[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No randomized, controlled, prospective study has evaluated the effect of growth hormone (GH) on the rates of middle ear (ME) disease and hearing loss in girls with Turner syndrome (TS).
A 2-year, prospective, randomized, controlled, open-label, multicenter, clinical trial ('Toddler Turner Study'; August 1999 to August 2003) was carried out.
The study was conducted at 11 US pediatric endocrine centers.
Eighty-eight girls with TS, aged 9 months to 4 years, were enrolled.
The interventions comprised recombinant GH (50 microg/kg/day, n = 45) or no treatment (n = 43) for 2 years.
The outcome measures included occurrence rates of ear-related problems, otitis media (OM) and associated antibiotic treatments, tympanometric assessment of ME function and hearing assessment by audiology.
At baseline, 57% of the girls (mean age = 1.98 +/- 1.00 years) had a history of recurrent OM, 33% had undergone tympanostomy tube (t-tube) insertion and 27% had abnormal hearing. There was no significant difference between the treatment groups for annual incidence of OM episodes (untreated control: 1.9 +/- 1.4; GH-treated: 1.5 +/- 1.6, p = 0.17). A quarter of the subjects underwent ear surgeries (mainly t-tube insertions) during the study. Recurrent or persistent abnormality of ME function on tympanometry was present in 28-45% of the girls without t-tubes at the 6 postbaseline visits. Hearing deficits were found in 19-32% of the girls at the annual postbaseline visits. Most of these were conductive deficits, however, 2 girls had findings consistent with sensorineural hearing loss, which was evident before 3 years of age.
Ear and hearing problems are common in infants and toddlers with TS and are not significantly influenced by GH treatment. Girls with TS need early, regular and thorough ME monitoring by their primary care provider and/or otolaryngologist, and at least annual hearing evaluations by a pediatric audiologist.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · Hormone Research in Paediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Typically, growth failure in Turner syndrome (TS) begins prenatally, and height sd score (SDS) declines progressively from birth.
This study aimed to determine whether GH treatment initiated before 4 yr of age in girls with TS could prevent subsequent growth failure. Secondary objectives were to identify factors associated with treatment response, to determine whether outcome could be predicted by a regression model using these factors, and to assess the safety of GH treatment in this young cohort.
This study was a prospective, randomized, controlled, open-label, multicenter clinical trial (Toddler Turner Study, August 1999 to August 2003).
The study was conducted at 11 U.S. pediatric endocrine centers.
Eighty-eight girls with TS, aged 9 months to 4 yr, were enrolled.
Interventions comprised recombinant GH (50 mug/kg.d; n = 45) or no treatment (n = 43) for 2 yr.
The main outcome measure was baseline-to-2-yr change in height SDS.
Short stature was evident at baseline (mean length/height SDS = -1.6 +/- 1.0 at mean age 24.0 +/- 12.1 months). Mean height SDS increased in the GH group from -1.4 +/- 1.0 to -0.3 +/- 1.1 (1.1 SDS gain), whereas it decreased in the control group from -1.8 +/- 1.1 to -2.2 +/- 1.2 (0.5 SDS decline), resulting in a 2-yr between-group difference of 1.6 +/- 0.6 SDS (P < 0.0001). The baseline variable that correlated most strongly with 2-yr height gain was the difference between mid-parental height SDS and subjects' height SDS (r = 0.32; P = 0.04). Although attained height SDS at 2 yr could be predicted with good accuracy using baseline variables alone (R(2) = 0.81; P < 0.0001), prediction of 2-yr change in height SDS required inclusion of initial treatment response data (4-month or 1-yr height velocity) in the model (R(2) = 0.54; P < 0.0001). No new or unexpected safety signals associated with GH treatment were detected.
Early GH treatment can correct growth failure and normalize height in infants and toddlers with TS.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2007 · Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism