[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 778 individuals of 150 bird species were examined: 123 (16 %) individuals of
40 non-passerine bird species belonging to 16 orders; and 655 (84 %) individuals of 110
passerine bird species (Passeriformes) belonging to 28 families. A total of 2041 chewing lice
belonging to nine genera were found on passerine birds. Amblyceran lice were less frequent
than ischnoceran lice (32.8 % vs 67.2 %, n = 2041). A total of 670 amblyceran lice (mean
intensity = 5.0) were found on 133 passerine birds (20.3 %) of 43 species. The dominant
amblyceran genus was Menacanthus with a dominance of 59.3 %, while the other two genera
were less frequent: Myrsidea (36.9 %) and Ricinus (3.9 %). A total of 50 amblyceran louse–host
associations were recorded. An equal overall sex ratio as well as age ratio was found among
the collected lice. An updated checklist of the species of amblyceran lice from passerine birds
from South Africa is included and discussed. Two families, five genera and 32 species of lice
are listed from 42 passerine bird hosts.
Key words: chewing lice, Colpocephalum, Machaerilaemus, Menacanthus, Myrsidea, Ricinus,
Amblycera, Menoponidae, Passeriformes, South Africa, prevalence, sex ratio, checklist.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · African Entomology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 655 individuals of 110 passerine species belonging to 28 families were examined for chewing lice in South Africa. A total of 80 (12 %) birds of 33 species were parasitized with amblyceran chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera) belonging to three genera: Menacanthus, Myrsidea and Ricinus. In this paper we report the occurrence of 11 species of chewing lice identified from 38 birds of 16 species. Three samples of chewing lice containing only nymphs were identified to the generic level only. Description and illustrations are given for Myrsidea oatleyi Sychra & Halajian, sp. n. ex Pogonocichla stellata (Vieillot, 1818) (Muscicapidae). Our data represent the first louse records for Lanius collaris Linnaeus, 1766 (Laniidae), Cossypha dichroa (Gmelin, 1789) and Pogonocichla stellata (Muscicapidae), and Andropadus importunus (Vieillot, 1818) and Chlorocichla flaviventris (A. Smith, 1834) (Pycnonotidae). Records of new host–louse associations are: Cecropis abyssinica (Guérin-Meneville, 1843) (Hirundinidae) for Myrsidea rustica (Giebel, 1874); Cossypha dichroa (Muscicapidae) for Ricinus mugimaki (Uchida, 1915); Lanius collaris (Laniidae) for Menacanthus camelinus (Nitzsch [in Giebel], 1874); Ploceus intermedius Rüppell, 1845 (Ploceidae) for Myrsidea textoris Klockenhoff, 1984; and Prinia flavicans (Vieillot, 1820) (Cisticolidae) for Menacanthus curuccae (Schrank, 1776). A portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene for some species of chewing lice was sequenced in order to assess their genetic divergences.
Key words: chewing lice, new species, Menacanthus, Myrsidea, Ricinus, Menoponidae, South Africa, passerines, new host–louse associations, sequence, mitochondrial COI.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · African Entomology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Focusing upon chewing lice parasitizing blackcaps in the Azores (Portugal), we found a lower number of louse species in the Azores compared to mainland Europe. Only chewing lice host-specific to blackcaps were found in the Azores. Louse prevalences were much higher in blackcaps from the Azores compared to those observed in various mainland populations. Chewing lice are permanent parasites of birds, and for such parasites the parasite island syndrome could be characterized by higher parasite prevalence on the islands compared to the mainland.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Parasitology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two new species of the feather mite family Gabucinidae (Acari: Astigmata) are described from birds of the family Troglodytidae (Passeriformes) from Central America: Piciformobia cinnycerthiae sp. nov. from Cinnycerthia unirufa (Lafresnaye) in Ecuador, and P. henicorhinae sp. nov. from Henicorhina leucosticte (Cabanis) in Costa Rica. These are the first records of mites of the genus Piciformobia Gaud et Atyeo, 1975 from passerine hosts. A renewed diagnosis of the genus Piciformobia and key to all known species are provided.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Acta Parasitologica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyalomma ticks are well-known vectors transmitting infectious agents, which can result in severe and potentially fatal diseases in humans. Migratory birds may carry infected ticks over long distances. Here, we report on records of ticks of the H. marginatum complex in birds from Central Europe during the spring migration in 2008–2012. A total of 1172 birds belonging to 32 species, 16 families, and 3 orders was examined for ticks. Sixteen individuals of 6 passerine species were found to transport 30 ticks, identified as individuals belonging to the H. marginatum species complex (consisting of H. isaaci, H. marginatum sensu stricto, H. rufipes, H. turanicum, and H. glabrum) during 5 spring seasons. Infested bird species included the great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus, the Eurasian reed warbler A. scirpaceus, the marsh warbler A. palustris, the sedge warbler A. schoenobaenus, Savi's warbler Locustella luscinioides, and the common nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos. All of these Central European breeders are migratory species wintering in Africa. To our knowledge, this is the first study to record ticks of the H. marginatum complex on the great reed warbler and Savi's warbler.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 6564 individuals of 482 species of passerine birds were examined between the years 2004 and 2013 at various locations in central Europe, Africa, the Neotropical Region and Vietnam. A total of 663 birds (10.1%) of 141 species were parasitized with 3648 chewing lice of the genus Myrsidea (mean intensity was 5.5 lice per bird). Myrsidea was found as eudominant genus with a total dominance of 24.3% (a total of 15030 lice were determined). Dominance of Myrsidea ranged between 0.9% (central Europe) and 51.8% (Neotropical Region). We suggest that Myrsidea is probably less tolerant to arid conditions compared to other chewing louse genera.
A total of 93 (66%, n=141) records represent new host-louse associations. We found examples of bird species harbouring two different species of Myrsidea. In these cases, each species was found either in a different geographical location or in the same location but on different host individuals. Conversely, we found also examples of one species of Myrsidea parasitizing two different host species. Such host-switching events between unrelated hosts are possible on condition that different bird species share similar behaviour and ecology.
Our findings highlight the need to (1) carefully examine each louse specimen when identifying new samples of Myrsidea, (2) compare them with species of Myrsidea from the same and related host families, and (3) compare them with species of Myrsidea from unrelated hosts living in the same geographical region.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 239 individuals of 50 bird species were examined for chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) in southern Vietnam. Fifty-six birds of 20 species were parasitised by 15 species of lice belonging to 10 genera from two suborders, Amblycera: Menacanthus, Meromenopon, Myrsidea, and Ischnocera: Alcedoecus, Brueelia, Cuculicola, Meropoecus, Penenirmus, Philopteroides and Philopterus. Thirteen louse samples from Passeriformes were identified to genus only because they contain inadequate material. A total of 29 host-louse associations were found, of which nine are new, including: (1) two new species of the genus Brueelia, which are described and named in this paper: Brueelia binhchauensis from Megalaima lineata (Vieillot, 1816) (Piciformes: Megalaimidae), and Brueelia malacocincla from Malacocincla abbotti Blyth, 1845 (Passeriformes: Pellorneidae); (2) first records of lice from Cyornis hainanus (Ogilvie-Grant, 1900); and (3) the first record of Myrsidea claytoni Hellenthal & Price, 2003 from Cymbirhynchus macrorhynchos (Gmelin, 1788) (Passeriformes: Eurylaimidae), here regarded as a case of natural host-switching. A portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene for some species of chewing lice was sequenced in order to assess their genetic divergences.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Thirty-two black-and-red broadbill Cymbirhynchus macrorhynchos were examined for chewing lice in Vietnam. All birds examined were parasitized by Myrsidea claytoni. Mean abundance was 27.3, with intensity range 5-80 lice per bird. This is the first report of a Myrsidea from this host, although the females differ slightly from the original description of M. claytoni from Pycnonotus eutilotus in the shape of metanotum and of tergites I-II. So this is also the first record of 1 species of Myrsidea from 2 very distantly related hosts. While the original hosts of M. claytoni belong to the family Pycnonotidae, C. macrorhynchos is a member of the family Eurylaimidae representing the Old World Suboscines, which are considered as a basal lineage among passerines. Therefore, our record represents an interesting case of natural host-switching. The high prevalence as well as the intensity of infestation show that M. claytoni is well established on C. macrorhynchos in Vietnam.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Parasitology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 114 individuals of 14 wren species (Ayes: Passeriformes: Troglodytidae) were examined. Nineteen birds (17 %) of six species were parasitised with 292 chewing lice (mean intensity = 15.4 lice per bird) belonging to three genera - Brueelia Keler, 1936, Penenirmus Clay & Meinertzhagen, 1938 (Ischnocera: Philopteridae) and Myrsidea Waterston, 1915 (Amblycera: Menoponidae). Data on the occurrence of chewing lice on wrens, including geographical distributions and some parasitological parameters - such as prevalence and mean intensity - are updated and discussed. A description and illustrations are given for Myrsidea fasciata sp. nov. from Campylorhynchus fasciatus (Swainson, 1837) from Costa Rica. Penenirmus albiventris (Scopoli, 1763) is redescribed from Troglodytes troglodytes (Linnaeus, 1758) (from the Czech Republic and Slovakia) and from T. aedon Vieillot, 1809 (from Peru). Intraspecific morphological variation of albiventris is discussed, and detailed figures are given. A portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene was sequenced from some species of Myrsidea and Penenirmus in order to assess their relative genetic divergence. An updated list of all species of lice recorded from wrens, including their geographic distribution, and a host-louse list are also given.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: South Africa has nearly 850 bird species and South Africa’s northernmost province, the Limpopo province, boasts more than 600 recorded bird species (approximately 420 breeding resident spp). Despite previous reports of a few species of lice and ticks from birds of Limpopo Province there is generally insufficient knowledge of etoparasites of birds in the province.
The aim of this study is to present new data on the distribution of ectoparasites in birds occurring in Limpopo Province.
A total of 700 individuals of passeriform and 150 individuals of non-passeriform bird species were sampled from the following localities: Golwe in the north-east of the province, Polokwane Nature Reserve, De Loskop near Mogwadi, Woodbush forest, the University of Limpopo, Turfloop Campus, Levubu, Happy-Rest Nature Reserve, Blouberg Nature Reserve, and Polokwane suburbs. These sites represent a range of different habitat types. Birds were captured with mist nets, checked by visual examination and the fumigation chamber method for ectoparasites. Specimens were collected between November 2011 and March 2013.
Different species of hippoboscid flies (Icosta, Ornithoica), lice (Brueelia, Menacanthus, Myrsidea, Penenirmus, Philopterus, Picicola, Ricinus, Sturnidoecus…) mites and ticks (Amblyomma, Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus) were recorded from various bird species.
Three new species of lice has been reported so far, Myrsidea aynazae ex Phyllastrephus flavostriatus (Sharpe) (Pycnonotidae), Myrsidea eslamii ex Zoothera gurneyi (Hartlaub) (Turdidae) and Myrsidea mariquensis ex Bradornis mariquensis Smith (Muscicapidae). Also several records of new host-louse associations are: Phyllastrephus terrestris Swainson (Pycnonotidae) for Myrsidea sp., Ploceus intermedius Ruppell (Ploceidae) for Myrsidea sp., and Turdus libonyanus (Smith) (Turdidae) for Myrsidea sp.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 166 individuals from 10 bird species belonging to the family Turdidae were examined for chewing lice in Costa Rica during 2004, 2009 and 2010. A total of 12 species of the louse genus Myrsidea were collected from 54 birds, including four previously named, seven new undescribed species, and one identified as Myrsidea sp. Names, descriptions and illustrations are given for the seven new species of Myrsidea. They and their type hosts are: Myrsidea assimilis sp. nov. ex Turdus assimilis (Cabanis, 1850), M. cerrodelamuertensis sp. nov. ex Catharus gracilirostris (Salvin, 1865). M. hrabaki sp. nov. ex Myadestes melanops (Salvin, 1865), M. obsoleti sp. nov. ex Turdus obsoletus (Lawrence, 1862), M. quinchoi sp. nov. ex Catharus frantzii (Cabanis, 1861), M. tapanti sp. nov. ex Catharus fuscater (Lafresnaye, 1845), and M. tapetapersi sp. nov. ex Turdus nigrescens (Cabanis, 1861). Records of four named and one unidentified species of Myrsidea from other Costa Rican thrushes are also given and discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Androlaelaps fahrenholzi is a common, cosmopolitan mite constituting a species complex. This mite is found in nests or on mammal hosts and occasionally on birds. The specific host association between A. fahrenholzi-like mites and Premnoplex brunnescens in Costa Rica is reported here. Adults (females and males), deutonymphs and protonymphs were found on 14 P. brunnescens examined (prevalence was 100 %) with mean abundance 42 (2-222). The nest environment plays an important role in the evolution of parasites and could explain the evolutionary path of Laelapinae towards parasitism. We hypothesize that the colonization of P. brunnescens took place in this context quite recently, from sympatrically living rodents. Morphology and ecology of A. fahrenholzi from P. brunnescens may constitute at least a new variation of A. fahrenholzi, and possibly a new species.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Experimental and Applied Acarology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 1878 birds of 217 species were examined for the presence of fleas in Costa Rica during 2004, 2009, and 2010. Altogether 58 specimens of fleas belonging to four species of the family Ceratophyllidae were collected from 43 individuals of 27 bird species. The fleas Dasypsyllus (Dasypsyllus) gallinulae perpinnatus (Baker 1905), which were the most common, were found in 25 bird species. Dasypsyllus (Neornipsyllus) stejnegeri (Jordan 1929) and Ceratophyllus (Ceratophyllus) niger Fox, 1908 were found in three and one bird species, respectively. Six Plusaetis equatoris (Jordan 1933)-like fleas were collected from one individual of the timberline wren Thryorchilus browni (Passeriformes, Troglodytidae).
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Proceedings- Entomological Society of Washington
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: South Africa has nearly 850 bird species and South Africa’s northernmost province, the Limpopo province, boasts with more than 600 recorded bird species (approximately 420 breeding resident spp). Despite previous reports of Myrsidea spp. from South African birds, there has not been any proper study of this louse genus, and from all the bird fauna of South Africa, only 20 (belonging to 13 families) are known to be hosts of 17 species of Myrsidea (Price et al. 2003).
The aim of this study is to present new data on the distribution of this genus in South Africa, including description of three new species.
A total of 145 individuals of 46 bird species (from 20 families) were captured with mist nets, checked by visual examination and the fumigation chamber method for chewing lice. Samplings were done from November 2011 to March 2012 at five study sites in the Limpopo Province. These sites were: Golwe in the north-east of the province, Polokwane Nature Reserve, De Loskop near Mogwadi, Woodbush forest and the University of Limpopo, Turfloop Campus.
A total of 19 birds representing 8 species were parasitised by 8 species of Myrsidea. Three of them were recently described. The new species and their type hosts are: Myrsidea aynazae ex Phyllastrephus flavostriatus (Sharpe) (Pycnonotidae), Myrsidea eslamii ex Zoothera gurneyi (Hartlaub) (Turdidae) and Myrsidea mariquensis ex Bradornis mariquensis Smith (Muscicapidae). Records of new host-louse associations are: Phyllastrephus terrestris Swainson (Pycnonotidae) for Myrsidea sp., Ploceus intermedius Ruppell (Ploceidae) for Myrsidea sp., and Turdus libonyanus (Smith) (Turdidae) for Myrsidea sp. Following lice genera were also found on the examined birds and are currently undergoing identification to species level, e.g. Brueelia, Menacanthus, Penenirmus, Philopterus, Ricinus and Sturnidoecus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thirteen species of chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) were found on 46 wild passerines of 10 species in Cuc Phuong National Park in northern Vietnam. Three new species of the genera Myrsidea and Brueelia are described; they and their type hosts are: Myrsidea annae ex Schoeniparus rufogularis (Mandelli, 1873), Brueelia hrabali ex Macronous gularis (Horsfield, 1822) and Brueelia neodaumae ex Zoothera dauma (Latham, 1790). First records of chewing lice from Serilophus lunatus (Gould, 1834), Stachyris nigriceps Blyth, 1844, Niltava davidi La Touche, 1907 and Alcippe morrisonia Swinhoe, 1863, and a new host record for Menacanthus nogoma Uchida, 1926 are also included.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 144 individuals of 46 bird species belonging to the 20 families were examined for chewing lice in South
Africa. Considering only the genus Myrsidea, a total of 19 birds of 8 species were parasitised with 8 species of
Myrsidea. Descriptions and illustrations are given for three new species of Myrsidea. The new species and their type
hosts are: Myrsidea aynazae ex Phyllastrephus flavostriatus (Sharpe) (Pycnonotidae), Myrsidea eslamii ex Zoothera
gurneyi (Hartlaub) (Turdidae) and Myrsidea mariquensis ex Bradornis mariquensis Smith (Muscicapidae). Records of
new host-louse associations are: Phyllastrephus terrestris Swainson (Pycnonotidae) for Myrsidea sp., Ploceus intermedius Ruppell (Ploceidae) for Myrsidea sp., and Turdus libonyanus (Smith) (Turdidae) for Myrsidea sp.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seven species of chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) were found on five species of bulbuls (Passeriformes: Pycnonotidae) in northern Vietnam. Three new species of the genera Brueelia and Philopteroides are described; they and their type hosts are: Brueelia flavala ex Hemixos flavala Blyth, 1845 B. cucphuongensis ex Pycnonotus finlaysoni Strickland, 1844 and Philopteroides flavala ex Hemixos flavala Blyth, 1845. First records of chewing lice from Hemixos castanonotus Swinhoe, 1870 and Iole propinqua (Oustalet, 1903), and a new host record for Myrsidea ochracei and Sturnidoecus sp. are also included.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chewing lice (Phthiraptera) of Columbidae (Columbiformes) from Pakistan are studied. Six species of chewing lice with new host records are recorded and one new species of the genus Colpocephalum is described from Columba livia in the Karachi region. All the columbid chewing lice from Pakistan are keyed out and the new species is illustrated and compared with the closest allied species.