- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study initially investigated the occurrence of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the water supply system of Metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand, evaluating 624 samples collected between 2007 and 2009. It was found that the mean total THM concentration was 66 μg/L, with CHCl3 accounting for 85% of the total. The main focus, however, was the development of models using linear and non-linear regression analyses to determine the effect of key disinfection parameters on THM formation. Regression techniques revealed that the total and residual Cl2 concentrations, and contact time (expressed as the equivalent pipe distance) played the most critical role in THM formation, regardless of the season investigated. A moderate correlation was generally observed, however, the correlation was considerably stronger in the dry seasons (i.e. winter and summer) compared to the rainy season. Furthermore, the similarity in statistical parameters regarding the actual and predicted THM concentrations suggests that the models developed are reliable.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract This research assesses the potential for co-treatment of a dairy wastewater with a domestic wastewater in a lab-scale, continuous-flow activated sludge system. To evaluate the influence of the dairy waste contribution, seven runs were conducted with each run being a mixture of dairy wastewater (either cheese or milk) in different ratios ranging from 1:0.01 to 1:0.30 by volume. More than 87 % of the carbon was removed for both waste additions; however while 95 % ammonia-nitrogen removal was recorded for the cheese waste, only 75 % removal was obtained for the milk. Kinetic studies for carbon consumption revealed a first-order model with lower kinetic constants as the cheese waste proportion increased. Specific carbon consumption rates indicted that the biomass had not reached its maximum potential to degrade carbon. The ability of the biomass to settle was hindered when the Gram negative to Gram positive filamentous bacteria ratio increased to approximately 1.5.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This research explored the biodegradability of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in two laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) that operated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The potential limit of 2,4-D degradation was investigated at a hydraulic retention time of 48 h, using glucose as a supplemental substrate and increasing feed concentrations of 2,4-D; namely 100 to 700 mg/L (i.e. industrial strength) for the aerobic system and 100 to 300 mg/L for the anaerobic SBR. The results revealed that 100 mg/L of 2,4-D was completely degraded following an acclimation period of 29 d (aerobic SBR) and 70 d (anaerobic SBR). The aerobic system achieved total 2,4-D removal at feed concentrations up to 600 mg/L which appeared to be a practical limit, since a further increase to 700 mg/L impaired glucose degradation while 2,4-D biodegradation was non-existent. In all cases, glucose was consumed before the onset of 2,4-D degradation. In the anaerobic SBR, 2,4-D degradation was limited to 120 mg/L.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study addressed the removal of ammonia from recycled centrate via biological nitrification and denitrification in batch reactors. Nitrification was successful at ammonia feed concentrations up to 400 mg/L and carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratios greater than 1. The use of pre-exposed biomass to ammonia-rich centrate reduced considerably the overall time required for nitrification, which was also reflected on the corresponding specific rates. The denitrification of naturally-generated nitrates proceeded smoothly, with methanol modestly outperforming acetate as external carbon source. Furthermore, simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) was induced in the presence of readily biodegradable organic carbon (i.e., methanol or acetate) under aerobic conditions. Overall, total nitrogen removal from ammonia-rich centrate by biological methods was viable under the conditions investigated.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Energy generation from methane (CH(4)) is one of the primary targets of the anaerobic digestion process. Consequently, the focus of this study was to investigate the effect on CH(4) production of total solids (TS) loading (measured as % TS) and hydraulic residence time (HRT) during the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). Laboratory-scale, two-phase anaerobic digestion systems were employed with each system consisting of an acidogenic reactor and a methanogenic reactor linked in series. The group A runs in the experiment explored the effect on digester performance of four variations in methanogenic HRT (15, 20, 25 and 30 days) at three different feed TS concentrations (8, 12 and 15%). The group B runs compared the actual methane yield (0.14 to 0.45 L g VSfeed−1)) to that predicted by the Chen-Hashimoto model. Results from the group A runs indicated that acidogenesis improved with an increase in % TS and a decrease in HRT; while, methanogenesis behaved inversely, achieving higher yields at the lower % TS and longer HRT values. In comparison with the group B runs, the Chen-Hashimoto model under-predicted (by an average of 16.5 ± 6.6%) the CH(4) yield obtained from the digestion of OFMSW.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the ability of an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A2/O) system to treat a slaughterhouse wastewater. The system employed two identical continuous-flow reactors (101 total liquid volume each) running in parallel with the main operational variable, being the internal recycle (IR) rate. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and total phosphorus (TP) performance was evaluated as the IR flowrate was increased from a Q of 151d(-1) to 4Q at a system hydraulic retention time of 16 h and a solids retention time of 10 d. The COD:TKN and COD:TP ratios were 8.2:1 and 54:1, which supported both nitrogen and phosphorus removal. For all IR multiples of Q, the COD removal was in excess of 90%. The TKN removal showed a modest improvement (a 4-5% increase, depending on the dissolved oxygen (DO)) as the IR doubled from Q to 2Q, but no further increase was observed at the 4Q IR rate. The TP removal reached its optimum (around 85%-89% (again depending on the DO)) at the 2Q rate.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This laboratory-scale study explored the use of rice husk ash (RHA) as an admixture to stabilize and solidify the waste sludge from a chrome-tanning process. Various ratios of RHA and tannery sludge were used, ranging from 0.25 to 1.0 by weight of the cement content, resulting in an experimental matrix of 16 runs. It was observed that although the compressive strength of solidified sludge improved at longer curing times, the increase was moderate after 7days of curing. In addition, higher RHA and/or sludge ratios progressively reduced the strength of the samples. On the other hand, curing time had a positive effect on chromium leachability since the leaching concentration decreased considerably with an increase in curing time, up to 28days. Furthermore, both the RHA and/or sludge content affected leachability, producing acceptable results, from a Thai regulatory perspective, at ratios of 0.50 or lower. Finally, the solidified sludge can be disposed of in a secure landfill and/or used as a construction material in a number of applications. KeywordsChromium removal–Tannery waste sludge–Rice husk ash–Stabilization/solidification
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effect of upper mesophilic temperature and feed-to-seed (F/S) ratio on anaerobic digestion using four 3.5 L batch-scale reactors. Initially, eight F/S ratios, ranging from 10/90 to 90/10, were explored at 37 degrees C, using a mixture of primary and secondary municipal sludge as feed. It was observed that the systems with low F/S ratios (40/60 and below) showed a stable performance while those with high ratios (50/50 and above) experienced the effect of organic overloading indicated by reduced removal of volatile solids (VS) in the feed, a drop in pH, volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation during the first 10 days of operation, and total gas production markedly lower than the corresponding theoretical values. Subsequently, the effect of temperature, in the 37 to 49 degrees C range, was studied at an F/S ratio of 20/80. Results revealed that an increase in temperature between 37 and 43 degrees C had a rather minimal effect on the process, with the exception of a moderate increase in total gas production. A further rise in the temperature in the 45 to 49 degrees C range however appeared to trigger an adverse effect evidenced by enhanced percent VSS reduction (possibly the result of cell lysis), VFA accumulation and an increase in the non-VFA total organic carbon (TOC) content. Therefore, it can be concluded that an operating temperature in the 37 to 43 degrees C range resulted in a stable and satisfactory reactor performance.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biological removal of nitrogen and carbon from farm dairy effluent (FDE) was studied with two laboratory-scale systems following nitrification and denitrification processes. Each system consisted of an upflow multilayer bioreactor (UMBR) as a pre-denitrification unit, an aeration tank (AT) as nitrification unit and a secondary clarifier. The optimization of two operational variables, total hydraulic retention time (HRT) and internal recycle (IR) rate with both real-FDE and a synthetic-wastewater were investigated. First, HRTs of 2, 3, 4 and 5 days were tested with synthetic-wastewater at uniform IR rate. The HRT of 4 days proved optimum with high efficiencies for nitrification (>90%), denitrification (>90%) and total chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal ( approximately 90%). The lowest efficiency was recorded at 2 days HRT with 7% nitrification efficiency. This was followed by experimentation with IR rates of 200%, 300% and 400% on both real-FDE and synthetic-wastewater at optimized HRT. The increase in IR to 300% improved the denitrification potential and overall performance with continuous high nitrification efficiency and COD removal whereas IR of 400% retarded the process. The application of combined UMBR and activated sludge system showed good potential for biological removal of nitrogen from FDE.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes how the degradation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is affected through codigestion with varying amounts of return activated sludge (RAS). Solid waste that had its inorganic fraction selectively removed was mixed with RAS in ratios of 100% OFMSW, 50% OFMSW/50% RAS, and 25% OFMSW/75% RAS. The total solids (TS) concentration was held at 8% and three anaerobic digester systems treating the mixtures were held (for the first run) at a total hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 28 days. Increasing amounts of RAS did not however improve the mixture's digestability, as indicated by little change and/or a drop in the main performance indices [including percentage volatile solids (VS) removal and specific gas production]. The optimum ratio in this research therefore appeared to be 100% OFMSW with an associated 85.1 ± 0.6% VS removal and 0.72 ± 0.01 L total gas g(- 1) VS. In the second run, the effect of increasing percentage of TS (8, 12% and 15%) at a system HRT of 28 days was observed to yield no improvement in the main performance indices (i.e. percentage VS removal and specific gas production). Finally, during the third run, variations in the total system HRT were investigated at an 8% TS, again using 100% OFMSW. Of the HRTs explored (23, 28 and 33 days), the longest HRT yielded the best performance overall, particularly in terms of specific gas production (0.77 ± 0.01 L total gas g(-1) VS).
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study explored the potential of lead and copper leaching from brass plumbing in the Auckland region of New Zealand. A five-month field investigation, at six representative locations, indicated that Auckland's water can be characterized as soft and potentially corrosive, having low alkalinity and hardness levels and a moderately alkaline pH. More than 90% of the unflushed samples contained lead above the maximum acceptable value (MAV) of 10 microg/L (New Zealand Standards). In contrast, the copper level of unflushed samples remained consistently below the corresponding MAV of 2 mg/L. Flushing however reduced sharply metal concentrations, with lead values well below the MAV limit. Generally, metal leaching patterns showed a limited degree of correlation with the variations in temperature, dissolved oxygen and free chlorine residual at all sampling locations. Furthermore, a series of bench-scale experiments was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of pH and alkalinity adjustment, as well as orthophosphate addition as corrosion control tools regarding lead and copper dissolution. Results demonstrated that lead and copper leaching was predominant during the first 24 hr of stagnation, but reached an equilibrium state afterwards. Since the soluble fraction of both metals was small (12% for lead, 29% for copper), it is apparent that the non-soluble compounds play a predominant role in the dissolution process. The degree of leaching however was largely affected by the variations in pH and alkalinity. At pH around neutrality, an increase in alkalinity promoted metal dissolution, while at pH 9.0 the effect of alkalinity on leaching was marginal. Lastly, addition of orthophosphate as a corrosion inhibitor was more effective at pH 7.5 or higher, resulting in approximately 70% reduction in both lead and copper concentrations.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This laboratory-scale study investigated initially the potential of heavy metal removal from a metal-finishing wastewater using fly and bottom ash from a power plant as coagulants. It was found that the maximum heavy metal content in the ash–sludge mix was obtained at a fly ash-to-bottom ash ratio of 1.5:1 and a stirring time of 3h, which resulted in heavy metal removal (i.e., Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) in excess of 99%, with effluent concentrations below the corresponding regulatory standards of Thailand. Furthermore, the feasibility of using fly ash as an admixture to stabilize and solidify the ash–sludge mix generated previously was explored. Results indicated that the stabilization/solidification process can achieve a high level of heavy metal removal efficiency from the ash–sludge mix. The optimum ratio regarding chromium leaching was found to be 1:0.75:0.75 (cement:fly ash:ash–sludge). In addition, the compressive strength and the chromium leaching concentration of the solidified sludge were within acceptable levels for secure landfill disposal and/or use as a construction material.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This research investigated the suitability of alkali-treated coconut shells as a carbon source for denitrification. Suitability was assessed through an exploration of specific denitrification (kN) and carbon consumption (kC) rates, in addition to kinetic constants. The rates and/or constants were calculated from batch tests conducted in five denitrification flasks. Each flask contained three components, with the first being activated sludge that had been washed to remove residual organic matter and that provided a denitrifying biomass. The second component was the electron donor, which consisted of neutralized supernatant from carbon-extraction flasks. These flasks had coconut shell fragments (2 mm ≤ x ≤10 mm) which had been soaked for 7 days in NaOH (pH = 12); yielding a net release of approximately 700 mg L -1 chemical oxygen demand (COD). The final component was the electron acceptor; namely, 55 mg L-1 of nitrate (NO3--N). The addition of this quantity of nitrate yielded a nonlimiting carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratio of 2.6. Denitrification was successful and occurred in two distinct phases. The first was an "acclimation phase" having mean kN and kC values of 0.060 ± 0.015 mg NO3--N mg VSS-1 day-1 and 0.587 ± 0.069 mg COD mg VSS-1 day-1, respectively. The second phase denitrified three times as fast with a kN value of 0.168 ± 0.063 mg NO3--N mg VSS-1 day -1. The kC value, however, was only 0.044 ± 0.128 mg COD mg VSS-1 day-1, suggesting either autotrophic denitrification and/or a dynamic balance between carbon released via cell lyses and carbon consumed by heterotrophic activity. The rate data was evaluated against zero- and first-order kinetic models; however, only the second phase of the nitrate-removal data could be fitted, and that was to zero-order kinetics (mean k0 value of 11.2 ± 1.8 mg L-1 h -1).
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the ability of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system to treat four industrial wastewaters, namely, textile, landfill leachate, seafood and slaughterhouse effluents. The system employed three identical SBRs (10 l volume each) operating in parallel and each waste was treated one at a time. The operational variables examined included the length of the non-aerated period and the solids retention time (SRT). All four wastewaters experienced chemical oxyfen demand (COD) and total kjeldhal nitrogen (TKN) removals greater than 81%, while the TP removals were lower, ranging from 57 to 94%. The length of the non-aerated period appeared to have minimal effect on the SBR performance; however, increases in SRT reduced the percent TP removal for the textile and leachate wastes only. In addition, to investigate organic loading limits to the seafood SBR system, the COD was increased by three increments of 250 mg l(-1) starting from a baseline concentration of 1100 mg l(-1). This resulted in a reduction in both the TKN and TP removal at the higher concentrations. Finally, for the slaughterhouse wastewater, the COD:TKN ratio was tested at levels of 6:1, 8:1 and 9:1 with the result that only the TP removal was affected at the lowest ratio.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, 10 L sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated at a 12-h cycle length (four alternating anoxic/oxic conditions) to assess the biological nutrient removal potential of a domestic wastewater treated at the Huay Kwang plant, Bangkok, Thailand. The wastewater was found to be carbon-limited (chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) (i.e., COD:TKN) ratio of 6.4:1). This ratio was insufficient to support good phosphorus removal. Glucose was therefore added to increase the COD:TKN ratio ultimately to 10:1 and the COD, TKN and total phosphorus (TP) removals at this ratio were all in excess of 95%. An alternative carbon source from a local fruit canning industry was then added at the same COD:TKN ratio; and, in order to increase the throughput of the waste treated, the cycle length was simultaneously shortened to 8 h keeping approximately the same anoxic/oxic fractions. The COD removal remained high (> 95%), however the TKN and TP removals were substantially reduced (79% and 66%, respectively), indicating that the shortened cycle length was sub-optimum. The last phase of the research involved changing the anoxic/oxic fractions of the cycle time to maximize performance. It was found that for the conditions studied in this research, the performance improved in proportion to the increase in the first anoxic fraction, being most stable at the highest anoxic fraction of the cycle length (0.33).
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the biodegradability of the herbicides isoproturon and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Two laboratory-scale (2L liquid volume) SBRs were employed: one reactor performing under aerobic and the other under anaerobic conditions. The aerobic SBR was operated at an ambient temperature (22+/-2 degrees C), while the anaerobic SBR was run in the lower mesophilic range (30+/-2 degrees C). Each bioreactor was seeded with a 3:1 mixture (by weight) of fresh sludge and biomass that had been previously exposed to both herbicides. The effect of herbicide concentration on either treatment process was explored at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 48 h, using glucose as a supplemental carbon substrate. Although no isoproturon degradation was observed in either system during the study, complete 2,4-D removal occurred after an acclimation period of approximately 30 d (aerobic SBR) and 70 d (anaerobic SBR). The aerobic reactor achieved complete 2,4-D utilization at feed concentrations up to 500 mg/L. A further increase to 700 mg/L, however, proved to be inhibitory since 2,4-D biodegradation was negligible. On the other hand, the anaerobic SBR was able to degrade 120 mg/L of 2,4-D, which corresponds to 40% of the maximum feed concentration applied. Moreover, glucose was consumed first throughout the experiment in a sequential utilization pattern relating to 2,4-D, with biodegradation of both substrates following closely first-order kinetics.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study explored the biodegradation potential of two agricultural pesticides (2,4-D and isoproturon) as well as their effect on the performance of the anaerobic digestion process. Three 3.5 L batch reactors were used, having the same initial isoproturon concentration (25 mg/L) and different 2,4-D concentrations (i.e. 0, 100, or 300 mg/L, respectively). All systems were fed with equal amounts of primary sludge and digested sludge and operated at the low mesophilic range (32 +/- 2 degrees C). Following an acclimation period of approximately 30 days, complete 2,4-D removal was achieved, whereas isoproturon biodegradation was practically negligible. The presence of 2,4-D did not have a direct effect on acidogenesis since soluble organic carbon [expressed either as volatile fatty acids (VFAs) or as total organic carbon (TOC)] peaked within the first 10 days of operation in all bioreactors. Utilization of VFAs however appeared to follow two distinct patterns: one pattern was represented by acetate and butyrate (i.e. no acid accumulation) while the other was followed by propionate, isobuturate, valerate and isovalerate (i.e. acid accumulation, duration of which was related to the initial 2,4-D concentration). On the whole, all reactors exhibited a successful digestion performance demonstrated by complete VFAs utilization, considerable gas production (containing 45 to 65% methane by volume), substantial volatile suspended solids (VSS) reduction (42 to 50%), as well as pH and alkalinity recovery.
University of Auckland
Окленд, Auckland, New Zealand
- Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Manitoba
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
- Department of Civil Engineering