[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are responsible for the life-long production of the blood system and are pivotal cells in hematologic transplantation therapies. During mouse and human development, the first HSCs are produced in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region. Subsequent to this emergence, HSCs are found in other anatomical sites of the mouse conceptus. While the mouse placenta contains abundant HSCs at midgestation, little is known concerning whether HSCs or hematopoietic progenitors are present and supported in the human placenta during development. In this study we show, over a range of developmental times including term, that the human placenta contains hematopoietic progenitors and HSCs. Moreover, stromal cell lines generated from human placenta at several developmental time points are pericyte-like cells and support human hematopoiesis. Immunostaining of placenta sections during development localizes hematopoietic cells in close contact with pericytes/perivascular cells. Thus, the human placenta is a potent hematopoietic niche throughout development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic development begins in several locations in the mammalian embryo: yolk sac, aorta-gonad-mesonephros region (AGM), and the chorio-allantoic placenta. Generation of the most potent cells, adult definitive hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), occurs within the body of the mouse embryo at midgestation in the AGM region. Similarly, at the equivalent developmental time in the human embryo, the AGM region has been shown to contain multipotent progenitors. Hence, the mouse embryo serves as an excellent model to study hematopoietic development. To further studies on the ontogeny of the adult hematopoietic system, the focus of this unit is on the experimental methods used in analysis of the AGM region.
No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Current protocols in stem cell biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have great clinical potential for the replacement and regeneration of diseased or damaged tissue. They are especially important in the production of the hematopoietic microenvironment, which regulates the maintenance and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). In the adult, MSCs and their differentiating progeny are found predominantly in the bone marrow (BM). However, it is as yet unknown in which embryonic tissues MSCs reside and whether there is a localized association of these cells within hematopoietic sites during development. To investigate the embryonic origins of these cells, we performed anatomical mapping and frequency analysis of mesenchymal progenitors at several stages of mouse ontogeny. We report here the presence of mesenchymal progenitors, with the potential to differentiate into cells of the osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages, in most of the sites harboring hematopoietic cells. They first appear in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region at the time of HSC emergence. However, at this developmental stage, their presence is independent of HSC activity. They increase numerically during development to a plateau level found in adult BM. Additionally, mesenchymal progenitors are found in the embryonic circulation. Taken together, these data show a co-localization of mesenchymal progenitor/stem cells to the major hematopoietic territories, suggesting that, as development proceeds, mesenchymal progenitors expand within these potent hematopoietic sites.