[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: In neurons, voltage-gated sodium channel beta subunits regulate the expression levels, subcellular localization, and electrophysiological properties of sodium channel alpha subunits. However, the contribution of beta subunits to sodium channel function in heart is poorly understood. We examined the role of beta1 in cardiac excitability using Scn1b null mice. Compared to wildtype mice, electrocardiograms recorded from Scn1b null mice displayed longer RR intervals and extended QT(c) intervals, both before and after autonomic block. In acutely dissociated ventricular myocytes, loss of beta1 expression resulted in a approximately 1.6-fold increase in both peak and persistent sodium current while channel gating and kinetics were unaffected. Na(v)1.5 expression increased in null myocytes approximately 1.3-fold. Action potential recordings in acutely dissociated ventricular myocytes showed slowed repolarization, supporting the extended QT(c) interval. Immunostaining of individual myocytes or ventricular sections revealed no discernable alterations in the localization of sodium channel alpha or beta subunits, ankyrin(B), ankyrin(G), N-cadherin, or connexin-43. Together, these results suggest that beta1 is critical for normal cardiac excitability and loss of beta1 may be associated with a long QT phenotype.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2007 · Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The paraoxonase (PON) gene family in humans has three members, PON1, PON2, and PON3. Their physiological role(s) and natural substrates are uncertain. We developed a baculovirus-mediated expression system, suitable for all three human PONs, and optimized procedures for their purification. The recombinant PONs are glycosylated with high-mannose-type sugars, which are important for protein stability but are not essential for their enzymatic activities. Enzymatic characterization of the purified PONs has revealed them to be lactonases/lactonizing enzymes, with some overlapping substrates (e.g., aromatic lactones), but also to have distinctive substrate specificities. All three PONs metabolized very efficiently 5-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid 1,5-lactone and 4-hydroxy-docosahexaenoic acid, which are products of both enzymatic and nonenzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, respectively, and may represent the PONs' endogenous substrates. Organophosphates are hydrolyzed almost exclusively by PON1, whereas bulky drug substrates such as lovastatin and spironolactone are hydrolyzed only by PON3. Of special interest is the ability of the human PONs, especially PON2, to hydrolyze and thereby inactivate N-acyl-homoserine lactones, which are quorum-sensing signals of pathogenic bacteria. None of the recombinant PONs protected low density lipoprotein against copper-induced oxidation in vitro.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2005 · The Journal of Lipid Research