[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Emerging evidence suggests a role of lycopene in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to investigate the association of serum lycopene concentration with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a marker of arterial stiffness and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation.
healthy women (n=264, 31-75 yrs) were classified into tertiles according to serum lycopene concentration. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between serum lycopene and baPWV.
Subjects in middle tertile (T2) and upper tertile (T3) had lower baPWV (1263+/-23 and 1265+/-14 cm/s vs. 1338+/-21 cm/s; p=0.009) and lower oxidized LDL (oxLDL) (53+/-3 and 55+/-3 U/L vs. 66+/-3 U/L; p<0.001) than those in lower tertile (T1). Subjects in T3 showed higher LDL particle size (24.3+/-0.08 nm vs. 24.0+/-0.07 nm, p=0.005) and lower C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (0.80+/-0.25mg/dL vs. 1.27+/-0.24 mg/dL, p=0.015), compared with those in T1. Logistic regression analysis showed that baPWV decreased with the increment of lycopene concentration; log baPWV decreased by 0.21 cm/s (95% CI -0.168;-0.045, p=0.001) per unit change in lycopene. After adjustment for age, BMI, smoking, drinking, menopause and blood pressure, the estimated effect was attenuated by 35%, but remained statistically significant [-0.13 cm/s (95% CI -0.112;-0.018, p=0.006)]. Further adjustment for beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, oxLDL, LDL particle size, and hs-CRP increased the strength of the association [beta=-0.221 (95% CI -0.215;-0.012, p=0.029)].
This study supports the presence of an independent inverse relationship between circulating lycopene and baPWV. Additionally, reduced oxidative modification of LDL may be one of mediators on the mechanisms how lycopene reduces arterial stiffness.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effect of a mixture composed of Garcinia cambogia extract, soypeptide, and L: -carnitine (1.2:0.3:0.02, w/w/w) in rats rendered obese by a high-fat diet (HFD). Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either the high-fat control diet (CD) or the 0.38% mixture-supplemented HFD (CD + M) for 9 weeks. The mixture significantly reduced body weight gain and the accumulation of visceral fat mass in a rat model of HFD-induced obesity. Moreover, the mixture effectively lowered blood and hepatic lipid concentrations and serum glucose, insulin, c-peptide, and leptin levels in rats with HFD-induced obesity. Results from real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses indicated that the expression levels of leptin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) genes in the epididymal fat tissue of rats fed the CD + M diet were 0.4-, 0.6-, and 0.48-fold, respectively, of those found in the CD rats (P < 0.05), while expression of the uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) gene in epididymal adipose tissue was 1.25-fold (P < 0.05) of that found in CD rats. In conclusion, a mixture composed of G. cambogia extract, soy peptide, and L: -carnitine attenuated visceral fat accumulation and improved dyslipidemia in a rat model with HFD-induced obesity.