L. Máchová

Palacký University of Olomouc, Olmütz, Olomoucký, Czech Republic

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Publications (13)10.57 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is a disease with multifactorial etiology, smoking playing the most important role among its risk factors. Some studies, however, indicate an inverse association between increased body-mass index (BMI) and the risk of lung cancer. In this paper, the association between BMI and lung cancer risk is analysed in two independent studies. In the first study, 751 lung cancer patients were compared to 30 058 controls. In the second study, 91 lung cancer patients were matched to 91 healthy controls. An inversed association was found between increased BMI and lung cancer risk. The inverse association remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, and smoking.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Neoplasma
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    ABSTRACT: A preventive check-up database from the Šumperk district, containing 49 426 subjects has been employed for epidemiological studies in order to illuminate the role of selected risk factors for cancers and metabolic diseases. The influence of blood group A on the incidence of stomach cancer was assessed with the conclusion, that this blood group does not increase risk of this disease. The influence of smoking on the incidence of different histological type of lung cancer has been investigated in another study. A more pronounced association was revealed between smoking and squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma than between adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. The influence of obesity on increased risk of colorectal and endometrial cancers was detected. Statistically significant reversal influence was found for obesity and lung cancer. Also prevalence of metabolic syndrome was assessed discovering 2.2% (1.8% males and 2.5% females) of this disorder 25 years ago whereas current frequency of metabolic syndrome is estimated at around 25%. The above mentioned studies have confirmed the significance of large databases for epidemiological studies warranting a sufficient number of subjects in a study for verification of a given hypothesis.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2008
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    ABSTRACT: Excess body weight was shown to be associated with risk of several types of cancer. In the Czech Republic, malignant tumors are the second leading cause of death. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the most frequent types of cancer and obesity. A case-control study was accomplished, using data from the National Cancer Registry and from a preventive oncologic checkup database. Cases were defined as persons from the studied population who developed skin, breast, colorectal, prostate, lung, cervical, endometrial, kidney, ovarian, urinary bladder, stomach, pancreatic, or gallbladder cancers from 1987 to 2002. Controls were cancer-free men and women from the population. Among the cancer patients and healthy controls, proportions of obese, overweight, and nonobese individuals were compared, and odds ratios (OR) were computed. After adjustment for confounders, obese men had a significantly increased risk of colorectal cancer (OR: 2.07, 95% CI: 1.56-2.76) and kidney cancer (OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.14-3.24). Obese women were at higher risk of endometrial cancer (OR: 3.25, 95% CI: 1.65-6.37). An inverse association was observed between obesity and lung cancer (in men: OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.37-0.66; in women: OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.21-0.80). Obesity is associated with several frequent types of tumors and represents an important preventable cause of cancer in the population of the District Sumperk, Czech Republic.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2007 · Onkologie
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    ABSTRACT: Esophageal cancer is one of the most serious tumor diseases worldwide, owing to its rapid development and fatal prognosis in most cases. To compare epidemiologic characteristics, data published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France and data from Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno, Czech Republic were used. We conducted a search of selected Czech and foreign literature focused on the epidemiology of esophageal cancer and its main risk factors. An overview of esophageal cancer epidemiology is presented. Prevention of esophageal cancer should be based on early detection and surveillance of precancerous lesions, especially of Barrett's esophagus, and attention should also focus on modification of changeable risk factors, including tobacco smoking, alcohol abuse, and ingestion of hot and spicy food. Carefully designed epidemiologic studies, both descriptive and analytical, are required to increase understanding of the complexity of esophageal cancer etiology.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2007 · Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of obesity on cardiovascular mortality in the District Sumperk (C2) is assessed. A case-control design was selected to study the impact of obesity on cardiovascular mortality among the population of the District Sumperk, Czech Republic. Exposure to obesity was defined as body-mass index (BMI) higher or equal 30. Men and women with BMI lower than 30 were considered nonexposed. Odds ratios were calculated, comparing the probability of exposure among cases and controls. Cases were defined as persons from the studied population who died between 1987-2004, the cause of death being circulatory system diseases. Controls were persons from the studied population who had not died as to December 31, 2004. Cases were more likely to be obese than controls (OR = 1.68; 95% CI 1.56-1.80). In men OR was 1.56 (95% CI 1.40-1.74), in women OR was 1.89 (95% CI 1.72-2.06). The impact of obesity was decreasing with increasing age. An increased risk of cardiovascular mortality following exposure to obesity was observed. Younger age groups seem to be the important target population for preventive programmes focusing on treatment of obesity.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · International Journal of Public Health
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    ABSTRACT: The study objective was to test immunity against tetanus in the elderly in the Czech Republic. Within serological surveys and in old people's homes, 776 persons aged 60 years or more were tested for antibodies against tetanus by an ELISA method. As many as 91 % of these persons had medium to high titers of antibodies against tetanus. Low but presumably still protective titers of antibodies against tetanus were detected in 9 % of the population tested. We documented good immunity against tetanus among the elderly in the Czech Republic as a result of a rich immunization history in this country as compared with some other countries in the world. The sporadic incidence of tetanus cases in the Czech Republic over the last 15 years indirectly indicates the efficacy of the immunization strategy used.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Epidemiologie, mikrobiologie, imunologie: casopis Spolecnosti pro epidemiologii a mikrobiologii Ceske lekarske spolecnosti J.E. Purkyne
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study is to analyze the impact of smoking on the incidence of pancreatic cancer in the population of the District Sumperk. The impact of smoking was assessed among subjects from the District Sumperk who had undergone preventive oncologic check-ups. Exposure to smoking among 194 persons with pancreatic cancer and 776 healthy controls was compared. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratio adjusted for sex and obesity. Patients with pancreatic cancer were more likely exposed to smoking than controls (OR = 1.35; 95% CI 0.97-1.88). In addition, an insignificant increase of probability of exposure to obesity was observed (OR = 1.23, p = 0.31). Smoking represents one of the risk factors for pancreatic cancer.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2006
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    ABSTRACT: The aged people belong to most vulnerable group for tetanus infection in terms of their vaccination history, frequency of injuries, which may serve as gate of entry for this infection and declared decrease of general as well as specific immunity. The examinations of the aged people for antitetanus antibodies have been done to assess the immunity against tetanus in this particular group of people in the Czech republic. Blood samples were collected from people living in hostels for senior citizens on the bases of signed informed consent. The study focused on people older than 60 years of age. TETANUS ELISA Genzyme Virotech GmbH kit was used for detection of IgG antibodies against tetanus. The level of >0.1 IU/ml was used as protective level of antibodies. Total number of 341 samples was investigated for antibodies against tetanus. Nonprotective (<0.1 IU/ml) titer of antibodies was found in 9.1% of subjects and 90.9% of people possessed protective titers of antibodies against tetanus. The interval between the last vaccination (or revaccination) against tetanus and collection of blood sample was ascertained in 257 subjects and this interval was 10 years or less in 89.9% of subjects. Geometric mean of titers was calculated for different intervals between the last vaccination and collection of blood sample. There was an increasing trend of geometric mean values found with decreasing interval from the last vaccination. But there were also good values of geometric mean of titers found in subjects vaccinated long before collection of blood (intervals up to 27 years). Due to completely different situation in the Czech Republic, where adult people were repeatedly revaccinated in military service (males), in the employment with higher risk of tetanus infection, in context with treatment of injuries and finally during mass vaccination campaigns, organized in the Czech Republic for all adult people in 1974-1976 and in 1984-1986, even the aged people can reach acceptable immunity against tetanus.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2005 · Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
  • L. Máchová · L. Čížek · J. Koutná · F. Beška · J. Lorenc · V. Janout
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: To assess a possible higher risk of stomach cancer among population with blood type A, investigated during preventive oncologic check-ups. Methods: Distribution of blood types was determined in 340 stomach cancer cases and 33676 controls. Proportion of individual blood type was compared in cases and controls as well as with proportion of blood groups in the population of the Czech Republic. Results: Slight increase of stomach cancer risk was found in subjects with blood group A in comparison with controls (OR =1.12, 95% CI 0.90-1.39) and subjects with blood group 0 (RR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.86-1.41). Conclusions: Blood group A does not significantly increase the risk factor of stomach cancer.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2005 · Ceska a Slovenska Gastroenterologie a Hepatologie
  • L Máchová · V Janout · L Cízek · F Beska · J Lorenc · J Koutná
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular diseases and cancers are responsible for almost 80% of the total mortality in the Czech Republic. For their prevention, identification of risk factors becomes indispensable. Presented article analyses frequency of risk factors in the population of Sumperk district on the bases of the first and second preventive oncological check-ups. Diagnoses have been unified according to the International Classification of Diseases. For data analysis SPSS statistical software has been used. Frequency of obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperuricemia and smoking has been assessed in subjects during their first and second preventive check-ups. In the course of the first check-up 49,426 subjects have been examined, out of them 22,857 males (46.2%) and 26,569 females (53.8%). 40,386 subjects participated in the second check-up (18,378 males and 22,008 females). The assessment of the frequency of the individual risk factors has been done on the bases of the examination results. Total incidence of obesity was lower in males comparing to the data from the population of 6 districts of the Czech republic (MONICA). Due to the treatment of subjects, there was a mild decrease of prevalence of the systolic hypertension in the second check-up in comparison with the first one. In comparison with MONICA project, the incidence of hypertension was more than twice higher. No difference in frequency of hyperglycemia in males and females was found. In both genders, high prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (about 70%) was found. Between two check-ups, decrease of hypercholesterolemia prevalence was observed. It corresponds with the existing trend in the Czech population. Decrease of smoking prevalence has been observed in the second check-up mainly in males and less in females. In comparison with MONICA project, there was a higher smoking prevalence in males and a lower one in females.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2004 · Casopís lékar̆ů c̆eských
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    ABSTRACT: From 1975 through 1986, repeated preventive oncologic check-ups were carried out in the District Sumperk. In the course of the check-ups, 49,426 persons were examined. The examinations were aimed at surveillance of initial stadium of cancers as well as at detection of other serious chronic diseases. The results of the check-ups form a large database suitable for a number of epidemiological analyses. In this article, methods of the data collection are described, individual data items are characterized and their summary is presented in tables. Utilization of the database is proposed in specified types of epidemiological studies.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2003 · Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
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    ABSTRACT: The authors conducted a pilot study to assess the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia in 49 persons (24 men and 25 women) with ischaemic stroke in their medical history. Mean age of the study population was 62.2 years (33-86 years). Normal homocysteinaemia (up to 15.99 μmol/l) was found in 36 persons (prevalence 0.735), hyperhomocysteinaemia was found in 13 persons (prevalence 0.265), out of which mild and medium hyperhomocysteinaemia were present in 12 and 1 person (prevalence 0.245 and 0.02, respectively). The second objective of the study was verification of the practical applicability of high-power liquid chromatography according to Araki et al. In the article the significance of hyperphomocysteinaemia especially in combination with other risk factors is discussed and the importance of its early detection in the risk population is stressed. Limits of the practical applicability of the used chemical analysis are mentioned.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2002
  • L Máchová · V Janout
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in the Czech Republic are among the highest in the world. The morbidity data, however, are not routinely registered and thus a basis for preventive program evaluation is not available. Aim of the study is to establish the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in the Olomouc district in 1994 and to compare it with the incidence of this disease in the Czech Republic. Cases of acute myocardial infarction (diagnosis 121 according to the 10th revision of ICD established by a physician) were included. Sources of data concerning the diagnosis included the registries of internal clinics, departments of internal medicine, department of forensic medicine of the Faculty of Medicine in Olomouc, and general practitioners practising in the Olomouc district. Data concerning myocardial infarction mortality were obtained from the Olomouc Regional Statistical Office. The 6th version of EPI-Info Programme was used to process the data. In 1994, 523 cases of acute myocardial infarction were diagnosed in the Olomouc district, 313 in men and 210 in women. The respective incidence per 100,000 inhabitants was 227: 286 in men and 178 in women. Acute myocardial infarction mortality per 100,000 in Olomouc district was 98.05, it is 109.57 in men and 87.26 in women. For comparison, acute myocardial infarction mortality per 100,000 in the Czech Republic at the same period was 171.4 and 117.2 for men and women, respectively. Highest incidence was observed in March and October/November, lowest occurrence was observed in July and August. The incidence decreased with increasing size of the place of residence. As to the latter, further analysis is required to formulate conclusions concerning the morbidity trends.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1997 · Central European journal of public health