D. R. Anderson

Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (141)459.47 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Context: Transmission spectroscopy has proven to be a useful tool for the study of exoplanet atmospheres, and has lead to the detection of a small number of elements and molecules (Na, K, H$_2$O), but also revealed that many planets show flat transmission spectra consistent with the presence of opaque high-altitude hazes or clouds. Aims: We apply this technique to the $M_P=0.38 M_{jup}$, $R_p=1.12 R_{jup}$, $P=2.78d$ planet WASP-49b, aiming to characterize its transmission spectrum between 0.73 and 1 $\mathrm{\mu}$m and search for the features of K and H$_2$O. Methods: Three transits of WASP-49b have been observed with the FORS2 instrument installed at the VLT/UT1 telescope at the ESO Paranal site. We used FORS2's MXU mode with grism GRIS_600z, producing simultaneous multi-wavelength transit lightcurves throughout the i' and z' bands. We combined these data with independent broadband photometry from the Euler and TRAPPIST telescopes to obtain a good measurement of the transit shape. Strong correlated noise structures are present in the FORS2 lightcurves due to rotating flat field structures that are introduced by inhomogeneities of the linear atmospheric dispersion corrector's transparency. We account for these structures by constructing common noise models from the residuals of lightcurves bearing the same noise structures, and use these together with simple parametric models for the inference of the transmission spectrum. Results: We present three independent transmission spectra of WASP-49b between 0.73 and 1.02 $\mu m$, as well as a transmission spectrum between 0.65 and 1.02 $\mu m$ from the combined analysis of FORS2 and broadband data. The results obtained from the three individual epochs agree well. The transmission spectrum of WASP-49b is best fit by atmospheric models containing a cloud deck at pressure levels of 1 mbar or less.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of two additional planetary companions to WASP-41 and WASP-47. WASP-41 c is a planet of minimum mass 3.18 $\pm$ 0.20 M$_{\rm Jup}$, eccentricity 0.29 $\pm$ 0.02 and orbiting in 421 $\pm$ 2 days. WASP-47 c is a planet of minimum mass 1.24 $\pm$ 0.22 M$_{\rm Jup}$, eccentricity 0.13 $\pm$ 0.10 and orbiting in 572 $\pm$ 7 days. Unlike most of the planetary systems including a hot Jupiter, these two systems with a hot Jupiter have a long period planet located at only $\sim$1 AU from their host star. WASP-41 is a rather young star known to be chromospherically active. To differentiate its magnetic cycle from the radial velocity effect due the second planet, we use the emission in the H$\alpha$ line and find this indicator well suited to detect the stellar activity pattern and the magnetic cycle. The analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect induced by WASP-41 b suggests that the planet could be misaligned, though an aligned orbit cannot be excluded. WASP-47 has recently been found to host two additional transiting super Earths. With such an unprecedented architecture, the WASP-47 system will be very important for the understanding of planetary migration.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We present the discovery by the WASP-South survey of three planets transiting moderately bright stars (V ~ 11). WASP-120b is a massive (5.0MJup) planet in a 3.6-day orbit that we find likely to be eccentric (e = 0.059+0.025-0.018) around an F5 star. WASP-122b is a hot-Jupiter (1.37MJup, 1.79RJup) in a 1.7-day orbit about a G4 star. Our predicted transit depth variation cause by the atmosphere of WASP-122b suggests it is well suited to characterisation. WASP-123b is a hot-Jupiter (0.92MJup, 1.33RJup) in a 3.0-day orbit around an old (~ 7 Gyr) G5 star.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015
  • T. Močnik · B. Clark · D. R. Anderson · C. Hellier · D. J. A. Brown
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    ABSTRACT: By analysing K2 short-cadence observations we detect starspots on WASP-85A, the host star of the hot Jupiter WASP-85Ab. The star shows a rotational modulation with a period of 13.6 $\pm$ 0.1 d. The absence of repeated occultations of the same spots suggests that the planet's orbit is not aligned with the star's rotational axis ($\lambda>10^{\circ}$). There are no significant transit-timing variations and thus no evidence of any additional planet in the system. Given the pronounced rotational modulation we are only able to place an upper limit of 100 parts per million for any phase-curve modulations and the secondary eclipse.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present the discovery by the WASP-South survey, in close collaboration with the Euler and TRAPPIST telescopes, of WASP-121 b, a new remarkable short-period transiting hot Jupiter, whose planetary nature has been statistically validated by the PASTIS software. The planet has a mass of $1.183_{-0.062}^{+0.064}$ $M_{\mathrm{Jup}}$, a radius of 1.865 $\pm$ 0.044 $R_{\mathrm{Jup}}$, and transits every $1.2749255_{-0.0000025}^{+0.0000020}$ days an active F6-type main-sequence star ($V$=10.4, $1.353_{-0.079}^{+0.080}$ $M_{\odot}$, 1.458 $\pm$ 0.030 $R_{\odot}$, $T_{\mathrm{eff}}$ = 6460 $\pm$ 140 K). A notable property of WASP-121 b is that its orbital semi-major axis is only $\sim$1.15 times larger than its Roche limit, which suggests that the planet might be close to tidal disruption. Furthermore, its large size and extreme irradiation ($\sim$$7.1\:10^{9}$ erg $\mathrm{s}^{-1} \mathrm{cm}^{-2}$) make it an excellent target for atmospheric studies via secondary eclipse observations. Using the TRAPPIST telescope, we indeed detect its emission in the $z'$-band at better than $\sim$4$\sigma$, the measured occultation depth being 603 $\pm$ 130 ppm. Finally, from a measurement of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect with the CORALIE spectrograph, we infer a sky-projected spin-orbit angle of $257.8_{-5.5}^{+5.3}$ deg. This result indicates a significant misalignment between the spin axis of the host star and the orbital plane of the planet, the planet being in a nearly polar orbit. Such a high misalignment suggests a migration of the planet involving strong dynamical events with a third body.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of the transiting hot Jupiter exoplanet WASP-85Ab. Using a combined analysis of spectroscopic and photometric data, we determine that the planet orbits its host star every 2.66 days, and has a mass of 1.09+/-0.03 M_Jup and a radius of 1.44+/-0.02 R_Jup. The host star is of G5 spectral type, with magnitude V=11.2, and lies 125+/-80 pc distant. We find stellar parameters of T_eff=5685+/-65 K, super-solar metallicity ([Fe/H]=0.08+/-0.10), M_star=1.04+/-0.07 M_sun and R_star=0.96+/-0.13 R_sun. The system has a K-dwarf binary companion, WASP-85B, at a separation of approximately 1.5". The close proximity of this companion leads to contamination of our photometry, decreasing the apparent transit depth that we account for during our analysis. Without this correction, we find the depth to be 50 percent smaller, the stellar density to be 32 percent smaller, and the planet radius to be 18 percent smaller than the true value. Many of our radial velocity observations are also contaminated; these are disregarded when analysing the system in favour of the uncontaminated HARPS observations, as they have reduced semi-amplitudes that lead to underestimated planetary masses. We find a long-term trend in the binary position angle, indicating a misalignment between the binary and orbital planes. WASP observations of the system show variability with a period of 14.64 days, indicative of rotational modulation caused by stellar activity. Analysis of the Ca ii H+K lines shows strong emission that implies that both binary components are strongly active. We find that the system is likely to be less than a few Gyr old. WASP-85 lies in the field of view of K2 Campaign 1. Long cadence observations of the planet clearly show the planetary transits, along with the signature of stellar variability. Analysis of the K2 data, both long and short cadence, is ongoing.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of three new transiting hot Jupiters by WASP-South together with the TRAPPIST photometer and the Euler/CORALIE spectrograph. WASP-74b orbits a star of V = 9.7, making it one of the brighter systems accessible to Southern telescopes. It is a 0.95 M_Jup planet with a moderately bloated radius of 1.5 R_Jup in a 2-d orbit around a slightly evolved F9 star. WASP-83b is a Saturn-mass planet at 0.3 M_Jup with a radius of 1.0 R_Jup. It is in a 5-d orbit around a fainter (V = 12.9) G8 star. WASP-89b is a 6 M_Jup planet in a 3-d orbit with an eccentricity of e = 0.2. It is thus similar to massive, eccentric planets such as XO-3b and HAT-P-2b, except that those planets orbit F stars whereas WASP-89 is a K star. The V = 13.1 host star is magnetically active, showing a rotation period of 20.2 d, while star spots are visible in the transits. There are indications that the planet's orbit is aligned with the stellar spin. WASP-89 is a good target for an extensive study of transits of star spots.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · The Astronomical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present the discoveries of six transiting hot Jupiters: WASP-87b, WASP-108b, WASP-109b, WASP-110b, WASP-111b and WASP-112b. The planets have masses of 0.51--2.2 $M_{\rm Jup}$ and radii of 1.19--1.44 $R_{\rm Jup}$ and are in orbits of 1.68--3.78 d around stars with masses 0.81--1.50 $M_{\rm \odot}$. WASP-111b is in a prograde, near-aligned ($\lambda = -5 \pm 16^\circ$), near-circular ($e < 0.10$ at 2 $\sigma$) orbit around a mid-F star. As tidal alignment around such a hot star is thought to be inefficient, this suggests that either the planet migrated inwards through the protoplanetary disc or that scattering processes happened to leave it in a near-aligned orbit. WASP-111 appears to have transitioned from an active to a quiescent state between the 2012 and 2013 seasons, which makes the system a candidate for studying the effects of variable activity on a hot-Jupiter atmosphere. We find evidence that the mid-F star WASP-87 is a visual binary with a mid-G star. Two host stars are metal poor: WASP-112 has [Fe/H] = $-0.64 \pm 0.15$ and WASP-87 has [Fe/H] = $-0.41 \pm 0.10$. The low density of WASP-112 (0.81 $M_{\rm \odot}$, $0.80 \pm 0.04$ $\rho_{\rm \odot}$) cannot be matched by standard models for any reasonable value of the age of the star, suggesting it to be affected by the "radius anomaly".
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of two hot-Jupiter planets, each orbiting one of the stars of a wide binary system. WASP-94A (2MASS 20550794-3408079) is an F8 type star hosting a transiting planet with a radius of 1.72 +/- 0.06 R_Jup, a mass of 0.445 +/- 0.026 M_Jup, and an orbital period of 3.95 days. The Rossiter-McLaughlin effect is clearly detected, and the measured projected spin-orbit angle indicates that the planet occupies a retrograde orbit. WASP-94B (2MASS 20550915-3408078) is an F9 stellar companion at an angular separation of 15" (projected separation 2700 au), hosting a gas giant with a minimum mass of 0.617 +/- 0.028 M_Jup with a period of 2.008 days, detected by Doppler measurements. The orbital planes of the two planets are inclined relative to each other, indicating that at least one of them is inclined relative to the plane of the stellar binary. These hot Jupiters in a binary system bring new insights into the formation of close-in giant planets and the role of stellar multiplicity.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We report the sky-projected orbital obliquity (spin-orbit angle) of WASP-84b, a 0.70-$M_{\rm Jup}$ planet in a 8.52-day orbit around a G9V/K0V star, to be $\lambda = 0.3 \pm 1.7^\circ$. We obtain a true obliquity of $\psi = 14.8 \pm 8.0^\circ$ from a measurement of the inclination of the stellar spin axis with respect to the sky plane. Due to the young age and the weak tidal forcing of the system, we suggest that the orbit of WASP-84b is unlikely to have both realigned and circularised from the misaligned and/or eccentric orbit likely to have arisen from high-eccentricity migration. Therefore we conclude that the planet probably migrated via interaction with the protoplanetary disc. This would make it the first short-orbit, giant planet to have been shown to have migrated via this pathway. Further, we argue that the distribution of obliquities for planets orbiting cool stars ($T_{\rm eff}$ < 6250 K) suggests that high-eccentricity migration is an important pathway for the formation of short-orbit, giant planets.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery from the WASP survey of two exoplanetary systems, each consisting of a Jupiter-sized planet transiting an 11th magnitude (V) main-sequence star. WASP-104b orbits its star in 1.75 d, whereas WASP-106b has the fourth-longest orbital period of any planet discovered by means of transits observed from the ground, orbiting every 9.29 d. Each planet is more massive than Jupiter (WASP-104b has a mass of $1.27 \pm 0.05~\mathrm{M_{Jup}}$, while WASP-106b has a mass of $1.93 \pm 0.08~\mathrm{M_{Jup}}$). Both planets are just slightly larger than Jupiter, with radii of $1.14 \pm 0.04$ and $1.09 \pm 0.04~\mathrm{R_{Jup}}$ for WASP-104 and WASP-106 respectively. No significant orbital eccentricity is detected in either system, and while this is not surprising in the case of the short-period WASP-104b, it is interesting in the case of WASP-106b, because many otherwise similar planets are known to have eccentric orbits.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of WASP-117b, the first planet with a period beyond 10 days found by the WASP survey. The planet has a mass of M_p = 0.2755 (+/-0.0090) M_jup, a radius of R_p = 1.021 (-0.065 +0.076) R_jup and is in an eccentric (e = 0.302 +/-0.023), 10.02165 +/- 0.00055 d orbit around a main-sequence F9 star. The host star's brightness (V=10.15 mag) makes WASP-117 a good target for follow-up observations, and with a planetary equilibrium temperature of T_eq = 1024 (-26 +30) K and a low planetary density (rho_p = 0.259 (-0.048 +0.054) rho_jup) it is one of the best targets for transmission spectroscopy among planets with periods around 10 days. From a measurement of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we infer a projected angle between the planetary orbit and stellar spin axes of beta = -44 (+/-11) deg, and we further derive an orbital obliquity of psi = 69.5 (+3.6 -3.1) deg. Owing to the large orbital separation, tidal forces causing orbital circularization and realignment of the planetary orbit with the stellar plane are weak, having had little impact on the planetary orbit over the system lifetime. WASP-117b joins a small sample of transiting giant planets with well characterized orbits at periods above ~8 days.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We observed with HARPS, the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect for 40 of the 75 transiting hot Jupiters discovered in the Southern Hemisphere by WASP. Our observations reveal a wide distribution in orbital inclinations indicative of past dynamical interactions. Our data also demonstrate the important effect produced by tidal interactions in shaping the spin-orbit (β) angle distribution. We briefly present and interpret the data we collected in a series of graphs.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
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    ABSTRACT: Period or amplitude variations in eclipsing binaries may reveal the presence of additional massive bodies in the system, such as circumbinary planets. Here, we have studied twelve previously-known eclipsing post-common-envelope binaries for evidence of such light curve variations, on the basis of multi-year observations in the SuperWASP archive. The results for HW Vir provided strong evidence for period changes consistent with those measured by previous studies, and help support a two-planet model for the system. ASAS J102322-3737.0 exhibited plausible evidence for a period increase not previously suggested; while NY Vir, QS Vir and NSVS 14256825 afforded less significant support for period change, providing some confirmation to earlier claims. In other cases, period change was not convincingly observed; for AA Dor and NSVS 07826147, previous findings of constant period were confirmed. This study allows us to present hundreds of new primary eclipse timings for these systems, and further demonstrates the value of wide-field high-cadence surveys like SuperWASP for the investigation of variable stars.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We present Rossiter-McLaughlin observations of WASP-13b and WASP-32b and determine the sky-projected angle between the normal of the planetary orbit and the stellar rotation axis ($\lambda$). WASP-13b and WASP-32b both have prograde orbits and are consistent with alignment with measured sky-projected angles of $\lambda={8^{\circ}}^{+13}_{-12}$ and $\lambda={-2^{\circ}}^{+17}_{-19}$, respectively. Both WASP-13 and WASP-32 have $T_{\mathrm{eff}}<6250$K and therefore these systems support the general trend that aligned planetary systems are preferentially found orbiting cool host stars. A Lomb-Scargle periodogram analysis was carried out on archival SuperWASP data for both systems. A statistically significant stellar rotation period detection (above 99.9\% confidence) was identified for the WASP-32 system with $P_{\mathrm{rot}}=11.6 \pm 1.0 $ days. This rotation period is in agreement with the predicted stellar rotation period calculated from the stellar radius, $R_{\star}$, and $v \sin i$ if a stellar inclination of $i_{\star}=90^{\circ}$ is assumed. With the determined rotation period, the true 3D angle between the stellar rotation axis and the planetary orbit, $\psi$, was found to be $\psi=11^{\circ} \pm 14$. We conclude with a discussion on the alignment of systems around cool host stars with $T_{\mathrm{eff}}<6150$K by calculating the tidal dissipation timescale. We find that systems with short tidal dissipation timescales are preferentially aligned and systems with long tidal dissipation timescales have a broad range of obliquities.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: The results of a search for eclipsing Am star binaries using photometry from the SuperWASP survey are presented. The light curves of 1742 Am stars fainter than V = 8.0 were analysed for the presences of eclipses. A total of 70 stars were found to exhibit eclipses, with 66 having sufficient observations to enable orbital periods to be determined and 28 of which are newly identified eclipsing systems. Also presented are spectroscopic orbits for 5 of the systems. The number of systems and the period distribution is found to be consistent with that identified in previous radial velocity surveys of `classical' Am stars.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of the planets WASP-20b and WASP-28b along with measurements of their sky-projected orbital obliquities. WASP-20b is an inflated, Saturn-mass planet (0.31 $M_{\rm Jup}$; 1.46 $R_{\rm Jup}$) in a 4.9-day, near-aligned ($\lambda = 8.1 \pm 3.6^\circ$) orbit around CD-24 102 ($V$=10.7; F9). WASP-28b is an inflated, Jupiter-mass planet (0.91 $M_{\rm Jup}$; 1.21 $R_{\rm Jup}$) in a 3.4-day, near-aligned ($\lambda = 8 \pm 18^\circ$) orbit around a $V$=12, F8 star. As intermediate-mass planets in short orbits around aged, cool stars ($7^{+2}_{-1}$ Gyr for WASP-20 and $5^{+3}_{-2}$ Gyr for WASP-28; both with $T_{\rm eff}$ < 6250 K), their orbital alignment is consistent with the hypothesis that close-in giant planets are scattered into eccentric orbits with random alignments, which are then circularised and aligned with their stars' spins via tidal dissipation.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Studies of transiting Neptune-sized planets orbiting close to nearby bright stars can inform theories of planet formation because mass and radius and therefore mean density can be accurately estimated and compared with interior models. The distribution of such planets with stellar mass and orbital period relative to their Jovian-mass counterparts can test scenarios of orbital migration, and whether `hot' (period <10 d) Neptunes evolved from `hot' Jupiters as a result of mass loss. We searched 1763 late K and early M dwarf stars for transiting Neptunes by analysing photometry from the Wide Angle Search for Planets and obtaining high-precision (≤10-3) follow-up photometry of stars with candidate transit signals. One star in our sample (GJ 436) hosts a previously reported hot Neptune. We identified 92 candidate signals among 80 other stars and carried out 148 observations of predicted candidate transits with 1-2 m telescopes. Data on 70 WASP signals rules out transits for 39 of them; 28 other signals are ambiguous and/or require more data. Three systems have transit-like events in follow-up photometry and we plan additional follow-up observations. On the basis of no confirmed detections in our survey, we place an upper limit of 10.2 per cent on the occurrence of hot Neptunes around late K and early M dwarfs (95 per cent confidence). A single confirmed detection would translate to an occurrence of 5.3 ± 4.4 per cent. The latter figure is similar to that from Doppler surveys, suggesting that GJ 436b may be the only transiting hot Neptune in our sample. Our analysis of Kepler data for similar but more distant late-type dwarfs yields an occurrence of 0.32 ± 0.21 per cent. Depending on which occurrence is applicable, we estimate that the Next Generation Transit Survey will discover either ˜60 or ˜1000 hot Neptunes around late K- and early M-type dwarfs.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a survey using the WASP archive to search for high frequency pulsations in F-, A- and B-type stars. Over 1.5 million targets have been searched for pulsations with amplitudes greater than 0.5 millimagnitude. We identify over 350 stars which pulsate with periods less than 30 min. Spectroscopic follow-up of selected targets has enabled us to confirm 10 new rapidly oscillating Ap stars, 13 pulsating Am stars and the fastest known $\delta$ Scuti star. We also observe stars which show pulsations in both the high-frequency domain and in the low-frequency $\delta$ Scuti range. This work shows the power of the WASP photometric survey to find variable stars with amplitudes well below the nominal photometric precision per observation.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of WASP-103b, a new ultra-short-period planet (P=22.2 hr) transiting a 12.1 V-magnitude F8-type main-sequence star (1.22+-0.04 Msun, 1.44-0.03+0.05 Rsun, Teff = 6110+-160 K). WASP-103b is significantly more massive (1.49+-0.09 Mjup) and larger (1.53-0.07+0.05 Rjup) than Jupiter. Its large size and extreme irradiation (around 9 10^9 erg/s/cm^2) make it an exquisite target for a thorough atmospheric characterization with existing facilities. Furthermore, its orbital distance is less than 20% larger than its Roche radius, meaning that it might be significantly distorted by tides and might experience mass loss through Roche-lobe overflow. It thus represents a new key object for understanding the last stage of the tidal evolution of hot Jupiters.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics

Publication Stats

2k Citations
459.47 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008-2014
    • Keele University
      • Department of Physics and Astrophysics
      Newcastle-under-Lyme, England, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • The University of Warwick
      • Department of Physics
      Coventry, England, United Kingdom
  • 2009
    • Heidelberg University
      • Centre for Astronomy (ZAH)
      Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany