[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of yerba mate extract and its principal bioactive compounds on adipogenesis. The anti-adipogenic effects of yerba mate, chlorogenic acid, quercetin and rutin were evaluated in 3T3-L1 cells using a PCR array. The results obtained in vitro were validated in vivo in a high-fat diet-induced model of obesity. The in vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that yerba mate extract down-regulated the expression of genes that regulate adipogenesis, such as Creb-1and C/EBPα, and the extract up-regulated the expression of genes related to the inhibition of adipogenesis, including Dlk1, Gata2, Gata3, Klf2, Lrp5, Pparγ2, Sfrp1, Tcf7l2, Wnt10b, and Wnt3a. In summary, it was demonstrated that yerba mate and its bioactive compounds regulate the expression of genes related to in vitro adipogenesis. Furthermore, yerba mate might regulate adipogenesis through the Wnt pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of yerba maté (YM) extract on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT signaling pathway in vivo. The mice were introduced to either standard- or high-fat diet (HFD). After 8 weeks on an HFD, mice were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment conditions, water or yerba maté extract at 1.0 g/kg. After treatment, glucose blood level and hepatic insulin response were evaluated. Liver tissue was examined to determine the mRNA levels using the PI3K-AKT PCR array. The nuclear translocation of forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) was determined by an electrophoretic mobility-shift assay. Our data demonstrated that yerba maté extract significantly decreased the final body weight, glucose blood levels, and insulin resistance of mice. Molecular analysis demonstrated that an HFD downregulated Akt2, Irs1, Irs2, Pi3kca, Pi3kcg, and Pdk1; after yerba maté treatment, the levels of those genes returned to baseline. In addition, an HFD upregulated Pepck and G6pc and increased FOXO1 nuclear translocation. The intervention downregulated these genes by decreasing FOXO1 nuclear translocation. The results obtained demonstrate for the first time the specific action of yerba maté on the PI3K-AKT pathway, which contributed to the observed improvement in hepatic insulin signaling.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leaves of Ilex paraguariensis are used to prepare a tea known as maté which is a common beverage in several South American countries. The ethanol extract was fractionated to identify the compounds responsible for the anti-adipogenic activity in 3T3-L1 cells. Extracts of both fresh and dried maté leaves were subjected to column chromatography using molecular permeation to obtain the saponin (20 % yields) and the polyphenol extracts (40 % yields) from the fresh and dried leaves. The phenolic content was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis and the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Also, maté extracts (50 μg/ml to 1,000 μg/ml) did not display citotoxicity using MTT. The polyphenol extract from the dried leaves was the most effective (50 μg/ml) in the inhibition of triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and rutin (100 μg/ml) likely accounted for a large portion of this activity. Additionally, maté extracts had a modulatory effect on the expression of genes related to the adipogenesis as PPARγ2, leptin, TNF-α and C/EBPα.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of mate tea (MT) supplementation on LDL oxidisability and oxidative stress biomarkers in normolipidaemic and hyperlipidaemic volunteers after 60days of ingestion were investigated. A total of 60 volunteers, of whom 18 were hyperlipidaemic and 42 were normolipidaemic, ingested 200ml of MT (12.5mg/ml) per day. The oxidative stress was evaluated by means of comet assay analysis, serum total antioxidant status (TAS), lipid peroxidation products evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in serum, enzymatic activity of the erythrocytes Cu–Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu–Zn SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and susceptibility to copper-induced in vitro oxidation of LDL was monitored by diene conjugates. It was observed that hyperlipidaemia caused an increase in lipid peroxidation products (P
No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Journal of Functional Foods
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of yerba maté extract upon markers of insulin resistance and inflammatory markers in mice with high fat diet-induced obesity. The mice were introduced to either standard or high fat diets. After 12 weeks on a high fat diet, mice were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment conditions, water or yerba maté extract at 1.0 gkg(-1). After treatment, glucose blood level and hepatic and soleus muscle insulin response were evaluated. Serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were evaluated by ELISA, liver tissue was examined to determine the mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and iNOS, and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB was determined by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Our data show improvements in both the basal glucose blood levels and in the response to insulin administration in the treated animals. The molecular analysis of insulin signalling revealed a restoration of hepatic and muscle insulin substrate receptor (IRS)-1 and AKT phosphorylation. Our data show that the high fat diet caused an up-regulation of the TNF-α, IL-6, and iNOS genes. Although after intervention with yerba maté extract the expression levels of those genes returned to baseline through the NF-κB pathway, these results could also be secondary to the weight loss observed. In conclusion, our results indicate that yerba maté has a potential anti-inflammatory effect. Additionally, these data demonstrate that yerba maté inhibits hepatic and muscle TNF-α and restores hepatic insulin signalling in mice with high fat diet-induced obesity.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because the potential of yerba maté (Ilex paraguariensis) has been suggested in the management of obesity, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of yerba maté extract on weight loss, obesity-related biochemical parameters, and the regulation of adipose tissue gene expression in high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice. Thirty animals were randomly assigned to three groups. The mice were introduced to standard or high-fat diets. After 12 weeks on a high-fat diet, mice were randomly assigned according to the treatment (water or yerba maté extract 1.0 g/kg). After treatment intervention, plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and glucose were evaluated. Adipose tissue was examined to determine the mRNA levels of several genes such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), leptin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-C motif chemokine ligand-2 (CCL2), CCL receptor-2 (CCR2), angiotensinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), adiponectin, resistin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma(2) (PPAR-gamma(2)), uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), and PPAR-gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1 alpha). The F4/80 levels were determined by immunoblotting. We found that obese mice treated with yerba maté exhibited marked attenuation of weight gain, adiposity, a decrease in epididymal fat-pad weight, and restoration of the serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, and glucose. The gene and protein expression levels were directly regulated by the high-fat diet. After treatment with yerba maté extract, we observed a recovery of the expression levels. In conclusion, our data show that yerba maté extract has potent antiobesity activity in vivo. Additionally, we observed that the treatment had a modulatory effect on the expression of several genes related to obesity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Yerba maté (Ilex paraguariensis) is rich in polyphenols, especially chlorogenic acids. Evidence suggests that dietary polyphenols could play a role in glucose absorption and metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic properties of yerba maté extract in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Animals (n = 41) were divided in four groups: nondiabetic control (NDC, n = 10), nondiabetic yerba maté (NDY, n = 10), diabetic control (DC, n = 11), and diabetic yerba maté (DY, n = 10). The intervention consisted in the administration of yerba maté extract in a 1 g extract/kg body weight dose for 28 days; controls received saline solution only. There were no significant differences in serum glucose, insulin, and hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity between the groups that ingested yerba maté extract (NDY and DY) and the controls (NDC and DC). However, the intestinal SGLT1 gene expression was significantly lower in animals that received yerba maté both in upper (p = 0.007) and middle (p < 0.001) small intestine. These results indicate that bioactive compounds present in yerba maté might be capable of interfering in glucose absorption, by decreasing SGLT1 expression.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2008 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is rich in polyphenolic compounds, which are thought to contribute to the health benefits of tea. Mate tea was administered orally to mice at a dose of 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg for 60 d, and changes both in serum lipid concentration and fatty acid composition of liver and kidney were examined. The effects of mate tea on serum and tissue lipid peroxidation were assessed by the evaluation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). In tea-consuming mice, both MUFA (18:1n-9) and PUFA (18:2n-6 and 20:4n-6) were increased (P<0.05) in the liver lipid (approximately 90 and 60%, respectively), whereas only MUFA (approximately 20%) were increased in the kidney lipid. The most altered PUFA class was n-6 PUFA, which increased by approximately 60-75 % (P<0.05). This difference in the fatty acid profile in the liver is reflected in the increased PUFA:SFA ratio. Consistent with these results, mice fed with mate tea had much lower TBARS in the liver. No differences (P>0.05) were found in the levels of serum cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and TAG under the conditions of the present study. These results suggest that treatment with mate tea was able to protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation and may have selective protective effects within the body, especially on the liver.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2008 · The British journal of nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is rich in several bioactive compounds that can act as free radical scavengers. Since oxidative DNA damage is involved in various pathological states such as cancer, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of mate tea as well as the ability to influence DNA repair in male Swiss mice. Forty animals were randomly assigned to four groups. The animals received three different doses of mate tea aqueous extract, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg, for 60 days. After intervention, the liver, kidney and bladder cells were isolated and the DNA damage induced by H(2)O(2) was investigated by the comet assay. The DNA repair process was also investigated for its potential to protect the cells from damage by the same methodology. The data presented here show that mate tea is not genotoxic in liver, kidney and bladder cells. The regular ingestion of mate tea increased the resistance of DNA to H(2)O(2)-induced DNA strand breaks and improved the DNA repair after H(2)O(2) challenge in liver cells, irrespective of the dose ingested. These results suggest that mate tea could protect against DNA damage and enhance the DNA repair activity. Protection may be afforded by the antioxidant activity of the mate tea's bioactive compounds.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to measure the levels of oxidative DNA damage in cells isolated from the colon mucosa in patients with colorectal cancer and to compare normal and neoplastic tissues and make correlations with anatomopathologic variables.
Thirty-three patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma were studied. The oxidative DNA damage was evaluated by means of the alkaline version of the comet assay.
For all the patients studied, it was found that the cells obtained from the neoplastic tissue presented oxidative DNA damage greater than in the cells from normal tissue. The cells isolated from the neoplastic mucosal tissue of the colon presented significantly greater mean extent of DNA strand breakage than the cells isolated from normal tissue. Additionally, the patients at earlier stages of the Dukes and TNM classifications presented higher levels of oxidative damage than those at more advanced stages.
Assessment of the levels of oxidative damage at the different stages of colorectal carcinogenesis is of great interest because it enables evaluation of the effectiveness of antioxidant substances that could be used as preventive measures against the initial oxidative aggressive action on the colonic mucosa.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2008 · Clinical Colorectal Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antiacid drugs, including omeprazole and ranitidine, were prescribed to Helicobacter pylori-infected subjects in combination with antibiotics during eradication treatment. Several reports suggest that these drugs have additional pharmacological properties, such as antineutrophil, antiapoptotic and antioxidant characteristics. The aim of this work was to study the effects of acid suppressive medication treatment in the H. pylori infection experimental model, focusing on possible additional pharmacological properties.
The ability of gastric acid suppression was assessed in pylorus-ligated animals. Gastric H. pylori colonization levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) acitivity, macroscopic damage, Bax and Bcl-2 expression and DNA damage levels were assessed in C57BL/6-infected mice after treatment for one week with omeprazole (100 mg kg(-1)) or ranitidine (100 mg kg(-1)).
Omeprazole treatment increased bacteria colonization and MPO activity in mice stomachs. Both antiacid drugs efficiently improved macroscopic damage, although only omeprazole restored the expression of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein in gastric mucosa of infected animals.
Some additional omeprazole-related properties, such as antineutrophil properties, were not observed in H. pylori-infected mice after one week of treatment, suggesting that this property is restricted to in vitro approaches. However, the antiapoptotic activity of omeprazole could be attributed to an ability to modify the protein expression of Bcl-2, decreased by H. pylori infection.
No preview · Article · Jan 2008 · Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a mixture of vitamins and minerals on oxidative DNA damage and the resistance of DNA to H(2)O(2)-induced DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes from 80 elderly volunteers ex vivo by means of Comet assay. The intervention with vitamin complex decreased significantly the levels of DNA damage. Our results demonstrate that the vitamin complex was able to decrease H(2)O(2)-induced DNA breakage. Our data suggest that the consumption of some vitamins may reduce the effects of oxidative DNA damage and may be useful for attaining healthy aging.
No preview · Article · Nov 2007 · Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is among the most potent naturally occurring carcinogens and classified as a group I carcinogen. Since the ingestion of aflatoxin-contaminated food is associated with several liver diseases, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 2, 20, and 200 ppb of AFB1 on DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes and liver cells in Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs. The animals were divided into four groups according to the given diet. After the treatment the lymphocytes and liver cells were isolated and DNA damage determined by Comet assay. The levels of DNA damage in lymphocytes were higher animals treated with 200 ppb of AFB1-enriched diet (P = 0.02). In the liver cells there were a relationship between the levels of DNA damage and the consumption of AFB1 in all studied groups. These results suggest that Comet assay performed on lymphocytes is a valuable genotoxic marker for high levels of exposure to AFB1 in guinea pig. Additionally our results indicate that the exposure to this toxin increases significantly and increases the level of DNA damage in liver cells, which is a key step on liver cancer development. We also suggest that the Comet assay is an useful tool for monitoring the genotoxicity of AFB1 in liver.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract The aim of this study was,the evaluation of the antioxidant activity of mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) and its effect on fatty,acid composition in the,liver of male,Swiss mice. Eighty animals,were,randomly,assigned to,8 groups,in accordance,with the treatment,and ,dose ,used. The animals ,received ,three different doses ,of toasted mate,aqueous,extract: 0.5 g.kg