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ABSTRACT: Identification and treatment of hypertension should be an important focus of physicians caring for children. Ultimately, a link between hypertension in children and the risk of cardiovascular disease will be established. Further long-term studies are likely to show that morbidity and mortality will be decreased by the institution of treatment of hypertension in children. Additional risk factors such as obesity and lipid disorders should be sought and targeted for treatment as well. Lifestyle modifications are advised for all patients and can be tried solely for those with blood pressures between the 95th and 99th percentiles. Drug therapy is indicated in children with blood pressures greater than the 99th percentile, secondary hypertension, coexisting diabetes, left ventricular hypertrophy, or those who fail a trial of nonpharmacologic treatment. Children with white coat hypertension should not be treated with drugs. Children with renal artery stenosis and drug-refractory hypertension should be considered for percutaneous angioplasty or surgery depending on the anatomy of the lesion and operator experience. Children requiring multiple drug classes for control of blood pressure and older adolescents on one drug with renal artery lesions amenable to a percutaneous procedure may elect intervention in an attempt to reduce or eliminate drug therapy. Infants and children with hypertension due to native coarctation of the aorta should undergo surgical repair. Older children and adolescents with native coarctation should have surgical repair or percutaneous angioplasty/stenting. Hypertension secondary to recurrent coarctation is usually treated with a percutaneous intervention.
St. Luke's Hospital (MO, USA)Сент-Луис, Michigan, United States