K.S. Bhat

Manipal University, Udupi, Karnataka, India

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Publications (24)28.13 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of various surface treatments on the shear bond strength of old amalgam to newly condensed amalgam. 70 amalgam specimens were prepared and divided into seven groups. Group I: No surface treatment. Group II: Treatment with luting glass ionomer cement. Group III: Treatment with diamond bur. Group IV: Treatment with air abrasion. Group V: Treatment with adhesive resin. Group VI: Treatment with diamond bur + glass ionomer. Group VII: Treatment with diamond bur + adhesive resin. All the repaired specimens were subjected to shear bond testing. The results suggest that, Group VI had the highest bond strength and group I had the least. Bond strength of Group II was higher than group III (P=0.023) and IV (P<0.001) and lower than group VI (P<0.001) and VII (P=0.002). There was no significant difference between group II and V (P=0.650). Group III had higher bond strength than group IV (P<0.001) and lower than group VI and VII (P<0.001). There was no difference between group III and V (P=0.174). Group IV had lower bond strength than group V, VI and VII (P<0.001). Similarly, group V had lower bond strength than VI and VII (P<0.001). Among groups VI and VII, group VI had better bond strength (P=0.049). Clinical significance: Surface treatment of old amalgam restoration with the combination of diamond bur and luting glass ionomer can provide good shear bond strength to repaired amalgam.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · International Journal of Clinical Dentistry
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    Nidambur Ballal · Kadengodlu Bhat · Shubha Rathi · Vidya Saraswathi

    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of present invitro study was to investigate antimicrobial efficacy of leaf extract of the cashew plant (Anacardium occidentale) and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate solution against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Disk diffusion method using lawn cultures of the E. faecalis and C. albicans was performed to determine the antimicrobial efficacy. The inoculums of these organisms were used to make the lawn culture on sabouraud's agar and blood agar plates. Wells were prepared in these lawn cultures and filled with the various concentrations of the test solutions. The agar plates were incubated at 37 0 C and zone of inhibition was examined after 48 hours. The results suggest that leaf extract of Anacardium occidentale had antibacterial activity against E. faecalis which was equivalent to Chlorhexidine. However, its antifungal activity against C. albicans was poor compared to Chlorhexidine INTRODUCTION
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · International Journal of Clinical Dentistry
  • V. Ballal · M.V. Jothi · M. Kundabala · K.S. Bhat
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    ABSTRACT: Endodontic treatment for teeth that exhibit the dental anomaly, dens invaginatus, can be difficult because of the bizarre anatomy and relative inaccessibility of the diseased pulp tissue. Two cases are presented here involving nonsurgical and surgical endodontic treatment. In the first case, a maxillary left lateral incisor associated with a large periapical lesion was treated, and in the second case, a maxillary right canine associated with periapical lesion and incompletely obturated root canal with displaced root end restoration was treated. In both the cases, post operative recall radiograph showed satisfactory periradicular healing.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013
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    N.V. Ballal · M. Kundabala · K.S. Bhat
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    ABSTRACT: The scientific literature regarding dental application for laser is increasing. The past decade has seen a veritable explosion of research into the clinical applications of lasers in dental practice. Once regarded as a complex technology with limited uses in clinical dentistry, has grown with its awareness and usefulness in the armamentarium of the modern dental practice. They have been used as an adjunct or alternative to the traditional approaches. Since the development of the ruby laser by Maimam in 1960, a variety of papers on potential application of lasers in dentistry have been published. Various, and at times conflicting, claims by manufacturers, scientists and clinicians fill dental meetings and journals. The purpose of this paper is to review the general principles of lasers including their properties, components, tissue interaction, hazards and laser safety. With the potential availability of many new laser wave lengths and modes, much interest is developing in this promising field.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013
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    N.V. Ballal · V. Jothi · K.S. Bhat
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    ABSTRACT: This report on two cases describes a novel clinical technique of fabricating amalgam inlay for cervical cavities in elderly patients. Two patients with cervical abrasion cavities having dentinal hypersensitivity were reported. The impressions of the cervical cavities were done using rubber base impression material. Later, cast was fabricated, amalgam was condensed into the cavity and an inlay was prepared. Fit of the inlay was checked on the patient, thereafter it was finished and polished and cemented into the cavity using luting glass ionomer cement.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · International Journal of Clinical Dentistry
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives This study aims to evaluate and compare the genotoxic and apoptotic effect of aqueous solutions of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) with that of maleic acid (MA) using Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cells growing in vitro. Materials and methods Exponentially growing V79 cells were treated with various concentrations of EDTA or MA alone for 30 min, and genotoxic effect was analyzed by micronucleus as well as comet assays and the type of cell death by apoptotic cell measurements using microscopic and flow cytometric methods. For all the experiments, H2O2 was used as a positive control. Results Treatment of V79 cells with H2O2 resulted in significantly (P < 0.001) increased micronuclei and levels of DNA damage, whereas, EDTA/MA alone treated cells did not show significant increase of MN frequencies and comet parameters even at their higher concentrations when compared with that of untreated control. V79 cells treated with EDTA/MA for 30 min showed a nonsignificant increase in the percentage of apoptotic and necrotic cells at their lower concentrations (0.025 and 0.05 % for EDTA and MA, respectively). However, at higher concentrations, i.e., >IC50 (0.1 and 0.5 %) for EDTA and MA resulted in increased number of apoptotic and necrotic cells when compared with the untreated group. Conclusions This study clearly demonstrates that MA and EDTA are not potentially genotoxic agents and MA induced lesser apoptotic/necrotic death than that of EDTA at their clinically relevant doses. Clinical relevance MA may have a better clinical acceptability with comparable smear layer removal ability. Hence, the results presented here might be an additional supporting evidence for the use of MA in endodontic practice.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Clinical Oral Investigations
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    ABSTRACT: The elimination of microorganisms from the root canal system necessitates the use of combination of irrigating solutions to enhance their antimicrobial property. The combination of irrigants and their interaction sometimes could be detrimental to the outcome of the root canal therapy. The purposes of this study were (1) to evaluate the interaction between 7% maleic acid (MA) and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate solution (CHX) and to find out the availability of individual irrigant and (2) to determine the free available chlorine content when 7% MA was mixed with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution. Interaction between MA and CHX was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Available chlorine content in NaOCl was evaluated by the standard iodine/thiosulfate titration method. It was observed that more than 90% free MA and CHX were available when MA was combined with CHX. It was also observed that there was no precipitate formation when 7% MA was mixed with 2% CHX. Available chlorine content decreased significantly in the MA/NaOCl mixture. There were no adverse interactions or precipitate formation observed when MA was combined with CHX, but the available chlorine content was reduced when NaOCl was mixed with MA.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Journal of endodontics
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of 7% maleic acid (MA) and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in elimination of Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, and Staphylococcus aureus at different time intervals. Transfer culture of microbial strains were used for inoculum preparation and determination of time-kill assay. The viability counts of 7% MA and 17% EDTA suspensions were performed at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours. Assay results were analyzed by determining number of strains that yielded log(10) CFU/mL of -1 compared with counts at 0 hours, for test medicaments at time intervals. Medicaments were considered to be microbicidal at a minimum inhibitory concentration that reduced original inoculum by >3 log(10) CFU/mL (99.9%) and microbiostatic if inoculum was reduced by <3 log(10) CFU/mL. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square and Fisher exact tests as well as Friedman test for comparison of the time interval within the MA and EDTA groups. At all time intervals, there was no significant difference between MA and EDTA for all of the organisms (P > .05). However, within the MA and EDTA groups at various time intervals, there were significant differences (P < .001). Equivalent antimicrobial activity was observed by MA and EDTA against all of the organisms tested at various periods.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology
  • Nidambur Vasudev Ballal · Kundabala Mala · Kadengodlu Seetharama Bhat
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate mineral contents of root canal dentin after treatment with 7% maleic acid (MA) or 17% EDTA. Thirty pieces of teeth were divided into 3 groups: 1) 17% EDTA; 2) 7% MA; and 3) saline. All specimens were treated for 0, 1, 5, 10, 15 minutes. Levels of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, sulfur, and oxygen were measured using energy dispersive spectrometer. Data were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance. Tukey honest significant difference and Bonferroni test were used for comparison between the groups and time periods. MA reduced maximum amount of calcium and phosphorus at all time intervals, but was significant only up to 5 minutes (P < .001). Oxygen, sulfur, and magnesium were decreased more with saline and least with MA (P < .001). Sodium was decreased more with MA and least with EDTA (P < .001). MA decalcifies the root dentin, with most calcium and phosphorus extracted during the first 5 minutes, compared with EDTA.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology
  • N V Ballal · K Mala · K S Bhat
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    ABSTRACT: To compare in vitro, the tissue-dissolution capacity of 7% maleic acid (MA), 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (positive control) and 0.9% saline (NaCl) (negative control) on human pulp tissue. Forty pieces of human pulp tissue, each weighing 0.026 g, were divided randomly into four groups (n = 10): (i) 7% MA solution, (ii) 17% EDTA solution, (iii) 2.5% NaOCl solution and (iv) 0.9% NaCl solution. The pulp tissue was placed in beakers containing the test solutions and then placed on a vibrator. Pulp tissue from the four experimental solutions was blotted dry and weighed after 30, 60, 90 and 120 min. The percentage of weight loss was calculated, and the data were statistically analysed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-test. At all time intervals, 2.5% NaOCl dissolved pulp tissue significantly more than the other solutions (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the pulp-dissolution capacity between 7% MA and 17% EDTA at any of the time intervals. NaCl (0.9%) did not have any effect on pulp tissue. Seven percentage of MA and 17% EDTA had minimal tissue-dissolution capacity when compared to NaOCl.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · International Endodontic Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of present in vitro study was to investigate antimicrobial efficacy of hydroalcoholic extract of Cymbopogon citratus and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate solution against Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis. Punch well method using lawn cultures of the C. albicans and E. faecalis was performed to determine the antimicrobial efficacy in the intial stage. The inoculae of these organisms were used to make the lawn culture on Muller Hinton agar plates. Wells were prepared in these lawn cultures and filled with the test agents. The agar plates were kept for incubation at 37 0 C and zone of inhibition was examined after 24 to 48 hours. Further, Direct Contact method was performed to establish the temporal relation between the pre determined concentration of the extract and the microbicidal efficacy. Gaussian test was employed as test of significance (p<0.05). The results suggest that there was a significant difference in the antimicrobial activity between C. citratus and chlorhexidine gluconate against C. albicans and E. faecalis. C. citratus had a significant antimicrobial efficacy against C. albicans than E. faecalis whereas, chlorhexidine gluconate was more effective against E. faecalis than C. albicans.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · International Journal of Clinical Dentistry
  • N.V. Ballal · M. Kundabal · K.S. Bhat
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    ABSTRACT: The scientific literature regarding dental application for laser is increasing. The past decade has seen a veritable explosion of research into the clinical applications of lasers in dental practice. Once regarded as a complex technology with limited uses in clinical dentistry, has grown with its awareness and usefulness in the armamentarium of the modern dental practice. They have been used as an adjunct or alternative to the traditional approaches. Since the development of the ruby laser by Maimam in 1960, a variety of papers on potential application of lasers in dentistry have been published. Various, and at times conflicting, claims by manufacturers, scientists and clinicians fill dental meetings and journals. The purpose of this paper is to review the general principles of lasers including their properties, components, tissue interaction, hazards and laser safety. With the potential availability of many new laser wave lengths and modes, much interest is developing in this promising field.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · International Journal of Clinical Dentistry
  • V. Ballal · M.V. Jothi · M. Kundabala · K.S. Bhat
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endodontic treatment for teeth that exhibit the dental anomaly, dens invaginatus, can be difficult because of the bizarre anatomy and relative inaccessibility of the diseased pulp tissue. Two cases are presented here involving nonsurgical and surgical endodontic treatment. In the first case, a maxillary left lateral incisor associated with a large periapical lesion was treated, and in the second case, a maxillary right canine associated with periapical lesion and incompletely obturated root canal with displaced root end restoration was treated. In both the cases, post operative recall radiograph showed satisfactory periradicular healing.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · International Journal of Clinical Dentistry
  • Nidambur Vasudev Ballal · Kundabala Mala · Kadengodlu Seetharama Bhat
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of 7% maleic acid and 17% EDTA solutions on the microhardness and the surface roughness of human root canal dentin. Forty-five extracted human maxillary central incisors were sectioned longitudinally into a total of 90 segments, were embedded in auto polymerizing acrylic resin, and were grounded flat with silicon carbide abrasive papers. Based on the test solutions used, samples were divided randomly into three groups: (1) the EDTA group, 1 mL of 17% EDTA for 1 minute (n = 30), (2) the maleic acid group, 1 mL of 7% maleic acid for 1 minute (n = 30), and (3) the control group, 1 mL of 0.9% saline for 1 minute (n = 30). Every group was then divided into two subgroups of 15 specimens each. In group 1a, 2a, and 3a, specimens were used to determine the microhardness of the root canal dentine in the coronal, middle, and apical third using Vicker's hardness tester. In groups 1b, 2b, and 3b, specimens were used for the determination of surface roughness of the root canal dentine using a roughness tester (Surtronic, Leicester, England). The data were statistically analyzed using the Kruskall Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests. There was no significant difference between EDTA and maleic acid in the reduction of microhardness. The increase in roughness was significantly greater with maleic acid when compared with EDTA. Maleic acid reduced the microhardness of root dentin similar to EDTA but increased the surface roughness significantly more than EDTA.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Journal of endodontics
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    ABSTRACT: Calcium hydroxide is widely used as an intracanal medicament in endodontics. Its therapeutic effects depend on the dissociation of calcium hydroxide into calcium and hydroxyl ions, which, in turn, depends on the vehicle used. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the sustained release of calcium ions and the pH change of calcium hydroxide over a period of 30 days when formulated with propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol 6000, chitosan, and guar gum. Various formulations were prepared and placed inside the root canals of human teeth and were suspended in glass vials containing distilled water. At specific time intervals, the calcium ion concentration was analyzed using an ultraviolet spectrophotometer. pH changes of the medium were measured at various time intervals up to 30 days. Results revealed that chitosan formulation showed the maximum sustained release of calcium ions compared with the other three formulations. All the formulations exhibited high alkaline pH upto 30 days. From the results of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that chitosan can be used as a promising vehicle for for the sustained release of calcium ions from the calcium hydroxide in the root canal system.
    Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Journal of endodontics
  • Nidambur Vasudev Ballal · Mala Kundabala · Kadengodlu Seetharama Bhat
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate the postobturation apical seal following irrigation with 7% maleic acid (MA) or 17% EDTA using dye leakage under vacuum method. Seventy single-rooted human anterior teeth were subjected to root canal instrumentation. Based on the final irrigating solution used, samples were divided into 3 groups: (1) 17% EDTA + 2.5% NaOCl, (2) 7% MA + 2.5% NaOCl, (3) 0.9% saline. Then samples were obturated and placed in 2% rhodamine B dye solution under vacuum pressure for 30 minutes and allowed to remain in the dye for 7 days. Samples were then longitudinally split and examined for dye leakage under stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. MA showed the least apical leakage compared with EDTA and saline. Saline showed maximum leakage. Final irrigation with 7% MA improved the postobturation apical seal compared with 17% EDTA.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology
  • V. Ballal · K.S. Bhat
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    ABSTRACT: Acidic soft drinks have been implicated in dental erosion with few cases reported with extensive erosive lesions caused by soft drinks. This paper presents a case report of a patient with extensive erosion of maxillary anterior teeth due to the consumption of Cola soft drink (Coca Cola R). The lesions were conservatively managed using direct composite veneering technique and the esthetics was reestablished.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · International Journal of Clinical Dentistry
  • N.V. Ballal · M. Kundabala · K.S. Bhat
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: This study evaluated in vitro, the smear layer removing ability of different concentrations (3%, 5% or 7%) of maleic acid and a commonly used EDTA based paste preparation (RC-prep) both followed by irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl on instrumented root canal surface. Methods: Fifty extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were used. Crown portions of the teeth were decoronated and root canals were instrumented and irrigated with 3%, 5% or 7% maleic acid or RC- prep followed by 2.5% NaOCl. Following irrigation, middle and apical thirds of the root canal surface were examined under SEM for the presence or absence of smear layer. Scores were evaluated using the Wilcoxon matched pair signed rank test and analysis of comparison among the groups was calculated using Chi-square test. Results: Results showed that all the three concentrations of maleic acid were better than EDTA (RC- prep) in removing the smear layer from both the middle and apical third of the root canal system. Conclusion: Maleic acid can be used as an alternative agent to EDTA in the removal of the smear layer from the root canal surface in endodontics.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · International Journal of Clinical Dentistry
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    N.V. Ballal · K.S. Bhat · M. Kundabala · A.K. Rao
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    ABSTRACT: Dental procedures, oral infections and poor oral hygiene can provoke the introduction of oral microorganisms into the blood stream or the lymphatic system. The subsequent attachment and multiplication of these bacteria on tissues or organs can lead to focal oral infections. Pathogenic agents also remain at their primary oral site but the toxins liberated can reach an organ or tissue via the bloodstream and cause injury. The present case report describes a rare case of Uveitis caused by a non vital tooth and its management. Clinical significance: An endodontists should be aware that, the odontogenic infections particularly a non vital tooth can also cause uveitis.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · International Journal of Clinical Dentistry

Publication Stats

167 Citations
28.13 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011-2013
    • Manipal University
      • Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics
      Udupi, Karnataka, India
  • 2007-2010
    • College of Dental Sciences, Karnataka
      • • Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics
      • • Department of Periodontics
      Bowringpet, Karnātaka, India