[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To perform a 1-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility and to explore functional consequences of new susceptibility loci.
We synthesized 7 MS GWAS. Each data set was imputed using HapMap phase II, and a per single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) meta-analysis was performed across the 7 data sets. We explored RNA expression data using a quantitative trait analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 228 subjects with demyelinating disease.
We meta-analyzed 2,529,394 unique SNPs in 5,545 cases and 12,153 controls. We identified 3 novel susceptibility alleles: rs170934(T) at 3p24.1 (odds ratio [OR], 1.17; p = 1.6 × 10(-8)) near EOMES, rs2150702(G) in the second intron of MLANA on chromosome 9p24.1 (OR, 1.16; p = 3.3 × 10(-8)), and rs6718520(A) in an intergenic region on chromosome 2p21, with THADA as the nearest flanking gene (OR, 1.17; p = 3.4 × 10(-8)). The 3 new loci do not have a strong cis effect on RNA expression in PBMCs. Ten other susceptibility loci had a suggestive p < 1 × 10(-6) , some of these loci have evidence of association in other inflammatory diseases (ie, IL12B, TAGAP, PLEK, and ZMIZ1).
We have performed a meta-analysis of GWAS in MS that more than doubles the size of previous gene discovery efforts and highlights 3 novel MS susceptibility loci. These and additional loci with suggestive evidence of association are excellent candidates for further investigations to refine and validate their role in the genetic architecture of MS.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Annals of Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:
Cladribine provides immunomodulation through selective targeting of lymphocyte subtypes. We report the results of a 96-week phase 3 trial of a short-course oral tablet therapy in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.
We randomly assigned 1326 patients in an approximate 1:1:1 ratio to receive one of two cumulative doses of cladribine tablets (either 3.5 mg or 5.25 mg per kilogram of body weight) or matching placebo, given in two or four short courses for the first 48 weeks, then in two short courses starting at week 48 and week 52 (for a total of 8 to 20 days per year). The primary end point was the rate of relapse at 96 weeks.
Among patients who received cladribine tablets (either 3.5 mg or 5.25 mg per kilogram), there was a significantly lower annualized rate of relapse than in the placebo group (0.14 and 0.15, respectively, vs. 0.33; P<0.001 for both comparisons), a higher relapse-free rate (79.7% and 78.9%, respectively, vs. 60.9%; P<0.001 for both comparisons), a lower risk of 3-month sustained progression of disability (hazard ratio for the 3.5-mg group, 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48 to 0.93; P=0.02; and hazard ratio for the 5.25-mg group, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.96; P=0.03), and significant reductions in the brain lesion count on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Adverse events that were more frequent in the cladribine groups included lymphocytopenia (21.6% in the 3.5-mg group and 31.5% in the 5.25-mg group, vs. 1.8%) and herpes zoster (8 patients and 12 patients, respectively, vs. no patients).
Treatment with cladribine tablets significantly reduced relapse rates, the risk of disability progression, and MRI measures of disease activity at 96 weeks. The benefits need to be weighed against the risks. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00213135.)
2010 Massachusetts Medical Society
Oral cladribine and fingolimod for relapsing multiple sclerosis. [N Engl J Med. 2010]
Oral therapy for multiple sclerosis--sea change or incremental step? [N Engl J Med. 2010]
ACP Journal Club. Oral cladribine was more effective than placebo for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. [Ann Intern Med. 2010]
Oral cladribine and fingolimod for relapsing multiple sclerosis. [N Engl J Med. 2010]
Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · New England Journal of Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) often affects women during the reproductive years of their life. During this period, issues such as choice of immunomodulatory treatment, seeking advice from specialists, relapse-induced steroid application before, during or after pregnancy in combination with breastfeeding gain importance. The objective was to investigate these issues retrospectively using a questionnaire among 73 MS patients with a total of 88 pregnancies. Eighty per cent of the participants consulted their neurologists before and 60% during pregnancy. The annual relapse rate decreased during pregnancy and significantly increased during the first 3 months after delivery. Immunomodulatory treatment was stopped due to desired pregnancy for a mean of 4 years. Fourteen of the MS patients received intravenous immunoglobulin treatment post-natal. Ninety per cent of the study subjects started breastfeeding. However, nearly 30% ablactated, as they received steroids due to a relapse. Weight and height of the full-term children of singleton pregnancies from MS patients were significantly lower compared with the ones of age-matched healthy controls. Our results confirm the known reduced relapse rate during pregnancy, which is followed by an increased relapse rate after delivery. They shed light on the epidemiology of childbirth in patients with MS.
No preview · Article · Aug 2008 · Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In summer 2001, a nationwide epidemiological MS register was initiated under the auspices of the German MS Society, National Association (DMSG). This project aimed at collecting epidemiological data in terms of number of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), course of the disease and social situation in Germany. During the 2-year pilot phase, five MS centers with different capabilities participated leading to a representative selection of patients. Due to December 2003, standardised data sets of 3,223 patients passed stepwise quality checks. The demographics of the data were similar to those obtained from other epidemiological studies: 72% of the patients were female, mean age was 42.9±11.2 years, mean disease duration 12.6±8.7 years, and 64% suffered from the relapsing-remitting form of the disease. Median EDSS was 3.0, and 70% of patients had an EDSS ≤4.0. The mean time from onset of the disease until diagnosis was 3.5 years and was essentially unchanged when comparing the 1980s, 1990s and from year 2000 on. Nearly one third of the patients were prematurely retired due to MS. Early retirement was associated with physical disability, but a considerable proportion of patients were prematurely retired although they were still able to walk independently. Seventy-three percent were on immunomodulatory treatment, mostly with interferons and glatiramer acetate. However, 27% of patients received no immunotherapies at all, and this proportion was essentially unchanged even in those patients with clinically active disease. Since 2005, recruitment of additional centers has started leading to more than 70 centers participating, with more than 12,000 data sets being expected until the end of 2007. With the results of this registry, measures directed towards the needs of people with MS will be enabled and thus, health care of MS patients in Germany and the quality of life of these patients could be improved.
No preview · Article · Aug 2007 · Neurologie und Rehabilitation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed the safety and efficacy of orally administered CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) antagonist in 105 patients with relapsing/remitting MS (RRMS) in a 16-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The primary endpoint was the cumulative number of newly active lesions on serial MRI scans. Other MRI, immunologic, and clinical outcomes were also explored. No significant treatment difference was observed for any tested MRI variable. CCR1 does not contribute to initial leukocyte infiltration in RRMS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An exploratory, prospective, open-label study of fumaric acid esters (FAE, Fumaderm(R)) was conducted in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The study consisted of the following four phases: 6-week baseline, 18-week treatment (target dose of 720 mg/day), 4-week washout, and a second 48-week treatment phase (target dose of 360 mg/day). Ten patients with an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score of 2.0-6.0 and at least one gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesion on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scans participated in the study. Safety was assessed by adverse events (AEs), blood chemistry/hematology, electrocardiogram, and urinalysis. The primary efficacy outcomes were number and volume of Gd+ lesions. Other clinical outcomes included EDSS score, ambulation index (AI), and nine-hole peg test (9-HPT). Effects of FAE on intracellular cytokine profiles, T-cell apoptosis, and soluble adhesion molecules were also assessed. Three patients withdrew during the first 3 weeks of the study because of side effects, non-compliance, and follow-up loss. The most common AEs were gastrointestinal symptoms and flushing; all AEs were reported as mild and reversible. FAE produced significant reductions from baseline in number (P < 0.05) and volume (P < 0.01) of Gd+ lesions after 18 weeks of treatment; this effect persisted during the second treatment phase at half the target dose after the 4-week washout period. EDSS scores, AI, and 9-HPT remained stable or slightly improved from baseline in all patients. Measures of T-cell function demonstrated alterations in cytokines and circulating tumor necrosis factor. The results of this exploratory study suggest that further studies of FAE in patients with MS are warranted.
No preview · Article · Jul 2006 · European Journal of Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Available immunomodulatory and conventional steroid treatment regimens provide a limited symptomatic benefit for patients with progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). We performed an open trial on the short-term efficacy of repeated intrathecal application of the sustained release steroid triamcinolone acetonide (TCA) in 27 progressive MS patients. Six TCA administrations, performed every third day, reduced the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score [initial: 5.4+/-1.3, 3-7.5 (mean+/-SD, range); end: 4.9+/-1.1; 2.5-6.5; P<0.001] and significantly increased the walking distance and speed in particular after the fourth TCA injection. Concomitantly serially determined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of cell injury, neuron-specific enolase, total tau-protein, S-100, and beta-amyloid did not significantly change within the interval of TCA treatment. No serious side effects appeared. We conclude that repeat intrathecal injection of 40 mg TCA provides a substantial benefit in progressive MS patients with predominant spinal symptoms and does not alter CSF markers of neuronal cell injury.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · European Journal of Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the summer of 2001, a nationwide epidemiological multiple sclerosis (MS) register was initiated under the auspices of the German MS Society (DMSG). This project aimed at collecting epidemiological data on the number of patients with MS, course of the disease, and their social situation in Germany. During the 2-year pilot phase, five MS centers with various regional differences and treatment methods participated, leading to a representative selection of patients. In December 2003, standardised data sets of 3,458 MS patients were available for evaluation. After examining the quality of the data, 3,223 sets remained for further analysis. The demographics were similar to those obtained from other epidemiological studies: 72% of the patients were female, mean age was 42.9+/-11.2 years, mean disease duration 12.6+/-8.7 years, and 64% suffered from the relapsing-remitting form of the disease. The median EDSS was 3.0, and 69% of patients had an EDSS </=4.0. The great effect of this disorder was underscored by the fact that one third of the patients had prematurely retired due to MS. After successful completion of the pilot phase, the MS register will provide reliable data and thus serve as an important tool to improve the overall situation of MS patients in Germany.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A confident and accurate diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) is important, but a specific diagnostic test for the disease does not exist. The traditional diagnostic criteria of Poser et al. were published in 1983, and recently, McDonald et al. recommended new criteria for the diagnosis of MS.
In this study these two diagnostic schemes were compared by prospectively applying both of them to 76 patients with clinical features suggesting a new diagnosis of MS.
Using the Poser criteria, 29 patients (38%) were classified as clinically definite and 35 patients (46%) as laboratory definite MS. According to the new McDonald criteria, MS was diagnosed in 39 (52%) patients, 37 patients (48%) had 'possible MS'. All patients with a clinically definite MS with the Poser criteria were also given the diagnosis of MS as recommended by McDonald et al. Of those 35 patients with laboratory definite MS according to Poser et al., four patients could be classified as having MS with the McDonald criteria, 89% of them had 'possible MS'. Conversely, 75% of the 39 patients, who fulfilled the new McDonald criteria for MS were assigned to the category of clinically definite MS according to the Poser criteria, and 83% of the patients with a 'possible MS' using the McDonald criteria, had a laboratory definite MS with the Poser criteria.
MS according to the McDonald criteria was diagnosed more often than 'clinically definite MS' according to Poser et al., but combining the categories of clinically and laboratory definite MS, the diagnosis of MS could clearly be established more frequently using the Poser criteria.