Vinayak P. Dravid

Epic, Verona, Wisconsin, United States

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Publications (472)2436.68 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Reaction beyond intercalation and the utilization of metal ions beyond lithium-ions are two promising approaches for developing the next generation of high capacity and low cost energy storage materials. Here, we use graphene supported Co3O4 nanocubes and study their reaction with lithium, magnesium and aluminum using in situ transmission electron microscopy. On lithiation, the Co3O4 nanocubes decompose to Co metal nanoparticles (2 to 3 nm) and embed in as-formed Li2O matrix; conversely, the CoO nanoparticles form on the Co site accompanying the decomposition of Li2O in the delithiation process. The lithiation process is dominated by surface diffusion of Li(+), and graphene sheets enhance the Li(+) diffusion. However, upon charge with magnesium, the Mg(2+) diffusion is sluggish, and there is no sign of conversion reaction between Mg and Co3O4 at room temperature. Instead, a thin film consisting of metal Mg nanoparticles is formed on the surface of graphene due to a process similar to metal plating. The Al(3+) diffusion is even more sluggish and no reaction between Al and Co3O4 is observed. These findings provide insights to tackle the reaction mechanism of multivalent ions with electrode materials.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Nanotechnology
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    ABSTRACT: Nanolayered structures present significantly enhanced electrochemical performance by facilitating the surface dependent electrochemical reaction processes for supercapacitors, which however, causes capacitance fade upon cycling due to their poor chemical stability. In this work, we report a simple and effective approach to develop a stable, high performance electrode material by integrating 2D transition metal hydroxide and reduced graphene oxide sheets at nanometer scale. Specifically, a hybrid nanolayer of Ni-Co hydroxide @reduced graphene oxide (Ni,Co-OH/rGO) with an average thickness of 1.37 nm is synthesized through an easy one-pot hydrothermal method. Benefiting from the face to face contact model between Ni-Co hydroxide and rGO sheets, such unique structure presents superior specific capacitance and cycling performance as compared to the pure Ni-Co hydroxide nanolayers. An asymmetric supercapacitor based on Ni,Co-OH/rGO and three dimensional (3D) hierarchical porous carbon is developed, exhibiting a high energy density of 56.1 Wh kg-1 along with remarkable cycling stability (80% retention after 17,000 cycles), which holds great promise for practical applications in energy storage devices.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: High bulk conductance obscures the behavior of surface states in the prototypical topological insulators Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3. However, ternary phases of Bi2Te3−ySey with balanced donor and acceptor levels may lead to large bulk resistivity, allowing for the observation of the surface states. Additionally, the contribution of the bulk conductance may be further suppressed by nanostructuring, increasing the surface-to-volume ratio. Herein we report the synthesis of a ternary tetradymite newly confined to two dimensions. Ultra-thin large-area stable nanosheets were fabricated via evaporative thinning of a Bi2Te2.9Se0.1 original phase. Owing to vapor pressure differences, a compositional shift to a final Bi-rich phase is observed. The Se/Te ratio of the nanosheet increases tenfold, due to the higher stability of the Bi–Se bonds. Hexagonal crystal symmetry is maintained despite dramatic changes in thickness and stoichiometry. Given that small variations in stoichiometry of this ternary system can incur large changes in carrier concentration and switch majority carrier type, the large compositional shifts found in this case imply that compositional analysis of similar CVD and PVD grown materials is critical to correctly interpret topological insulator performance. Further, the characterization techniques deployed, including STEM-EDS and ToF-SIMS, serve as a case study in determining such compositional shifts in two-dimensional form.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Crystal Growth
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    ABSTRACT: Thermoelectric technology, harvesting electric power directly from heat, is a promising environmentally-friendly means of energy savings and power generation. The thermoelectric efficiency is determined by the device dimensionless figure of merit ZTdev, and optimizing this efficiency requires maximizing ZT values over a broad temperature range. Herein, we report a record high ZTdev ∼1.34, with ZT ranging from 0.7 to 2.0 at 300-773K, realized in hole doped SnSe crystals. The exceptional performance arises from the ultra-high power factor, which comes from a high electrical conductivity and a strongly enhanced Seebeck coefficient enabled by the contribution of multiple electronic valence bands present in SnSe. SnSe is a robust thermoelectric candidate for energy conversion applications in the low and moderate temperature range.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Science

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Chemistry of Materials
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    ABSTRACT: Herein, we report a significantly improved thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of ∼1.1 at ∼923 K in p-type SnTe through In2Te3 alloying and iodine doping. We propose that the introduction of indium at Sn sites in SnTe creates resonant levels inside the valence bands, thereby considerably increasing the Seebeck coefficients and power factors in the low-to-middle temperature range. Unlike SnTe-InTe, the SnTe-In2Te3 system displays much lower lattice thermal conductivity. Utilizing a model for point defect scattering, we analyze the origin of the low thermal conductivity in SnTe-In2Te3 and attribute it mainly to the strong vacancy originated phonon scattering between Sn atoms and the vacancies introduced by In2Te3 alloying and partly to the interfacial scattering by In-rich nanoprecipitates present in SnTe matrix. By alloying only In2Te3 with SnTe, a ZT value of ∼0.9 at 923 K was achieved. ZT can be further increased to ∼1.1 at 923 K through adjusting the charge carriers by iodine doping at Te sites.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Chemistry of Materials
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    ABSTRACT: We report several synergistic effects in Hg alloying of SnTe to enhance the power factor and overall figure of merit ZT. Hg alloying decreases the energy separation between the two valence bands, leading to pronounced band convergence that improves the Seebeck coefficient. Hg alloying of SnTe also significantly enlarges the band gap thereby effectively suppressing the bipolar diffusion. Collectively, this results in high ZT of 1.35 at 910 K for 2% Bi-doped SnTe with 3%HgTe. The solubility limit of Hg in SnTe is less than 3 mol%, and above this level we observe HgTe precipitates in the SnTe matrix, typically trapped at grain boundary triple junctions. The strong point defect scattering of phonons caused by Hg alloying coupled with mesoscale scattering via grain boundaries contributes to a great reduction of lattice thermal conductivity. The multiple synergistic roles that Hg plays in regulating the electron and phonon transport in SnTe provide important new insights into continued optimization of SnTe-based and related materials.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Energy & Environmental Science
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    ABSTRACT: Bladder cancer is one of the deadliest forms of cancer in modern medicine which despite recent progress has remained incurable and challenging for researchers. There is unmet need to address this endemic as the number of patients are growing by about 10,000 every year world-wide. Here, we report a minimally invasive magnetic chemotherapy method to address this problem where polyethylene glycol (PEG) functionalized Fe3O4 magnetic nanostructures (MNS) are homogeneously embedded in thermally responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide, NIPAAm) hydrogels (HG). The system (HG-MNS) loaded with anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) incubated with cancer cell lines subjected to external radiofrequency (RF) field can remotely stimulate the release of drug smartly at the site. The in vitro efficacy investigated on bladder cancer (T-24) cell lines showed the potential of the system in dealing with the disease successfully. Further, the materials preferential accumulation via systemic delivery was studied using swiss mice model. Vital tissue organs like liver, lung and heart were analysed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A detail accounts of the materials optimization, cytotoxicity and anti-proliferation activity tests with apoptosis analysis by flow cytometry after RF exposure (250kHz) to the cells and in vivo biodistribution data are discussed in the paper.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Colloids and surfaces B: Biointerfaces
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate a high solubility limit of >9 mol% for MnTe alloying in SnTe. The electrical conductivity of SnTe decreases gradually while the Seebeck coefficient increases remarkably with increasing MnTe content, leading to enhanced power factors. The room-temperature Seebeck coefficients of Mn-doped SnTe are significantly higher than those predicted by theoretical Pisarenko plots for pure SnTe, indicating a modified band structure. The high-temperature Hall data of Sn1-xMnxTe show strong temperature dependence, suggestive of a two-valence-band conduction behavior. Moreover, the peak temperature of the Hall plot of Sn1-xMnxTe shifts toward lower temperature as MnTe content is increased, which is clear evidence of decreased energy separation (band convergence) between the two valence bands. The first-principles electronic structure calculations based on density functional theory also support this point. The higher doping fraction (>9%) of Mn in comparison with ∼3% for Cd and Hg in SnTe gives rise to a much better valence band convergence that is responsible for the observed highest Seebeck coefficient of ∼230 μV/K at 900 K. The high doping fraction of Mn in SnTe also creates stronger point defect scattering, which when combined with ubiquitous endotaxial MnTe nanostructures when the solubility of Mn is exceeded scatters a wide spectrum of phonons for a low lattice thermal conductivity of 0.9 W m(-1) K(-1) at 800 K. The synergistic role that Mn plays in regulating the electron and phonon transport of SnTe yields a high thermoelectric figure of merit of 1.3 at 900 K.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of the American Chemical Society
  • Gajendra S Shekhawat · Vinayak P Dravid

    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Nature Nanotechnology
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    ABSTRACT: Alloy nanoparticles are important in many fields, including catalysis, plasmonics, and electronics, due to the chemical and physical properties that arise from the interactions between their components. Typically, alloy nanoparticles are made by solution-based synthesis; however, scanning-probe-based methods offer the ability to make and position such structures on surfaces with nanometer-scale resolution. In particular, scanning probe block copolymer lithography (SPBCL), which combines elements of block copolymer lithography with scanning probe techniques, allows one to synthesize nanoparticles with control over particle diameter in the 2−50 nm range. Thus far, single-element structures have been studied in detail, but, in principle, one could make a wide variety of multicomponent systems by controlling the composition of the polymer ink, polymer feature size, and metal precursor concentrations. Indeed, it is possible to use this approach to synthesize alloy nanoparticles comprised of combinations of Au, Ag, Pd, Ni, Co, and Pt. Here, such structures have been made with diameters deliberately tailored in the 10− 20 nm range and characterized by STEM and EDS for structural and elemental composition. The catalytic activity of one class of AuPd alloy nanoparticles made via this method was evaluated with respect to the reduction of 4-nitrophenol with NaBH 4. In addition to being the first catalytic studies of particles made by SPBCL, these proof-of-concept experiments demonstrate the potential for SPBCL as a new method for studying the fundamental science and potential applications of alloy nanoparticles in areas such as heterogeneous catalysis.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of the American Chemical Society
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    ABSTRACT: Three-dimensional (3D) mesostructured semiconductors show promising properties and applications; however, to date, few methods exist to synthesize or fabricate such materials. Metal can diffuse along semiconductor surfaces, and even trace amounts can change the surface behavior. We exploited the phenomena for 3D mesoscale lithography, by showing one example where iterated deposition-diffusion-incorporation of gold over silicon nanowires forms etchant-resistant patterns. This process is facet-selective, producing mesostructured silicon spicules with skeletonlike morphology, 3D tectonic motifs, and reduced symmetries. Atom-probe tomography, coupled with other quantitative measurements, indicates the existence and the role of individual gold atoms in forming 3D lithographic resists. Compared to other more uniform silicon structures, the anisotropic spicule requires greater force for detachment from collagen hydrogels, suggesting enhanced interfacial interactions at the mesoscale. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Science
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    ABSTRACT: The endothelial cell (EC) lining of the pulmonary vascular system forms a semipermeable barrier between blood and the interstitium and regulates various critical biochemical functions. Collectively, it represents a prototypical biomechanical system, where the complex hierarchical architecture, from the molecular scale to the cellular and tissue level, has an intimate and intricate relationship with its biological functions. We investigated the mechanical properties of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (ECs) using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Concurrently, the wider distribution and finer details of the cytoskeletal nano-structure were examined using fluorescence microscopy (FM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), respectively. These correlative measurements were conducted in response to the EC barrier-disrupting agent, thrombin, and barrier-enhancing agent, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). Our new findings and analysis directly link the spatio-temporal complexities of cell re-modeling and cytoskeletal mechanical properties alteration. This work provides novel insights into the biomechanical function of the endothelial barrier and suggests similar opportunities for understanding the form-function relationship in other biomechanical subsystems.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Scientific Reports
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    ABSTRACT: The requirement for large bulk resistivity in topological insulators has led to the design of complex ternary and quaternary phases with balanced donor and acceptor levels. A common feature of the optimized phases is that they lie close to the p- to n-transition. The tetradymite Bi2Te3−x Se x system exhibits minimum bulk conductance at the ordered composition Bi2Te2Se. By combining local and integral measurements of the density of states, we find that the point of minimum electrical conductivity at x = 1.0 where carriers change from hole-like to electron-like is characterized by conductivity of the mixed type. Our experimental findings, which are interpreted within the framework of a two-band model for the different carrier types, indicate that the mixed state originates from different types of native defects that strongly compensate at the crossover point.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · APL Materials
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    ABSTRACT: Control of both photonic and plasmonic coupling in a single optical device represents a challenge due to the distinct length scales that must be manipulated. Here, we show that optical metasurfaces with such control can be constructed using an approach that combines top-down and bottom-up processes, wherein gold nanocubes are assembled into ordered arrays via DNA hybridization events onto a gold film decorated with DNA-binding regions defined using electron beam lithography. This approach enables one to systematically tune three critical architectural parameters: (1) anisotropic metal nanoparticle shape and size, (2) the distance between nanoparticles and a metal surface, and (3) the symmetry and spacing of particles. Importantly, these parameters allow for the independent control of two distinct optical modes, a gap mode between the particle and the surface and a lattice mode that originates from cooperative scattering of many particles in an array. Through reflectivity spectroscopy and finite-difference time-domain simulation, we find that these modes can be brought into resonance and coupled strongly. The high degree of synthetic control enables the systematic study of this coupling with respect to geometry, lattice symmetry, and particle shape, which together serve as a compelling example of how nanoparticle-based optics can be useful to realize advanced nanophotonic structures that hold implications for sensing, quantum plasmonics, and tunable absorbers.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Nano Letters
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    ABSTRACT: Spinel-structured LiMn2O4 (LMO) is a desirable cathode material for Li-ion batteries due to its low cost, abundance, and high power capability. However, LMO suffers from limited cycle life that is triggered by manganese dissolution into the electrolyte during electrochemical cycling. Here, it is shown that single-layer graphene coatings suppress manganese dissolution, thus enhancing the performance and lifetime of LMO cathodes. Relative to lithium cells with uncoated LMO cathodes, cells with graphene-coated LMO cathodes provide improved capacity retention with enhanced cycling stability. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that graphene coatings inhibit manganese depletion from the LMO surface. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that a stable solid electrolyte interphase is formed on graphene, which screens the LMO from direct contact with the electrolyte. Density functional theory calculations provide two mechanisms for the role of graphene in the suppression of manganese dissolution. First, common defects in single-layer graphene are found to allow the transport of lithium while concurrently acting as barriers for manganese diffusion. Second, graphene can chemically interact with Mn3+ at the LMO electrode surface, promoting an oxidation state change to Mn4+, which suppresses dissolution.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Advanced Energy Materials
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    ABSTRACT: Single crystals of [Pb2BiS3][AuTe2], known as the naturally occurring mineral buckhornite, are grown by a self-flux method using the elements in stoichiometric amounts (evacuated quartz tubes, 850 °C, 2 h; cooling to 650 °C within 3 d).
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · ChemInform
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the complexities of cancer, remarkable diagnostic and therapeutic advances have been made during the past decade, which include improved genetic, molecular, and nanoscale understanding of the disease. Physical science and engineering, and nanotechnology in particular, have contributed to these developments through out-of-the-box ideas and initiatives from perspectives that are far removed from classical biological and medicinal aspects of cancer. Nanostructures, in particular, are being effectively utilized in sensing/diagnostics of cancer while nanoscale carriers are able to deliver therapeutic cargo for timed and controlled release at localized tumor sites. Magnetic nanostructures (MNS) have especially attracted considerable attention of researchers to address cancer diagnostics and therapy. A significant part of the promise of MNS lies in their potential for "theranostic" applications, wherein diagnostics makes use of the enhanced localized contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) while therapy leverages the ability of MNS to heat under external radio frequency (RF) field for thermal therapy or use of thermal activation for release of therapy cargo. In this chapter, we report some of the key developments in recent years in regard to MNS as potential theranostic carriers. We describe that the r 2 relaxivity of MNS can be maximized by allowing water (proton) diffusion in the vicinity of MNS by polyethylene glycol (PEG) anchoring, which also facilitates excellent fluidic stability in various media and extended in vivo circulation while maintaining high r 2 values needed for T 2-weighted MRI contrast. Further, the specific absorption rate (SAR) required for thermal activation of MNS can be tailored by controlling composition and size of MNS. Together, emerging MNS show considerable promise to realize theranostic potential. We discuss that properly functionalized MNS can be designed to provide remarkable in vivo stability and accompanying pharmacokinetics exhibit organ localization that can be tailored for specific applications. In this context, even iron-based MNS show extended circulation as well as diverse organ accumulation beyond liver, which otherwise renders MNS potentially toxic to liver function. We believe that MNS, including those based on iron oxides, have entered a renaissance era where intelligent synthesis, functionalization, stabilization, and targeting provide ample evidence for applications in localized cancer theranostics.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Cancer treatment and research
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    Full-text · Dataset · Apr 2015

Publication Stats

13k Citations
2,436.68 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2016
    • Epic
      Verona, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2005-2015
    • Northwest University
      Evanston, Illinois, United States
  • 1970-2015
    • Northwestern University
      • • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • Center for AIDS Research
      • • McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science
      Evanston, Illinois, United States
  • 2010
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 1987-2005
    • Lehigh University
      • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1998
    • Brown University
      • Department of Physics
      Providence, Rhode Island, United States