207 UC, including 176 trios of patients with both parents), 508 celiac disease patients, and 893 healthy controls were studied for association with the rs11209026 (IL23R) and rs2241880 (ATG16L1) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP).
The rs11209026 SNP in IL23R had a protective effect for IBD in the case-control analysis (odds ratio [OR] 0.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.10-0.37, P= 6.6E-09). Both CD (OR 0.14, CI 0.06-0.37, P= 3.9E-07) and UC (OR 0.33, CI 0.15-0.73, P= 1.4E-03) were associated with IL23R. For ATG16L1, the rs2241880 SNP was associated with CD susceptibility (OR 1.36, CI 1.12-1.66, P= 0.0017). The population-attributable risk of carrying allele G is 0.24 and is 0.19 for homozygosity for allele G in CD. No association was found between IL23R or ATG16L1 and celiac disease.
We confirmed the association of IL23R and ATG16L1 with CD susceptibility and also the association of IL23R with UC. We found IL23R and ATG16L1 were not associated with celiac disease susceptibility.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2008 · The American Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Association mapping and candidate gene studies within inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) linkage regions, as well as genome-wide association studies in Crohn's disease (CD) have led to the discovery of multiple risk genes, but these explain only a fraction of the genetic susceptibility observed in IBD. We have thus been pursuing a region on chromosome 3p21-22 showing linkage to CD and ulcerative colitis (UC) using a gene-centric association mapping approach. We identified 12 functional candidate genes by searching for literature cocitations with relevant keywords and for gene expression patterns consistent with immune/intestinal function. We then performed an association study composed of a screening phase, where tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were evaluated in 1,020 IBD patients, and an independent replication phase in 745 IBD patients. These analyses identified and replicated significant association with IBD for four SNPs within a 1.2 Mb linkage disequilibrium region. We then identified a non-synonymous coding variant (rs3197999, R689C) in the macrophage-stimulating 1 (MST1) gene (P-value 3.62 x 10(-6)) that accounts for the association signal, and shows association with both CD and UC. MST1 encodes macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP), a protein regulating the innate immune responses to bacterial ligands. R689C is predicted to interfere with MSP binding to its receptor, suggesting a role for this gene in the pathogenesis of IBD.