[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies of influenza-specific immune responses in humans have largely assessed systemic responses involving serum Ab and peripheral blood T cell responses. However, recent evidence indicates that tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells play an important role in local murine intrapulmonary immunity. Rhesus monkeys were pulmonary exposed to 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus at days 0 and 28 and immune responses in different tissue compartments were measured. All animals were asymptomatic postinfection. Although only minimal memory immune responses were detected in peripheral blood, a high frequency of influenza nucleoprotein-specific memory T cells was detected in the lung at the "contraction phase," 49-58 d after second virus inoculation. A substantial proportion of lung nucleoprotein-specific memory CD8(+) T cells expressed CD103 and CD69, phenotypic markers of TRM cells. Lung CD103(+) and CD103(-) memory CD8(+) T cells expressed similar levels of IFN-γ and IL-2. Unlike memory T cells, spontaneous Ab secreting cells and memory B cells specific to influenza hemagglutinin were primarily observed in the mediastinal lymph nodes. Little difference in systemic and local immune responses against influenza was observed between young adult (6-8 y) and old animals (18-28 y). Using a nonhuman primate model, we revealed substantial induction of local T and B cell responses following 2009 pandemic H1N1 infection. Our study identified a subset of influenza-specific lung memory T cells characterized as TRM cells in rhesus monkeys. The rhesus monkey model may be useful to explore the role of TRM cells in local tissue protective immunity after rechallenge and vaccination.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied cross-reactive antibodies against avian influenza H5N1 and 2009 pandemic (p) H1N1 in 200 serum samples from US military personnel collected before the H1N1 pandemic. Assays used to measure antibodies against viral proteins involved in protection included a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay and a neuraminidase inhibition (NI) assay. Viral neutralization by antibodies against avian influenza H5N1 and 2009 pH1N1 was assessed by influenza (H5) pseudotyped lentiviral particle-based and H1N1 microneutralization assays. Some US military personnel had cross-neutralizing antibodies against H5N1 (14%) and 2009 pH1N1 (16.5%). The odds of having cross-neutralizing antibodies against 2009 pH1N1 were 4.4 times higher in subjects receiving more than five inactivated whole influenza virus vaccinations than those subjects with no record of vaccination. Although unclear if the result of prior vaccination or disease exposure, these pre-existing antibodies may prevent or reduce disease severity.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have demonstrated that inactivated seasonal influenza vaccines (IIV) may elicit production of heterosubtypic antibodies, which can neutralize avian H5N1 virus in a small proportion of subjects. We hypothesized that prime boost regimens of live and inactivated trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines (LAIV and IIV) would enhance production of heterosubtypic immunity and provide evidence of cross-protection against other influenza viruses.
In an open-label study, 26 adult volunteers were randomized to receive one of four vaccine regimens containing two doses of 2009-10 seasonal influenza vaccines administered 8 (±1) weeks apart: 2 doses of LAIV; 2 doses of IIV; LAIV then IIV; IIV then LAIV. Humoral immunity assays for avian H5N1, 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1), and seasonal vaccine strains were performed on blood collected pre-vaccine and 2 and 4 weeks later. The percentage of cytokine-producing T-cells was compared with baseline 14 days after each dose.
Subjects receiving IIV had prompt serological responses to vaccine strains. Two subjects receiving heterologous prime boost regimens had enhanced haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralization (NT) titres against pH1N1, and one subject against avian H5N1; all three had pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies detected at baseline. Significantly elevated titres to H5N1 and pH1N1 by neuraminidase inhibition (NI) assay were observed following LAIV-IIV administration. Both vaccines elicited cross-reactive CD4+ T-cell responses to nucleoprotein of avian H5N1 and pH1N1. All regimens were safe and well tolerated.
Neither homologous nor heterologous prime boost immunization enhanced serum HI and NT titres to 2009 pH1N1 or avian H5N1 compared to single dose vaccine. However heterologous prime-boost vaccination did lead to in vitro evidence of cross-reactivity by NI; the significance of this finding is unclear. These data support the strategy of administering single dose trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine at the outset of an influenza pandemic while a specific vaccine is being developed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasmodium vivax is the major cause of malaria outside sub-Saharan Africa and inflicts debilitating morbidity and consequent economic impacts
in developing countries. In order to produce a P. vivax vaccine for global use, we have previously reported the development of a novel chimeric recombinant protein, VMP001, based
on the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of P. vivax. Very few adjuvant formulations are currently available for human use. Our interest is to evaluate second-generation vaccine
formulations to identify novel combinations of adjuvants capable of inducing strong, long-lasting immune responses. In this
study rhesus monkeys were immunized intramuscularly three times with VMP001 in combination with a stable emulsion (SE) or
a synthetic Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist (glucopyranosyl lipid A [GLA]) in SE (GLA-SE). Sera and peripheral blood mononuclear
cells (PBMCs) were tested for the presence of antigen-specific humoral and cellular responses, respectively. All groups of
monkeys generated high titers of anti-P. vivax IgG antibodies, as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and immunofluorescence assays. In addition, all
groups generated a cellular immune response characterized by antigen-specific CD4+ T cells secreting predominantly interleukin-2 (IL-2) and lesser amounts of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). We conclude that
the combination of VMP001 and GLA-SE is safe and immunogenic in monkeys and may serve as a potential second-generation vaccine
candidate against P. vivax malaria.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Infection and immunity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Information on the immune response against H5N1 within the lung is lacking. Here we describe the sustained antiviral immune responses, as indicated by the expression of MxA protein and IFN-alpha mRNA, in autopsy lung tissue from an H5N1-infected patient. H5N1 infection of primary bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells and lung microvascular endothelial cells induced IP-10, and also up-regulated the retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I). Down-regulation of RIG-I gene expression decreased IP-10 response. Co-culturing of H5N1-infected pulmonary cells with TNF-alpha led to synergistically enhanced production of IP-10. In the absence of viral infection, TNF-alpha and IFN-alpha also synergistically enhanced IP-10 response. Methylprednisolone showed only a partial inhibitory effect on this chemokine response. Our findings strongly suggest that both the H5N1 virus and the locally produced antiviral cytokines; IFN-alpha and TNF-alpha may have an important role in inducing IP-10 hyperresponse, leading to inflammatory damage in infected lung.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In an effort to broaden the immune response induced by the RTS,S/AS02(A),vaccine, we have evaluated the immunogenicity of the RTS,S antigen when combined with MSP1(42) and with AMA1, antigens derived from the asexual blood stage. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine whether MSP1(42) and AMA1 vaccines formulated with the AS02(A) Adjuvant System were safe and immunogenic in the rhesus monkey model; (ii) to investigate whether MSP1(42) or AMA1 induced immune interference to each other, or to RTS,S, when added singly or in combinations at a single injection site; (iii) in the event of immune interference, to determine if this could be reduced when antigens were administered at separate sites. We found that MSP1(42) and AMA1 were safe and immunogenic, eliciting antibodies, and Th1 and Th2 responses using IFN-gamma and IL-5 as markers. When malaria antigens were delivered together in one formulation, MSP1(42) and RTS,S reduced AMA1-specific antibody responses as measured by ELISA however, only MSP1(42) lowered parasite growth inhibitory activity of anti-AMA1 antibodies as measured by in vitro growth inhibition assay. Unlike RTS,S, MSP1(42) significantly reduced AMA1 IFN-gamma and IL-5 responses. MSP1(42) suppression of AMA1 IFN-gamma responses was not seen in animals receiving RTS,S+AMA1+MSP1(42) suggesting that RTS,S restored IFN-gamma responses. Conversely, AMA1 had no effect on MSP1(42) antibody and IFN-gamma and IL-5 responses. Neither AMA1 alone or combined with MSP1(42) affected RTS,S antibody or IFN-gamma and IL-5 responses. Immune interference by MSP1(42) on AMA1 antibody responses was also evident when AMA1, MSP1(42) and RTS,S were administered concurrently at separate sites. These results suggest that immune interference may be complex and should be considered for the design of multi-antigen, multi-stage vaccines against malaria.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antigen presenting cells (APCs), especially dendritic cells (DCs), play a crucial role in immune responses against infections by sensing microbial invasion through Toll-like receptors (TLRs). In this regard, TLR ligands are attractive candidates for use in humans and animal models as vaccine adjuvants. So far, no studies have been performed on TLR expression in non-human primates such as rhesus macaques. Therefore, we studied the TLR expression patterns in different subsets of APC in rhesus macaques and compared them to similar APC subsets in human. Also, expression was compared with corresponding DC subsets from different organs from mice. Here we show by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, that blood DC subsets of rhesus macaque expressed the same sets of TLRs as those of human but substantially differed from mouse DC subsets. Macaque myeloid DCs (MDCs) expressed TLR3, 4, 7 and 8 whereas macaque plasmacytoid DCs (PDCs) expressed only TLR7 and 9. Additionally, TLR expression patterns in macaque monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mo-DCs) (i.e., TLR3, 4, 8 and 9), monocytes (i.e., TLR4, 7, and 8) and B cells (i.e., TLR4, 7, 8, and 9) were also similar to their human counterparts. However, the responsiveness of macaque APCs to certain TLR ligands partially differed from that of human in terms of phenotype differentiation and cytokine production. Strikingly, in contrast to human mo-DCs, no IL-12p70 production was observed when macaque mo-DCs were stimulated with TLR ligands. In addition, CD40 and CD86 phenotypic responses to TLR8 ligand (poly U) in mo-DCs of macaque were higher than that of human. Despite these functional differences, our results provide important information for a rational design of animal models in evaluating TLR ligands as adjuvant in vivo.
No preview · Article · Jun 2008 · Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several lines of evidence suggest that targeting pre-erythrocytic-stage parasites for malaria vaccine development can provide sterile immunity. The objectives of this study were (i) to evaluate preclinically the safety and immunogenicity of a new recombinant pre-erythrocytic-stage antigen, liver-stage antigen 1 (LSA1), in nonhuman primates; and (ii) to investigate the potential for immune interference between LSA1 and the leading malaria vaccine candidate, RTS,S, by comparing the immune responses after single-antigen vaccination to responses after simultaneous administration of both antigens at separate sites. Using a rhesus monkey model, we found that LSA1 formulated with the GlaxoSmithKline proprietary adjuvant system AS01B (LSA1/AS01B) was safe and immunogenic, inducing high titers of antigen-specific antibody and CD4+ T-cell responses, as monitored by the production of interleukin-2 and gamma interferon, using intracellular cytokine staining. RTS,S/AS01B vaccination was well tolerated and demonstrated robust antibody and moderate CD4+ T-cell responses to circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and HBsAg. Positive CD8+ T-cell responses to HBsAg were detected, whereas the responses to CSP and LSA1 were negligible. For both LSA1/AS01B and RTS,S/AS01B, no statistically significant differences were observed between individual and concurrent administration in the magnitude or duration of antibody and T-cell responses. Our results revealed that both pre-erythrocytic-stage antigens were safe and immunogenic, administered either separately or simultaneously to rhesus monkeys, and that no significant immune cross interference occurred with concurrent separate-site administration. The comparison of the profiles of immune responses induced by separate-site and single-site vaccinations with LSA1 and RTS,S warrants further investigation.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · Infection and immunity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is worldwide concern that the avian influenza H5N1 virus, with a mortality rate of >50%, might cause the next influenza pandemic. Unlike most other influenza infections, H5N1 infection causes a systemic disease. The underlying mechanisms for this effect are still unclear. In this study, we investigate the interplay between avian influenza H5N1 and human dendritic cells (DC). We showed that H5N1 virus can infect and replicate in monocyte-derived and blood myeloid DC, leading to cell death. These results suggest that H5N1 escapes viral-specific immunity, and could disseminate via DC. In contrast, blood pDC were resistant to infection and produced high amounts of IFN-alpha. Addition of this cytokine to monocyte-derived DC or pretreatment with TLR ligands protected against infection and the cytopathic effects of H5N1 virus.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2007 · The Journal of Immunology