[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have examined the antimalarial structure-activity relationship of a series of methoxylated chalcones (A-CHCH-CO-B) against Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 strain) using fluorescence-based SYBR Green assay. Our study has revealed that electron releasing methoxy groups on ring A and electron withdrawing groups on ring B increases antimalarial potency while the positional interchange of these groups causes a decrease. In particular, 2,4,5-trimethoxy substitution pattern at ring A provided potent analogues which were easily derived from abundantly available natural β-asarone rich Acorus calamus oil. Cytotoxic evaluation indicated that the most active compounds 27 (IC(50): 1.8 μM) and 26 (IC(50): 2 μM) were also relatively non-toxic. Furthermore, compound 12 showed excellent resistance index of 1.1 against chloroquine resistant Dd2 strain of P. falciparum.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antioxidant activities of the methanol extract, fractions and isolated compounds from the roots of Potentilla fulgens Lodd. were evaluated by three in vitro experiments, namely, ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. PF-2 was characterized as a new biflavanoid and designated as Potifulgene on the basis of NMR and mass spectrum, whereas PF-1 was identified as epicatechin. The activities of aqueous methanolic extract and fractions could be correlated with their respective total phenolic content and compared with standard natural antioxidants such as quercetin, vitamin C and pyrogallol. The root powder of the plant was extracted with methanol/water (80:20) by cold extraction and its extract was further partitioned with ethyl acetate, butanol and water fractions. Among the three fractions (ethyl acetate, butanol and water fraction) and the total aqueous methanolic extract, the butanol fraction exhibited good scavenging response measured in terms of TEAC (mM Trolox equivalent/mg extract). The butanol fraction was found to possess strong antioxidant activity (2.54 ± 0.69, 2.41 ± 0.53, 3.57 ± 0.05 mM Trolox equivalent/mg extract) with ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays, respectively. The chemical composition of extracts, studied in terms of total polyphenol content (TPC), was found in the range of 20.61 ± 0.38 to 33.28 ± 0.11 mg/g gallic acid equivalent. A significant correlation was observed between total polyphenolics and antioxidant activity, indicating participation of phenolics in antioxidant activities of extract and fractions. The antioxidant activity of new biflavanoid (Potifulgene) was found to be higher, i.e. 6.85 ± 0.38, 4.24 ± 0.41, 5.35 ± 0.53 than that of epicatechin, 2.13 ± 0.05, 1.50 ± 0.02, 1.57 ± 0.03 with ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays.
No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Journal of Food Composition and Analysis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of different solvent systems (methanol, ethanol, acetone, and their 50% aqueous concentrations) and extraction procedures (microwave, ultrasound, Soxhlet and maceration) on the antioxidant activity of aerial parts of Potentilla atrosanguinea were investigated by three different bioassays: 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP). The 50% aqueous ethanol extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity measured in terms of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) [(54.34 to 122.96, 29.82 to 101.22 and 13.64 to 41.43) mg of Trolox/g] with ABTS (*+), DPPH (*) and FRAP assays, respectively. In general, TEAC of Soxhlet extracts was found to be 1.8 and 3 times higher than ultrasound and maceration but slightly (1.2 times) higher than microwave. A positive correlation (r(2) = 0.931 to 0.982) was observed between total polyphenol (TPC) and total flavonoid (TFC) contents which ranged between 26.7 to 30.7 mg/g gallic acid equivalent and 16.8 to 20.8 mg/g quercetin equivalent respectively, with antioxidant activity. In addition, some of its bioactive phenolic constituents which contribute largely toward antioxidant potential such as chlorogenic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and quercetin were also quantified in different extracts by RP-HPLC.
No preview · Article · Nov 2008 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The growth of horticulture industries worldwide has generated huge quantities of fruit wastes (25%-40% of the total fruits processed). These residues are generally a good source of carbohydrates, especially cell wall polysaccharides and other functionally important bioactive molecules such as proteins, vitamins, minerals and natural antioxidants. "Apple pomace" is a left-over solid biomass with a high moisture content, obtained as a by-product during the processing of apple fruits for juice, cider or wine preparation. Owing to the high carbohydrate content, apple pomace is used as a substrate in a number of microbial processes for the production of organic acids, enzymes, single cell protein, ethanol, low alcoholic drinks and pigments. Recent research trends reveal that there is an increase in the utilization of apple pomace as a food processing residue for the extraction of value added products such as dietary fibre, protein, natural antioxidants, biopolymers, pigments and compounds with unique properties. However, the central dogma is still the stability, safety and economic feasibility of the process(s)/product(s) developed. This review is mainly focused on assessing recent research developments in extraction, isolation and characterization of bioactive molecules from apple pomace, along with their commercial utilization, in food fortification.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · Critical Reviews in Biotechnology