[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The evaluation of new long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs) is coordinated by the WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES). In 2007, Netprotect® was granted WHOPES interim recommendation after Phase I and II evaluations. Present study evaluates Netprotect® in a Phase III trial in rural Cambodia.
A randomized, prospective longitudinal study design was used to assess the performance of Netprotect® over a period of three years, using conventionally-treated nets and a WHOPES recommended LLIN (PermaNet® 2.0) as positive controls. The primary outcomes were the physical integrity, insecticide content and cone bioassay performance using.
The baseline deltamethrin concentration of 43% of Netprotect® nets were below the tolerance limit while 27% of PermaNet® 2.0 nets were above the target dose limits. By 36 months Netprotect® retained 35% while PermaNet® 2.0 retained 49% of baseline insecticide dose. Moreover the proportion of the inactive deltamethrin R-alpha isomer in the Netprotect® nets was 33% at the baseline and increased to 69% after three years while it was low and almost constant for PermaNet® 2.0 (3-7%). Only 71% of Netprotect® met the WHO criteria for bio-efficacy after three years while at least 80% is required. Moreover Netprotect® nets failed for the WHOPES criteria after 12 and 24 months. The reference LLIN met the WHOPES criteria throughout the study. Over the entire three years the reference LLIN did obtain significant higher mosquito mortality than Netprotect®. The physical integrity was based on the proportionate hole index and after three years, 25% of Netprotect® and 30% of PermaNet® 2.0 were in a mediocre or poor state.
Netprotect® did not meet the minimum WHO criteria for bio-efficacy after 12, 24 and 36 months. The use of a reference LLIN as positive control was helpful for data interpretation. However, for future three-year studies, it is essential that before initiating any study nets should be checked for their specifications and this for both the candidate LLIN as well as for the reference LLIN. Moreover, to improve the accuracy of the success rate of the candidate LLIN more nets should be tested for their bio-efficacy at the end of the trial.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Five types of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LNs), namely, Olyset, Netprotect, PermaNet, DuraNet, and Interceptor, were tested after 20 washes for efficacy in terms of mortality, deterrence effect, blood-feeding inhibition, and induced exophily of the malaria vector Anopheles fluviatilis in experimental huts in Malkangiri district of Odisha State, India. Efficacy of the three synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) used in the LNs was also analyzed. Use of LNs reduced the entry of An. fluviatilis into the huts by 73.3‐83.2%, and the five LNs were comparable in terms of deterrence. The exit rate of An. fluviatilis from the huts with untreated net was 56.3%, and relative to this, Olyset followed by DuraNet induced significantly a higher exophily. In contrast, the exit rate was significantly lower with Interceptor. Among the three SPs, permethrin induced significantly greater exophily relative to the untreated control, and as a result of this, permethrin-treated Olyset produced a lower mortality. Blood-feeding rate of An. fluviatilis was significantly lower with all the five LNs than the control. Similarly, all the three SPs significantly inhibited blood feeding compared with the control. Interceptor and DuraNet, both alphacypermethrin-treated LNs, caused relatively a higher mortality of An. fluviatilis than the other LNs. The five brands of LNs and three SPs tested in the current study were equally effective in terms of deterrence and blood-feeding inhibition; only exiting and killing effect differed among them. Permethrin-treated LNs induced greater exophily, while, overall, alphacypermethrin-treated LNs killed more An. fluviatilis that entered the huts. Advantage of deterrence, excito-repellent, and killing effects of LNs and appropriate selection of SP for net treatment are discussed in this paper.
Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Medical Entomology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the best ways to prevent malaria is the use of insecticide-treated bed nets. Manufacturers pursue easier, safer and more efficient nets. Hence, many studies on the efficacy and wash resistance using World Health Organization standards have been reported. The commonly used detergent is "Savon de Marseille", because it closely resembles actually used soaps. At the 54th Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC) Technical Meeting in 2010, it was suggested to replace it by a standardized "CIPAC washing agent". The aim of this study was to investigate the difference between a laboratory hand washing simulation using the CIPAC washing agent (method-1) and a domestic washing (method-2) on different bed nets, as well as the effect of the drying process on the release of active ingredient.
Methods: Interceptor (R), Permanet (R) 2.0 and Netprotect (R) nets were used in three treatments, each repeated 20 times. The first treatment included method-1 washing and indoor drying. The second treatment included method-2 washing and indoor drying. The third treatment used method-2 washing and UV-drying. The residual insecticide contents were determined using gas chromatography.
Results: The washing procedure and the number of washes have a significant effect on the release of active ingredient. Statistically, the two washing methods have the same effect on removing the active ingredient from the Interceptor (R) and Permanet (R) 2.0 net, but a significantly different influence on the Netprotect (R) nets. The drying process has no significant effect on the insecticide.
Conclusion: Both washing procedures affected the amount of insecticide remaining on nets independently of the impregnation technology. The active ingredient decreases with the number of washing cycles following an exponential or logarithmic model for coated nets. The laboratory hand washing simulation had more impact on the decrease of active ingredient content of the Netprotect (R) nets. All net types seemed to be effectively protected against UV-light.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to the rapid extension of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors worldwide, manufacturers are developing new vector control tools including insecticide mixtures containing at least two active ingredients with different mode of action as part of insecticide resistance management. Olyset® Plus is a new long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) incorporating permethrin and a synergist, piperonyl butoxide (PBO), into its fibres in order to counteract metabolic-based pyrethroid resistance of mosquitoes. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of Olyset® Plus both in laboratory and field against susceptible and multi-resistant malaria vectors and compared with Olyset Net, which is a permethrin incorporated into polyethylene net. In laboratory, Olyset® Plus performed better than Olyset® Net against susceptible Anopheles gambiae strain with a 2-day regeneration time owing to an improved permethrin bleeding rate with the new incorporation technology. It also performed better than Olyset® Net against multiple resistant populations of An. gambiae in experimental hut trials in West Africa. Moreover, the present study showed evidence for a benefit of incorporating a synergist, PBO, with a pyrethroid insecticide into mosquito netting. These results need to be further validated in a large-scale field trial to assess the durability and acceptability of this new tool for malaria vector control.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Nowadays long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets (LNs) are frequently used around the world to protect people against malaria vectors. As they contain insecticide, laboratory control is needed to check whether the content of the active ingredient follows the conditions of the manufacturer and also if the active ingredient is still present after some time of use. For this purpose, an analytical method had to be developed. The fact that LNs include a range of polymers for the yarn and use coated or incorporated technologies for the active ingredient, it is a challenge to find only one analytical method determining the active ingredient in LNs, which takes into account both impregnation technologies. Some methods are provided by international organizations but are limited by the determination of only one pesticide per method. The aim of this study was to optimize a short time extraction method for deltamethrin and alpha-cypermethrin from coated and incorporated mosquito nets and also to detect both insecticides in one analytical run, using gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-μECD).
Based on the literature, the most suitable solvent and the adequate extraction process for the insecticides used for net making were identified and adapted for the new multi-residue method.
The validation data of the multi-residue method to determine deltamethrin and alpha-cypermethrin in mosquito nets by GC-μECD are given. Depending on the concentration of the active ingredient spiked on the nets, the mean recovery for alpha-cypermethrin ranged between 86% and 107% with a relative standard deviation below 3.5%. For deltamethrin it ranged between 90% and 108% with a relative standard deviation also below 3.5%. The limit of detection is 0.009 g.a.i/kg of net (0.3 mg a.i./m2 of net) both for alpha-cypermethrin and deltamethrin.
Data obtained are excellent. A 30 minutes reflux extraction method with xylene was developed to determine alpha-cypermethrin and deltamethrin in long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets (LNs) by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-μECD). The method can be easily extended to others pyrethroid used for mosquito net treatment. This paper also presents an overview of the studies dealing with pesticide determination in mosquito nets.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Parasites & Vectors
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) are now standard for the prevention of malaria. However, only products with recommendation for public use from the World Health Organization should be used and this evaluation includes the assessment of net effectiveness after three years of field use. Results for one of the polyester-based products, Interceptor is presented.
In five villages, 190 LLIN and 90 nets conventionally treated with the insecticide alpha-cypermethrin at 25 mg/m2 were distributed randomly and used by the families. Following a baseline household survey a net survey was carried out every six months to capture use, washing habits and physical condition of the nets. Randomly selected nets were collected after 6, 12, 24, 36 and 42 months and tested for remaining insecticide content and ability to knock-down and kill malaria transmitting mosquitoes.
During the three and a half years of observation only 16 nets were lost to follow-up resulting in an estimated attrition rate of 12% after three and 20/% after 3.5 years. Nets were used regularly and washed on average 1.5 times per year. After three and a half years 29% of the nets were still in good condition while 13% were seriously torn with no difference between the LLIN and control nets. The conventionally treated nets quickly lost insecticide and after 24 months only 7% of the original dose remained (1.6 mg/m2). Baseline median concentration of alpha-cypermethrin for LLIN was 194.5 mg/m2 or 97% of the target dose with between and within net variation of 11% and 4% respectively (relative standard deviation). On the LLIN 73.8 mg/m2 alpha-cypermethrin remained after three years of use and 56.2 mg/m2 after three and a half and 94% and 81% of the LLIN still had > 15 mg/m2 left respectively. Optimal effectiveness in bio-assays (≥ 95% 60 minute knock-down or ≥ 80% 24 hour mortality) was found in 83% of the sampled LLIN after three and 71% after three and a half years.
Under conditions in Western Uganda the tested long-lasting insecticidal net Interceptor fulfilled the criteria for phase III of WHO evaluations and, based on preliminary criteria of the useful life, this product is estimated to last on average between three and four years.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PermaNet 3.0 is a long-lasting combination net with deltamethrin present on the sides and a mixture of deltamethrin and piperonyl butoxide (PBO), an oxidase synergist, on the top panel. An experimental hut trial comparing unwashed and 20 times washed PermaNet 3.0 and PermaNet 2.0, Olyset Net and a conventional deltamethrin-treated net washed three times was conducted in southern Benin. Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus from this area are highly resistant to pyrethroids through kdr and cytochrome P450 mechanisms. The unwashed PermaNet 3.0 killed slightly more A. gambiae (52%) than the unwashed PermaNet 2.0 (44%) (P=0.036), indicating only partial synergism of resistance. After washing there was significant loss of activity to a similar level, with PermaNet 3.0 killing 31%, PermaNet 2.0 killing 29% and the conventional net killing 26%. Blood-feeding rates were partially inhibited for unwashed PermaNet 3.0 and Olyset Net (27% inhibition). Personal protection against A. gambiae derived from PermaNet 3.0 was similar to that from PermaNet 2.0 before washing (50% vs. 47%), and after 20 washes it decreased to 30%. Against C. quinquefasciatus, no treatment killed >24% entering the huts. The synergism from unwashed PermaNet 3.0 was lower than expected, probably due to an unidentified resistance mechanism unaffected by PBO.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to the spread of pyrethroid-resistance in malaria vectors in Africa, new strategies and tools are urgently needed to better control malaria transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performances of a new mosaic long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN), i.e. PermaNet 3.0, against wild pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae s.l. in West and Central Africa.
A multi centre experimental hut trial was conducted in Malanville (Benin), Vallée du Kou (Burkina Faso) and Pitoa (Cameroon) to investigate the exophily, blood feeding inhibition and mortality induced by PermaNet 3.0 (i.e. a mosaic net containing piperonyl butoxide and deltamethrin on the roof) comparatively to the WHO recommended PermaNet 2.0 (unwashed and washed 20-times) and a conventionally deltamethrin-treated net (CTN).
The personal protection and insecticidal activity of PermaNet 3.0 and PermaNet 2.0 were excellent (>80%) in the "pyrethroid-tolerant" area of Malanville. In the pyrethroid-resistance areas of Pitoa (metabolic resistance) and Vallée du Kou (presence of the L1014F kdr mutation), PermaNet 3.0 showed equal or better performances than PermaNet 2.0. It should be noted however that the deltamethrin content on PermaNet 3.0 was up to twice higher than that of PermaNet 2.0. Significant reduction of efficacy of both LLIN was noted after 20 washes although PermaNet 3.0 still fulfilled the WHO requirement for LLIN.
The use of combination nets for malaria control offers promising prospects. However, further investigations are needed to demonstrate the benefits of using PermaNet 3.0 for the control of pyrethroid resistant mosquito populations in Africa.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Comparison of blood feeding rates obtained for free flying wild Anopheles gambiae in experimental huts of all countries. Raw data from the experimental hut trials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Combination mosquito nets incorporating two unrelated insecticides or insecticide plus synergist are designed to control insecticide resistant mosquitoes. PermaNet 3.0 is a long-lasting combination net incorporating deltamethrin on the side panels and a mixture of deltamethrin and synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on the top panel. PBO is an inhibitor of mixed function oxidases implicated in pyrethroid resistance.
An experimental hut trial comparing PermaNet 3.0, PermaNet 2.0 and a conventional deltamethrin-treated net was conducted in NE Tanzania using standard WHOPES procedures. The PermaNet arms included unwashed nets and nets washed 20 times. PermaNet 2.0 is a long-lasting insecticidal net incorporating deltamethrin as a single active.
Against pyrethroid susceptible Anopheles gambiae the unwashed PermaNet 3.0 showed no difference to unwashed PermaNet 2.0 in terms of mortality (95% killed), but showed differences in blood-feeding rate (3% blood-fed with PermaNet 3.0 versus 10% with PermaNet 2.0). After 20 washes the two products showed no difference in feeding rate (10% with 3.0 and 9% with 2.0) but showed small differences in mortality (95% with 3.0 and 87% with 2.0). Against pyrethroid resistant Culex quinquefasciatus, mediated by elevated oxidase and kdr mechanisms, the unwashed PermaNet 3.0 killed 48% and PermaNet 2.0 killed 32% but after 20 washes there was no significant difference in mortality between the two products (32% killed by 3.0 and 30% by 2.0). For protecting against Culex PermaNet 3.0 showed no difference to PermaNet 2.0 when either unwashed or after 20 washes; both products were highly protective against biting. Laboratory tunnel bioassays confirmed the loss of biological activity of the PBO/deltamethrin-treated panel after washing.
Both PermaNet products were highly effective against susceptible Anopheles gambiae. As a long-lasting net to control or protect against pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes PermaNet 3.0 showed limited improvement over PermaNet 2.0 against Culex quinquefasciatus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to evaluate whether criteria for LLIN field performance (phase III) set by the WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme are met, first and second generations of one of these products, PermaNet, a polyester net using the coating technology were tested.
A randomized, double blinded study design was used comparing LLIN to conventionally treated nets and following LLIN for three years under regular household use in rural conditions. Primary outcome measures were deltamethrin residue and bioassay performance (60 minute knock-down and 24 hour mortality after a three minute exposure) using a strain of Anopheles gambiae s.s. sensitive to pyrethroid insecticides.
Baseline concentration of deltamethrin was within targets for all net types but was rapidly lost in conventionally treated nets and first generation PermaNet with median of 0.7 and 2.5 mg/m2 after six months respectively. In contrast, second generation PermaNet retained insecticide well and had 41.5% of baseline dose after 36 months (28.7 mg/m2). Similarly, vector mortality and knockdown dropped to 18% and 70% respectively for first generation LLIN after six months but remained high (88.5% and 97.8% respectively) for second generation PermaNet(R) after 36 months of follow up at which time 90.0% of nets had either a knockdown rate > or = 95% or mortality rate > or = 80%.
Second generation PermaNet showed excellent results after three years of field use and fulfilled the WHOPES criteria for LLIN. Loss of insecticide on LLIN using coating technology under field conditions was far more influenced by factors associated with handling rather than washing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insecticide treated bed nets are major tools for the Roll Back Malaria campaign. There are two types of Long-Lasting Insecticide-treated Nets (LNs) on the market: coated nets and insecticide-incorporated nets. Nets provided to this market need a recommendation from the World Health Organization to be purchased by donors and NGOs. During laboratory study (phase I), the first step consists in evaluating the wash resistance of a new LN product. When insecticide-incorporated nets are washed, it takes time to regenerate the insecticidal activity, i.e. insecticide must migrate to the net surface to be accessible to mosquitoes. The interval of time required for regeneration must be carefully determined to ensure the accuracy of further results. WHOPES procedures currently recommend the determination of the regeneration time by using mortality data. However, as mortality cannot exceed 100%, a LN that regenerates a surface concentration exceeding the dosage for 100% mortality, will have its regeneration time underestimated.
The Median Knock Down Time (MKDT) was determined as function of insecticide dosage on an inert surface, glass, and on polyester nettings using an acetone solution or a simple emulsion. Dosage response was also established for mortality data. The same method was then applied to a commercially polyethylene netting, currently under WHOPES evaluation, to determine the dynamics of regeneration as function of repeated washings. The deltamethrin content of these nets was estimated by Capillary Gas Chromatography (GC-ECD).
MKDT was a linear function of log insecticide dosage on glass as on nettings. Mortality data were either 0 or 100% for most concentrations except for a narrow range. MKDT was log linear function of total deltamethrin content in a commercial polyethylene net exposed to washings. The regeneration time of this net increased with the number of washes and MKDT became higher. A new, easy and rapid method to determine MKDT is suggested.
The MKDT is linearly correlated to log dosage on a given substrate and shows no saturation as mortality data do. It is suited to determine regeneration time of a product that is exposed to a stress, like washing or heating, where the process impacts on the bio-availability of the insecticide. Mortality data are useful for measuring product efficacy, whereas MKDT are better to measure dynamics of surface concentration like regeneration after a stressing process. Change in MKDT can be used to illustrate the loss of insecticide due to washing, but the slope of the curve is product and surface-dependent.