J Spiegler

University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany

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Publications (30)50.48 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess whether breastmilk feeding is associated with a reduced risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Secondary outcome measures analyzed were retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Study design: In an ongoing multicenter cohort study, the data of 1433 very low birth weight infants born before 32 weeks of gestation and discharged in 2013 were analyzed. We compared growth and neonatal complications of infants who received breastmilk exclusively (N = 223) with those who received formula feedings exclusively (N = 239). Logistic regression models were estimated for BPD, ROP, and NEC using nutrition as an independent variable. The Firth logistic regression model and Lasso were used for sensitivity analyses. Results: Exclusively breastmilk-fed infants gained less weight compared with formula-fed infants. SDS for weight decreased between birth and discharge (median (Q1-Q3): formula -0.9 (-1.4 to [-0.5]) vs breastmilk -1.1 (-1.7 to [-0.6])). Exclusive formula feeding of very low birth weight infants was associated with increased risks of BPD (OR 2.6) as well as NEC (OR 12.6) and ROP (OR 1.80) after controlling for known risk factors. Conclusions: Exclusive breastmilk feeding was associated with lower growth rates and a reduced risk of BPD as well as NEC and ROP.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The Journal of pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Pregnant women with a body-mass-index (BMI) above 50 are referred to as "super-obese". For these women adverse pregnancy outcome and a higher risk of fetal congenital defects are major issues. This report focuses on the ratio development of super-obesity in pregnant women, as well as on prenatal ultrasound and pregnancy outcome in the super-obese gravida. Methods: We reviewed data of all women with a BMI above 30 who delivered at our unit in a 15-year period between January 2000 and December 2014. Data of obese but not super-obese mothers were evaluated in comparison. Results: Final evaluation comprised 69/20,711 pregnancies of super-obese mothers. Forty out of 69 women suffered from a preexisting condition requiring medical treatment. Fetal ultrasound evaluation revealed severe congenital defects in four cases. There were no missed and no false positive diagnoses. Elective cesarean section (c-section) took place in 26/69 cases, 21/69 had a secondary c-section. Twenty-two out of 69 women delivered vaginally. Mean gestational age at delivery was 38(+6) gestational weeks. Pregnancy was complicated by macrosomia in 17/69 pregnancies. Severe neonatal hypoglycemia occurred in 6/69 cases. The number of deliveries by super-obese mothers showed no marked variation during the study period. In contrast the rate of deliveries by obese, but not super-obese, mothers showed an increase. Conclusions: Maternal super-obesity poses a high-risk situation for mother and child which generally demands a higher amount of perinatal care. The number of deliveries by super-obese mothers remained stable over the study period. Primary c-section was the most frequent mode of delivery. Of the parturients who opted for vaginal delivery nearly half of the deliveries had to be completed by secondary c-section. Over-all peripartal maternal complications did not exceed average.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Archives of Gynecology
  • S L Nause · J Spiegler · J Weichert · D R Hartge
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    ABSTRACT: A 31-year-old 2 G 1 P was referred to our unit of prenatal medicine at 35+3 weeks of gestation with a spontaneously conceived singleton pregnancy of a female fetus without detectable anomalies. Maternal hematological evaluation revealed an Evans-syndrome-related thrombocytopenia based on a lupus erythematosus. The former delivery was aggravated by a severe hemorrhage several years before. Anti-autoimmunologic therapy was started and maternal platelets count increased to physiological values. Uneventful ceasarean section was performed at 37 weeks of gestation with favourable outcome for mother and child. This case is the first report of a successful therapy in maternal Evans syndrome in pregnancy combined with a lupus erythematosus. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Zeitschrift für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
  • J Spiegler · N Eisemann · S Ehlers · T Orlikowsky · O Kannt · E Herting · W Göpel
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    ABSTRACT: We analysed at what age parents start complementary food in very low birth weight infants, determined risk factors for early introduction of complementary food (post-term age) and analysed whether the age at introduction of complementary food influences height or weight at 2 years of age. Parents of premature infants born in 2009-2011 answered questionnaires regarding introduction of complementary food in the first year of life (N=2262) and were followed up at a post-term age of 2 years (N=981). Length and weight were compared with full-term infants from the KiGGs study. Logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted to study predictors for early introduction of complementary food and the influence of age at introduction of complementary food on later height and weight. Average age at introduction of complementary food was 3.5 months post-term age. The lower the gestational age at birth, the earlier (post-term age) vegetables and meat were introduced. Age at introduction of complementary food was influenced by intrauterine growth restriction, gestational age at birth, maternal education and a developmental delay perceived by the parents. Length and weight at a post-term age of 2 years was not negatively influenced by early introduction of complementary food. VLBW infants are introduced to complementary food on average before a post-term age of 4 months. There was no negative effect of early introduction of complementary food on height and weight at 2 years of age.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 15 April 2015; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2015.54.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · European journal of clinical nutrition
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, obstructive bronchitis is a frequent cause of hospital re-admission. For VLBW infants, early vaccinations starting at 2 months after birth have been recommended. Objective: To analyze risk factors for bronchitis during the first year after discharge and the effects of in-hospital standard vaccination (hexavalent/pneumococci) and/or RSV immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab. Methods: A standardized questionnaire was sent to the parents of VLBW infants 7 month after discharge. The reported episodes of bronchitis were correlated with clinically recorded parameters including risk factors for pulmonary morbidity. The effects of in-hospital vaccination were assessed in a subgroup discharged after day 60. Results: A sample of 1 967 responses of infants born 2009-2011 was analyzed. Risk factors for bronchitis were male gender and older siblings. 24% of the population had episodes of bronchitis. In the subgroup discharged after day 60, episodes of bronchitis were reported for 31% of infants who were not vaccinated in-hospital. A significant reduction of the bronchitis rate was found in infants who received palivizumab±standard vaccination (17% bronchitis, p=0.003). Interestingly, in-hospital standard vaccination without RSV immunoprophylaxis was protective (20% bronchitis; p=0.037) as well. Conclusions: Non-vaccinated male VLBW infants with older siblings are at increased risk for bronchitis during the first year after discharge. Vaccination according to schedule seems to have protective effects, while underlying mechanisms are unknown. The rate of timely vaccination in preterm infants should be increased. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Klinische Pädiatrie

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Neuropediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Nicotine and alcohol consumption have been associated with premature delivery and adverse neonatal outcome. We wanted to analyze the influence of self-reported nicotine and alcohol consumption on outcome of VLBW infants. Material and methods: In an ongoing multicenter study 2475 parents of former very low birth weight (VLBW) infants born between January 2009 and December 2011 answered questionnaires about maternal smoking habits and alcohol consumption during pregnancy. 2463 (99.5%) completed questions on alcohol consumption and 2462 (99.5%) on smoking habits. These infants were stratified to reported maternal smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy. We compared the reasons for premature delivery, neonatal outcome and parental reports on bronchitis during the first year of life, as well as growth and development at age 2 years to pregnancy exposure. Results: In nicotine exposed infants intrauterine growth restriction (31 vs. 21%, p<0.01), a birth weight below the 10th percentile (26 vs. 17%, p<0.01) and placenta abruption (9.2 vs. 5.8%, p<0.05) was seen more often. Premature rupture of membranes (24 vs. 30%, p<0.05) or HELLP syndrome (6 vs. 11%, p<0.01) was less frequent. A birth weight below the 3rd percentile was seen more frequently in mothers with reported alcohol consumption (13 vs. 6%, p<0.05). We noted an increased rate of BPD and ROP if mothers reported smoking during pregnancy (p<0.05). Growth parameters and scores on Bayley Sscales of infant development at age 2 years did not differ. Conclusion: Smoking during pregnancy results in a high rate of growth restricted VLBW infants. Prenatal exposition to nicotine seems to increase postnatal complications such as BPD und ROP.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Zeitschrift für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
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    ABSTRACT: The FTO gene, located on chromosome 16q12.2, and the MAF gene, located on chromosome 16q22-23, were identified as genes harboring common variants with an impact on obesity predisposition. We studied the association of common variants with birth weight, gain of body weight, body mass index (BMI), Ponderal index and relevant neonatal outcomes in a large German cohort of infants with a birth weight below 1500 grams. The single nucleotide polymorphisms rs9939609 (FTO gene) and rs1424233 (MAF gene) were genotyped using allelic discrimination assays in a prospective multicenter cohort study conducted in 15 neonatal intensive care units in Germany from September 2003 until January 2008. DNA samples were extracted from buccal swabs according to standard protocols. 1946 infants were successfully genotyped at FTO and 2149 infants at MAF. Allele frequencies were not significantly different from other European cohorts. The polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The polymorphisms did not show associations with birth weight, BMI and Ponderal Index at discharge, and weight gain, neither testing for a dominant, additive nor for a recessive model. Since an association of the polymorphisms with weight gain has been demonstrated in multiple populations, the lack of association in a population of preterm infants with regular tube feeding after birth and highly controlled feeding volumes provides evidence for the hypothesis that these polymorphisms affect food intake behavior and hunger rather than metabolism and energy consumption.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · PLoS ONE
  • J Spiegler · E Herting · W Göpel

    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Neuropediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Very premature delivery is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Obesity, diabetes and pregnancy hypertension are known risk factors for pregnancy complications. The study aimed to scrutinize differences of pregnancy complications in a cohort of very premature deliveries compared to a national group. Methods: In a multicenter study performed between January 2009 and December 2010 including 1,577 very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, we compared parental reported pregnancy problems of VLBW infants with a national cohort (KIGGS). We compared reported pregnancy complications to reasons for premature delivery and neonatal outcome within the group of VLBW infants. Results: While parents of the national cohort reported pregnancy-induced hypertension in 8 %, parents of VLBW infants reported this complication more frequently (27 %). Mothers of the national cohort were significantly younger (1 year), suffered less from obesity, anaemia, diabetes. Regression analysis showed that hypertension (OR = 5.11) and advanced maternal age (OR = 1.03) increased the risk for premature birth. Women with hypertension were likely to experience a clinically indicated premature delivery, had more VLBW infants with a moderate growth restriction, but less multiples and their infants had less intraventricular haemorrhages grade 3 or 4. Otherwise, neonatal outcome was correlated with gestational age but not with the pregnancy complications diabetes, hypertension or obesity. Conclusion: Premature birth seems to be correlated to gestational hypertension and associated problems in about ¼ of VLBW infants. Further studies should focus on preventing and treating gestational hypertension to avoid premature delivery and associated neonatal morbidity.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Archives of Gynecology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Morbidity and mortality in Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants during their hospital stay have been well described. However, there are insufficient data regarding health problems after discharge. Study design: In a multicenter study performed between January 2009 and December 2010 including 2493 VLBW infants, questionnaires were sent out to all participating parents in the first year of life. We compared the parental reported health of VLBW infants with a national cohort (KIGGS). Results: The reported health of VLBW infants born after 29 weeks of gestation was identical to term infants. Even in the group of infants born before 24 weeks of gestation health was regarded as very good or good in >70% of cases. However, parents described a delayed development in >50% increasing to >70% with lower gestational age. In the first year of life VLBW infants have an increased risk of visual and hearing problems. Bronchitis was more frequent in VLBW infants but there were no differences in other infections typical for that age group. VLBW infants had less sleeping problems. No gender differences were described. Conclusion: VLBW infants in our study require slightly more medical care compared to their peers. However, medical problems are relatively small compared to the developmental needs as perceived by their parents. Therefore, close follow-up and advice by specialists in infant development are needed.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Early human development
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    ABSTRACT: The increasing rates of preterm birth among twins implicate that solid data on associated risks and outcomes are required. Assessment of zygosity is often based on clinical criteria (evaluation of placenta; same gender, birth weight discordance as surrogate criteria for monochorionic/monozygotic twins). The aim of this study was to compare clinical versus genetic assessment of zygosity and to compare causes of preterm delivery as well as outcome data of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW; birth weight <1,500 g) twins stratified to zygosity. In a multicenter study, we selected n=176 sets of same gender twins and determined zygosity genetically. In a subgroup of 123 sets of twins, the attending physicians at the study centers were asked to document the parameter 'zygosity' (monozygotic/dizygotic) on the basis of their clinical judgment. Concordance between genetic and clinical assessment was 62.7% for monozygotic twins and 88.9% for dizygotic twins, respectively. Outcome parameters (death, BPD, ROP, NEC, IVH) were comparable in both groups. Genetically dizygotic twins were significantly more often born due to intrauterine infection (33% vs. 20% in monozygotic twins, p<.01) and antenatal antibiotics were more frequently given to mothers of dizygotic twins (62% vs. 47% in monozygotic twins, p<.01). Obstetric complications such as twin-twin-transfusion-syndrome were only seen in monozygotic twins as expected. The unexpected increase of antenatal antibiotic treatment and birth due to intrauterine infection in dizygotic twins should be confirmed in additional VLBW twin-cohorts.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Twin Research and Human Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase 1 (NTRK1) gene, which encodes the receptor for nerve growth factor. We report the clinical and radiological pitfalls in the diagnosis and treatment of two brothers, aged 5 and 8 years, with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis, the older brother having a proven NTRK1 mutation. In the neonatal period, both presented with recurrent episodes of fever of unknown origin, but their clinical problems changed later. In addition to severe mental retardation and self-harming behaviour, the older brother developed recurrent nonbacterial destructive infections of both the calcaneus and later the talus. No immunodeficiency was found. The younger brother had three complex fractures with a long history of healing problems: overwhelming production of callus, osteomyelitis and movement restrictions. He has less mental retardation than his older brother and shows no self-mutilation.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Journal of pediatric orthopaedics. Part B / European Paediatric Orthopaedic Society, Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America
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    ABSTRACT: To report the first prenatal dopaminergic replacement therapy in autosomal recessive (AR) guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH) deficiency without hyperphenylalaninemia. Case reports, literature review, and video presentation. University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany. Two boys from a consanguineous family. Physical and mental development as a function of replacement initiation. The older sibling presented with typical features of AR GTPCH deficiency due to a homozygous mutation in the GCH1 gene with proven pathogenicity. Levodopa treatment was initiated at age 10 months and resulted in a distinct motor improvement. However, mental development was delayed. In the younger sibling, prenatal replacement therapy was initiated after a prenatal diagnosis of AR GTPCH deficiency was made. At age 17 months, both motor and mental development were normal for his age. This report highlights the importance of an early diagnosis, including prenatal diagnosis, of complex dopa-responsive extrapyramidal syndromes. Prenatally initiated dopaminergic replacement therapy is beneficial and thus justified in AR GTPCH deficiency, allowing prevention of significant impairment of mental abilities.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Archives of neurology

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Neuropediatrics
  • J Spiegler · N Brüggemann · S Schneider · C Klein · J Sperner

    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Neuropediatrics
  • J Spiegler · I Stefanova · Y Hellenbroich · J Sperner
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    ABSTRACT: Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS) is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder. AHS is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma (POLG, chromosome 15q25). Most patients become symptomatic before the age of 2 years. We report 3 patients who were treated in our clinic between 2007 and 2010. All patients suffered from myoclonic seizures and had at least one refractory convulsive status which led to the diagnosis. All of them had varying degrees of developmental delay, 2 of them additionally ataxia. Gastrointestinal motility problems were severe in all patients despite only mildly deranged liver function. While in most aspects our patients present with typical AHS features, they also share intestinal problems, a feature that has not been recognized as typical for AHS before. AHS is a multisystem disorder that does affect all cell systems. Liver and brain are organs with the highest energy demand and are therefore usually affected early in the disease course of AHS. However, constipation and bowel obstruction should be regarded as typical complications in AHS and patients should be monitored and treated to improve quality of life. Regarding treatment options for epilepsy in AHS ketogenic diet as well as lacosamide might be considered.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Neuropediatrics
  • J Spiegler · C Reutlinger

    No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Neuropediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: D-bifunctional protein deficiency (DBPD) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by a defect in peroxisomal β-oxidation. The majority of patients suffer from a severe neurological disease with neonatal hypotonia and seizures and die within the first 2 years of life. Few patients show milder clinical phenotypes with prolonged survival. The diagnosis relies on the clinical presentation, measurement of peroxisomal markers, including very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) in plasma, followed by enzymatic studies in fibroblasts and genetic testing. Diagnosis can be difficult to establish in milder cases, especially if VLCFA concentration in plasma is not or only mildly elevated. We report on siblings in which initial measurement of plasma VLCFA did not indicate a peroxisomal disease. Nevertheless, cMRI showed a pattern typical for an inborn peroxisomal disease with cerebral and cerebellar leukencephalopathy, perisylvic polymicrogyria, and frontoparietal pachygyria. Repeated measurements of peroxisomal metabolites in plasma prompted by the cMRI findings showed values in the upper normal or mildly elevated range and led to further diagnostic steps. The diagnosis of a type III DBPD with a missense mutation (T15A) in the HSD17B4 gene, coding for D-bifunctional protein (DBP), could be established. We conclude that a typical "peroxisomal pattern" in cMRI including cerebral and cerebellar leukencephalopathy, perisylvic polymicrogyria and pachygyria is a valuable clue to the diagnosis of DBPD, especially in cases with no or only very mild abnormalities in plasma.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
  • C Reutlinger · J Spiegler · S Ortfeld · U Thyen

    No preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Neuropediatrics

Publication Stats

69 Citations
50.48 Total Impact Points


  • 2012-2015
    • University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany
  • 2008-2015
    • Universität zu Lübeck
      • Department of Paediatrics
      Lübeck Hansestadt, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany