Simon Gilbody

Hull York Medical School, York, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (227)954.43 Total impact

  • Debbie Tallon · Nicola Wiles · John Campbell · Carolyn Chew-Graham · Chris Dickens · Una Macleod · Tim J. Peters · Glyn Lewis · Ian M. Anderson · Simon Gilbody · William Hollingworth · Simon Davies · David Kessler
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    ABSTRACT: People with depression are usually managed in primary care and antidepressants are often the first-line treatment, but only one third of patients respond fully to a single antidepressant. This paper describes the protocol for a randomised controlled trial (MIR) to investigate the extent to which the addition of the antidepressant mirtazapine is effective in reducing the symptoms of depression compared with placebo in patients who are still depressed after they have been treated with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) for at least 6 weeks in primary care. MIR is a two-parallel group, multi-centre, pragmatic, placebo controlled, randomised trial with allocation at the level of the individual. Eligible participants are those who: are aged 18 years or older; are currently taking an SSRI/SNRI antidepressant (for at least 6 weeks at an adequate dose); score ≥14 on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II); have adhered to their medication; and meet ICD-10 criteria for depression (assessed using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised version). Participants who give written, informed consent, will be randomised to receive either oral mirtazapine or matched placebo, starting at 15 mg daily for 2 weeks and increasing to 30 mg daily thereafter, for up to 12 months (to be taken in addition to their usual antidepressant). Participants, their GPs, and the research team will all be blind to the allocation. The primary outcome will be depression symptoms at 12 weeks post randomisation, measured as a continuous variable using the BDI-II. Secondary outcomes (measured at 12, 24 and 52 weeks) include: response (reduction in depressive symptoms (BDI-II score) of at least 50 % compared to baseline); remission of depression symptoms (BDI-II <10); change in anxiety symptoms; adverse effects; quality of life; adherence to antidepressant medication; health and social care use, time off work and cost-effectiveness. All outcomes will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. A qualitative study will explore patients’ views and experiences of either taking two antidepressants, or an antidepressant and a placebo; and GPs’ views on prescribing a second antidepressant in this patient group. The MIR trial will provide evidence on the clinical and cost-effectiveness of mirtazapine as an adjunct to SSRI/SNRI antidepressants for patients in primary care who have not responded to monotherapy. Trial registration EudraCT Number: 2012-000090-23 (Registered January 2012); ISRCTN06653773 (Registered September 2012)
    No preview · Article · Dec 2016 · Trials
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    ABSTRACT: Background There is a paucity of research on the nature of life adversity in depressed and non-depressed older adults. Early life events work used in-depth interviews; however, larger epidemiological trials investigate life adversity using brief questionnaires. This study investigates the type of life adversity experienced in later life and its association with depression and compares adversity captured using a brief (LTE-Q) and in-depth (LEDS) measure. Methods 960 participants over 65 years were recruited in UK primary care to complete the PHQ-9 and LTE-Q. A sub-sample (n=19) completed the LEDS and a question exploring the subjective experience of the LTE-Q and LEDS. Results Important life adversity was reported on the LTE-Q in 48% of the sample. In the LTE-Q sample the prevalence of depression (PHQ-9≥10) was 12%. Exposure to recent adversity was associated with doubling of the odds of depression. The LTE-Q only captured a proportion of adversity measured by the LEDS (42% vs 84%). Both measures showed health, bereavement and relationship events were most common. Limitations The cross-sectional design limits the extent to which inferences can be drawn around the direction of causality between adversity and depression. Recall in older adults is questionable. Conclusions UK older adults face adversity in areas of health, bereavement and relationships which are associated with depression. This has clinical relevance for psychological interventions for older adults to consider social context and social support. It helps identify the strengths and weaknesses of a brief adversity measure in large scale research. Further research is needed to explore the mechanisms of onset and direction of causality.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2016 · Journal of Affective Disorders

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · British Journal of General Practice
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    ABSTRACT: Background There are limited data on detection disparities of common mental disorders in minority ethnic women.AimsDescribe the natural history of common mental disorders in primary care in the maternal period, characterise women with, and explore ethnic disparities in, detected and potentially missed common mental disorders.Method Secondary analyses of linked birth cohort and primary care data involving 8991 (39.4% White British) women in Bradford. Common mental disorders were characterised through indications in the electronic medical record. Potentially missed common mental disorders were defined as an elevated General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) score during pregnancy with no corresponding common mental disorder markers in the medical record.ResultsEstimated prevalence of pre-birth common mental disorders was 9.5%, rising to 14.0% 3 years postnatally. Up to half of cases were potentially missed. Compared with White British women, minority ethnic women were twice as likely to have potentially missed common mental disorders and half as likely to have a marker of screening for common mental disorders.Conclusions Common mental disorder detection disparities exist for minority ethnic women in the maternal period.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · The British Journal of Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the Whooley questions in the identification of depression; and, to examine the effect of an additional ‘help’ question. Design Systematic review with random effects bivariate diagnostic meta-analysis. Search strategies included electronic databases, examination of reference lists, and forward citation searches. Inclusion criteria Studies were included that provided sufficient data to calculate the diagnostic accuracy of the Whooley questions against a gold standard diagnosis of major depression. Data extraction Descriptive information, methodological quality criteria, and 2×2 contingency tables were extracted. Results Ten studies met inclusion criteria. Pooled sensitivity was 0.95 (95% CI 0.88 to 0.97) and pooled specificity was 0.65 (95% CI 0.56 to 0.74). Heterogeneity was low (I2=24.1%). Primary care subgroup analysis gave broadly similar results. Four of the ten studies provided information on the effect of an additional help question. The addition of this question did not consistently improve specificity while retaining high sensitivity as reported in the original validation study. Conclusions The two-item Whooley questions have high sensitivity and modest specificity in the detection of depression. The current evidence for the use of an additional help question is not consistent and there is, as yet, insufficient data to recommend its use for screening or case finding. Trial registration number CRD42014009695.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · BMJ Open
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    ABSTRACT: Computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT) has been developed as an efficient form of therapy delivery with the potential to enhance access to psychological care. Independent research is needed which examines both the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cCBT over the short and longer term. Objectives To compare the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cCBT as an adjunct to usual general practitioner (GP) care against usual GP care alone, for a free-to-use cCBT program (MoodGYM; National Institute for Mental Health Research, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia) and a commercial pay-to-use cCBT program (Beating the Blues ® ; Ultrasis, London, UK) for adults with depression, and to determine the acceptability of cCBT and the experiences of users. Design A pragmatic, multicentre, three-armed, parallel, randomised controlled trial (RCT) with concurrent economic and qualitative evaluations. Simple randomisation was used. Participants and researchers were not blind to treatment allocation. Setting Primary care in England. Participants Adults with depression who scored ≥ 10 on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Interventions Participants who were randomised to either of the two intervention groups received cCBT (Beating the Blues or MoodGYM) in addition to usual GP care. Participants who were randomised to the control group were offered usual GP care. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was depression at 4 months (PHQ-9). Secondary outcomes were depression at 12 and 24 months; measures of mental health and health-related quality of life at 4, 12 and 24 months; treatment preference; and the acceptability of cCBT and experiences of users. Results Clinical effectiveness: 210 patients were randomised to Beating the Blues, 242 patients were randomised to MoodGYM and 239 patients were randomised to usual GP care (total 691). There was no difference in the primary outcome (depression measured at 4 months) either between Beating the Blues and usual GP care [odds ratio (OR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75 to 1.88] or between MoodGYM and usual GP care (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.56). There was no overall difference across all time points for either intervention compared with usual GP care in a mixed model (Beating the Blues versus usual GP care, p = 0.96; and MoodGYM versus usual GP care, p = 0.11). However, a small but statistically significant difference between MoodGYM and usual GP care at 12 months was found (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.93). Free-to-use cCBT (MoodGYM) was not inferior to pay-to-use cCBT (Beating the Blues) (OR 0.91, 90% CI 0.62 to 1.34; p = 0.69). There were no consistent benefits of either intervention when secondary outcomes were examined. There were no serious adverse events thought likely to be related to the trial intervention. Despite the provision of regular technical telephone support, there was low uptake of the cCBT programs. Cost-effectiveness: cost-effectiveness analyses suggest that neither Beating the Blues nor MoodGYM appeared cost-effective compared with usual GP care alone. Qualitative evaluation: participants were often demotivated to access the computer programs, by reason of depression. Some expressed the view that a greater level of therapeutic input would be needed to promote engagement. Conclusions The benefits that have previously been observed in developer-led trials were not found in this large pragmatic RCT. The benefits of cCBT when added to routine primary care were minimal, and uptake of this mode of therapy was relatively low. There remains a clinical and economic need for effective low-intensity psychological treatments for depression with improved patient engagement. Trial registration This trial is registered as ISRCTN91947481. Funding This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Health technology assessment (Winchester, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Although people with serious mental illnesses have a high risk of contracting blood-borne viral infections, sexual health has largely been neglected by researchers and policy makers involved in mental health. Failure to address this shortcoming could increase morbidity and mortality as a result of undetected and untreated infection. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of blood-borne viral infection in people with serious mental illness.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · The Lancet Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Study question How effective is supported computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT) as an adjunct to usual primary care for adults with depression? Methods This was a pragmatic, multicentre, three arm, parallel randomised controlled trial with simple randomisation. Treatment allocation was not blinded. Participants were adults with symptoms of depression (score ≥10 on nine item patient health questionnaire, PHQ-9) who were randomised to receive a commercially produced cCBT programme (“Beating the Blues”) or a free to use cCBT programme (MoodGYM) in addition to usual GP care. Participants were supported and encouraged to complete the programme via weekly telephone calls. Control participants were offered usual GP care, with no constraints on the range of treatments that could be accessed. The primary outcome was severity of depression assessed with the PHQ-9 at four months. Secondary outcomes included health related quality of life (measured by SF-36) and psychological wellbeing (measured by CORE-OM) at four, 12, and 24 months and depression at 12 and 24 months. Study answer and limitations Participants offered commercial or free to use cCBT experienced no additional improvement in depression compared with usual GP care at four months (odds ratio 1.19 (95% confidence interval 0.75 to 1.88) for Beating the Blues v usual GP care; 0.98 (0.62 to 1.56) for MoodGYM v usual GP care). There was no evidence of an overall difference between either programme compared with usual GP care (0.99 (0.57 to 1.70) and 0.68 (0.42 to 1.10), respectively) at any time point. Commercially provided cCBT conferred no additional benefit over free to use cCBT or usual GP care at any follow-up point. Uptake and use of cCBT was low, despite regular telephone support. Nearly a quarter of participants (24%) had dropped out by four months. The study did not have enough power to detect small differences so these cannot be ruled out. Findings cannot be generalised to cCBT offered with a much higher level of guidance and support. What this study adds Supported cCBT does not substantially improve depression outcomes compared with usual GP care alone. In this study, neither a commercially available nor free to use computerised CBT intervention was superior to usual GP care. Funding, competing interests, data sharing Commissioned and funded by the UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) programme (project No 06/43/05). The authors have no competing interests. Requests for patient level data will be considered by the REEACT trial management group Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN91947481.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · BMJ (online)
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    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Trials
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To explore patient experience of computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT) for depression in a pragmatic randomised controlled trial (Randomised Evaluation of the Effectiveness and Acceptability of Computerised Therapy, REEACT). Design Qualitative semistructured interviews with 36 participants. Participants Depressed patients with a Patient Health Questionnaire 9 of 10 or above recruited into the REEACT randomised controlled trial. Setting Primary care settings in England. Results Participant experience was on a continuum, with some patients unable or unwilling to accept psychological therapy without interpersonal contact while others appreciated the enhanced anonymity and flexibility of cCBT. The majority of patients were ambivalent, recognising the potential benefits offered by cCBT but struggling with challenges posed by the severity of their illness, lack of support and limited personalisation of programme content. Low completion rates were commonly reported, although more positive patients reported greater engagement. Both positive and ambivalent patients perceived a need for monitoring or follow-up to support completion, while negative patients reported deliberate non-adherence due to dissatisfaction with the programme. Patients also reported that severity of depression impacted on engagement, and viewed cCBT as unsuitable for patients undergoing more severe depressive episodes. Conclusions The study demonstrates both the unique demands and benefits of computerised therapy. cCBT was preferred by some patients and rejected by others, but the majority of patients were ambivalent about the therapy. cCBT could be offered within a menu of options in stepped care if matched appropriately to individual patients or could be offered with enhanced support to appeal to a greater number of patients. Trial registration number ISRCTN91947481.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · BMJ Open
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The prevalence of depressive symptoms in older people may be as high as 20 %. Depression in older people is associated with loss, loneliness and physical co-morbidities; it is known to be under-diagnosed and under-treated. Older people may find it difficult to speak to their GPs about low mood, and GPs may avoid identifying depression due to limited consultation time and referral options for older patients. Methods: A nested qualitative study in a randomised controlled trial for older people with moderate to severe depression: the CASPER Plus Trial (Collaborative Care for Screen Positive Elders). We interviewed GPs, case managers (CM) and patient participants to explore perspectives and experiences of delivering and receiving a psychosocial intervention, developed specifically for older adults in primary care, within a collaborative care framework. Transcripts were analysed thematically using principles of constant comparison. Results: Thirty three interviews were conducted and, across the three data-sets, four main themes were identified: revealing hidden depression, reducing the 'blind spots', opportunity to talk outside the primary care consultation and 'moving on' from depression. Conclusions: Depression in older people is commonly hidden, and may coexist with physical conditions that are prioritised by both patients and GPs. Being invited to participate in a trial about depression may allow older people to disclose their feelings, name the problem, and seek help. Offering older people an opportunity to talk outside the primary care consultation is valued by patients and GPs. A psychosocial intervention delivered by a case manager in the primary care setting may fill the gap in the care of older people with depression. Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN45842879.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · BMC Family Practice
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Studies of the diagnostic accuracy of depression screening tools often used data-driven methods to select optimal cut-offs. Typically, these studies report results from a small range of cut-off points around whatever cut-off score is identified as most accurate. When published data are combined in meta-analyses, estimates of accuracy for different cut-off points may be based on data from different studies, rather than data from all studies for each cut-off point. Thus, traditional meta-analyses may exaggerate accuracy estimates. Individual patient data (IPD) meta-analyses synthesise data from all studies for each cut-off score to obtain accuracy estimates. The 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is commonly recommended for depression screening in the perinatal period. The primary objective of this IPD meta-analysis is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the EPDS to detect major depression among women during pregnancy and in the postpartum period across all potentially relevant cut-off scores, accounting for patient factors that may influence accuracy (age, pregnancy vs postpartum). Methods and analysis Data sources will include Medline, Medline In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Studies that include a diagnosis of major depression based on a validated structured or semistructured clinical interview administered within 2 weeks of (before or after) the administration of the EPDS will be included. Risk of bias will be assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. Bivariate random-effects meta-analysis will be conducted for the full range of plausible cut-off values. Analyses will evaluate data from pregnancy and the postpartum period separately, as well as combining data from all women in a single model. Ethics and dissemination This study does not require ethics approval. Dissemination will include journal articles and presentations to policymakers, healthcare providers and researchers. Systematic review registration PROSPERO 2015:CRD42015024785.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · BMJ Open
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    ABSTRACT: Observational studies indicate children whose mothers have poor mental health are at increased risk of socio-emotional behavioural difficulties, but it is unknown whether these outcomes vary by the mothers' mental health recognition and treatment status. To examine this question, we analysed linked longitudinal primary care and research data from 1078 women enrolled in the Born in Bradford cohort. A latent class analysis of treatment status and self-reported distress broadly categorised women as (a) not having a common mental disorder (CMD) that persisted through pregnancy and the first 2 years after delivery (N = 756, 70.1 %), (b) treated for CMD (N = 67, 6.2 %), or (c) untreated (N = 255, 23.7 %). Compared to children of mothers without CMD, 3-year-old children with mothers classified as having untreated CMD had higher standardised factor scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (d = 0.32), as did children with mothers classified as having treated CMD (d = 0.27). Results were only slightly attenuated in adjusted analyses. Children of mothers with CMD may be at risk for socio-emotional and behavioural difficulties. The development of effective treatments for CMD needs to be balanced by greater attempts to identify and treat women.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
  • Jaime Delgadillo · Miqdad Asaria · Shehzad Ali · Simon Gilbody
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    ABSTRACT: Since 2008, the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme has disseminated evidence-based interventions for depression and anxiety problems across more than 200 clinical commissioning group (CCG) areas in England. In order to maintain quality standards, government policy has set a benchmark expecting that 50% of treated patients should meet recovery criteria according to validated patient reported outcome measures. Using available data for 293,400 referrals and 110,415 cases that concluded treatment in the IAPT system between July - September 2014, we investigated the relationship between socioeconomic deprivation with service utilisation and clinical outcomes. We found significant correlations between the index of multiple deprivation (IMD) and the number of new referrals to psychological services across CCG areas, suggesting that the prevalence of mental health problems is greater in poorer areas. We also found that more deprived areas had lower average recovery rates. After adjusting performance benchmarks for local IMD, we found significant differences between unadjusted (72.5%) and adjusted (43.1%) proportions of underperforming CCG areas. We conclude that performance benchmarks should take into consideration the socioeconomic deprivation of local areas.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The British Journal of Psychiatry
  • Rachel Mann · Joy Adamson · Simon Gilbody
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Guidance from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence advocates the use of two case-finding questions about depressed mood and loss of interest in activities to identify perinatal depression. However, there are no studies of their acceptability when administered in the antenatal and postnatal period. Methods: The study was an intra-mixed methods cohort study set in an antenatal clinic in an inner-city hospital in the North of England. Pregnant women attending a routine antenatal appointment at approximately 26 weeks' gestation completed a self-report survey at a routine hospital antenatal appointment and a postal survey between 5 and 13 weeks postnatal. Survey responses and free-text commentaries of women's views were analysed using descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis. Results: Ninety-three percent of participants felt it was desirable to ask about perinatal mental wellbeing, and 97% felt comfortable answering the questions. Free-text comments revealed depressed and non-depressed women found the questions easy, simple and straightforward to answer. Conclusions: Case-finding questions to identify perinatal depression were generally acceptable to depressed and non-depressed pregnant and newly delivered mothers. Health professionals should consider the acceptability and appropriateness of this strategy in order to facilitate identification of perinatal mental health issues in routine maternity care practice.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · British Journal of Midwifery
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    ABSTRACT: Download the full report here: Background Self-management support interventions can improve health outcomes, but their impact is limited by the numbers of patients able or willing to access them. Men’s attendance at, and engagement with, self-management support appears suboptimal despite their increased risk of developing serious and disabling long-term conditions (LTCs). Objectives To assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, accessibility and acceptability of self-management support interventions in men with LTCs. Methods A quantitative systematic review with meta-analysis and a qualitative review using a metaethnography approach. The findings of the two reviews were integrated in parallel synthesis. Data sources In the quantitative review, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was searched to identify published reviews of self-management support interventions. Relevant reviews were screened to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of self-management support interventions conducted in men alone, or which analysed the effects of interventions by gender. In the qualitative review, the databases Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EMBASE, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, PsycINFO and Social Science Citation Index (July 2013) were searched from inception to July 2013. Review methods In the quantitative review, data on relevant outcomes, patient populations, intervention type and study quality were extracted. Quality appraisal was conducted independently by two reviewers using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis was conducted to compare the effects of interventions in male, female and mixed-sex groups. In the metaethnography, study details, participant quotes (first-order constructs) and study authors’ themes/concepts (second-order constructs) were extracted. Quality appraisal was conducted independently by two reviewers using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. Data were synthesised according to a metaethnography approach. Third-order interpretations/constructs were derived from the extracted data and integrated to generate a ‘line-of-argument’ synthesis. Results Forty RCTs of self-management support interventions in male-only samples, and 20 RCTs where an analysis by gender was reported, were included in the quantitative review. Meta-analysis suggested that interventions including physical activity, education and peer support have a positive impact on quality of life in men, and that men may derive more benefit than women from them, but there is currently insufficient evidence to draw definitive conclusions. Thirty-eight qualitative studies relevant to men’s experiences of, and perceptions of, self-management support were included in the qualitative review. The metaethnography identified four concepts: (1) need for purpose; (2) trusted environments; (3) value of peers; and (4) becoming an expert. Findings indicated that men may feel less comfortable engaging in support if it is perceived to be incongruous with valued aspects of masculine identities. Men may find support interventions more attractive when they have a clear purpose, are action-oriented and offer practical strategies that can be integrated into daily life. Support delivered in an environment that offers a sense of shared understanding can be particularly appealing to some men. Conclusions Health professionals and those involved in designing interventions may wish to consider whether or not certain components (e.g. physical activity, education, peer support) are particularly effective in men, although more research is needed to fully determine and explore this. Interventions are most likely to be accessible and acceptable to men when working with, not against, valued aspects of masculine identities. Study registration This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42013005394. Funding The National Institute for Health Research Health Services and Delivery Research programme.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015
  • E Peckham · T J Bradshaw · S Brabyn · S Knowles · S Gilbody
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    ABSTRACT: Accessible summary: People with severe mental ill health are up to three times more likely to smoke than other members of the general population. Life expectancy in this client group is reduced by up to 30 years, and smoking is the single most important cause of premature death. The aim of this study was to explore why people with severe mental ill health smoked and why they might want to stop smoking or cut down on the amount of cigarettes that they smoked. The study found that people with severe mental ill health are motivated to cut down or stop smoking, and this is mainly due to concerns about their own health. The reasons people gave for smoking were to relieve stress, to help relax and for something to do when they are bored. Health professionals should offer evidence supported smoking cessation therapy to people with severe mental ill health. In addition to standard National Health Service smoking cessation treatments such as pharmacotherapy and behavioural support. Practitioners should help people with serious mental ill health to identify meaningful activities to relieve boredom and challenge any incorrect beliefs they hold that smoking helps relaxation and relieves stress. Abstract: Smoking is the single most preventable cause of premature mortality for people with serious mental ill health (SMI). Yet little is known about the reasons why service users smoke or what their motivations for quitting might be. The aim of this paper is to explore smoking behaviours, reasons for smoking and motivations for cutting down/stopping smoking in individuals with SMI who expressed an interest in cutting down or stopping smoking. Prior to randomization, the smoking behaviours and motivations for wanting to cut down or stop smoking of participants in a randomized trial were systematically assessed. Participant's primary reasons for continuing to smoke were that they believed it helped them to cope with stress, to relax and relieve boredom. Participant's main motivations for wanting to cut down or stop smoking were related to concerns for their own health. Previous attempts to stop smoking had often been made alone without access to evidence supported smoking cessation therapy. Future recommendations include helping people with SMI to increase their activity levels to relieve boredom and inspire confidence in their ability to stop smoking and challenging beliefs that smoking aids relaxation and relieves stress.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
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    ABSTRACT: Services have variable practices for identifying and providing interventions for 'severe attachment problems' (disorganised attachment patterns and attachment disorders). Several government reports have highlighted the need for better parenting interventions in at-risk groups. This report was commissioned to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of parenting interventions for children with severe attachment problems (the main review). One supplementary review explored the evaluation of assessment tools and a second reviewed 10-year outcome data to better inform health economic aspects of the main review. A total of 29 electronic databases were searched with additional mechanisms for identifying a wide pool of references using the Cochrane methodology. Examples of databases searched include PsycINFO (1806 to January week 1, 2012), MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations (1946 to December week 4, 2011) and EMBASE (1974 to week 1, 2012). Searches were carried out between 6 and 12 January 2012. Papers identified were screened and data were extracted by two independent reviewers, with disagreements arbitrated by a third independent reviewer. Quality assessment tools were used, including quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies - version 2 and the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of parenting interventions was undertaken. A health economics analysis was conducted. The initial search returned 10,167 citations. This yielded 29 RCTs in the main review of parenting interventions to improve attachment patterns, and one involving children with reactive attachment disorder. A meta-analysis of eight studies seeking to improve outcome in at-risk populations showed statistically significant improvement in disorganised attachment. The interventions saw less disorganised attachment at outcome than the control (odds ratio 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.34 to 0.65; p < 0.00001). Much of this focused around interventions improving maternal sensitivity, with or without video feedback. In our first supplementary review, 35 papers evaluated an attachment assessment tool demonstrating validity or psychometric data. Only five reported test-retest data. Twenty-six studies reported inter-rater reliability, with 24 reporting a level of 0.7 or above. Cronbach's alphas were reported in 12 studies for the comparative tests (11 with α > 0.7) and four studies for the reference tests (four with α > 0.7). Three carried out concurrent validity comparing the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) with another assessment tool. These had good sensitivity but poor specificity. The Disturbances of Attachment Interview had good sensitivity and specificity with the research diagnostic criteria (RDC) for attachment disorders. In our supplementary review of 10-year outcomes in cohorts using a baseline reference standard, two studies were found with disorganised attachment at baseline, with one finding raised psychopathology in adolescence. Budget impact analysis of costs was estimated because a decision model could not be justifiably populated. This, alongside other findings, informed research priorities. There are relatively few UK-based clinical trials. A 10-year follow-up, while necessary for our health economists for long-term sequelae, yielded a limited number of papers. Maternal sensitivity interventions show good outcomes in at-risk populations, but require further research with complex children. The SSP and RDC for attachment disorders remain the reference standards for identification until more concurrent and predictive validity research is conducted. A birth cohort with sequential attachment measures and outcomes across different domains is recommended with further, methodologically sound randomised controlled intervention trials. The main area identified for future work was a need for good-quality RCTs in at-risk groups such as those entering foster care or adoption. This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42011001395. The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Health technology assessment (Winchester, England)
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) is a widely used screening tool for major depressive disorder (MDD), although there is debate surrounding its diagnostic properties. For the PHQ-9, we aimed to: 1. Establish the diagnostic performance at the standard cutoff point (10). 2. Compare the diagnostic performance at the standard cutoff point in different clinical settings. 3. Assess whether there is selective reporting of cutoff points other than 10. We searched three databases - Embase, MEDLINE and PSYCHInfo - and performed a reverse citation search in Web of Science. We selected for inclusion studies of any design that assessed the PHQ-9 in adult populations against recognized gold-standard instruments for the diagnosis of either Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders or International Classification of Diseases criteria for major depression. Included studies had to report sufficient information to calculate 2*2 contingency tables. Data extraction and synthesis were performed independently by two researchers. For the included studies, we calculated pooled sensitivity, pooled specificity, positive likelihood, negative likelihood ratio and diagnostic odds ratio for cutoff points 7 to 15. Thirty-six studies (21,292 patients) met inclusion criteria. Pooled sensitivity for cutoff point 10 was 0.78 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.70-0.84], and pooled specificity was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.84-0.90). At this cutoff, the PHQ-9 is a better screener in primary care than secondary care settings. No conclusions could be drawn at cutoff points other than 10 due to selective reporting of data. For MDD, the PHQ-9 has acceptable diagnostic properties at cutoff point 10 in different settings. We recommend that future studies report the full range of cutoff points to allow exploration of optimal cutoff points in different settings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · General Hospital Psychiatry

Publication Stats

8k Citations
954.43 Total Impact Points


  • 2010-2015
    • Hull York Medical School
      York, England, United Kingdom
  • 1997-2015
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York, New York, United States
  • 1995-2015
    • The University of York
      • • Hull York Medical School
      • • Department of Health Sciences
      • • Centre for Reviews and Dissemination
      York, England, United Kingdom
  • 1999-2010
    • University of Leeds
      • • Leeds Institute of Health Sciences (LIHS)
      • • School of Medicine
      Leeds, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Glasgow
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2003
    • University College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2002
    • University of Helsinki
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
  • 2001
    • York University
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2000
    • University of Leicester
      • Department of Health Sciences
      Leiscester, England, United Kingdom