Shigeki Kobayashi

Kitasato University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (9)12.63 Total impact


  • No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Nihon Chikusan Gakkaiho
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    ABSTRACT: Antioxidant and oxidative stress effects of prooxidants are generally dose-dependent, and these effects depend on the prooxidant species and cell type. However, the cellular response to oxidant challenge is a complicated interplay of events involving cellular expression of phase II detoxification enzymes and cellular metal metabolism. This study demonstrates the effect of tert-butylhydroquinone (t-BHQ)-induced oxidative stress on MDCK cells. Cell toxicity tests were carried out using the crystal violet (CV) assay with the following prooxidants: t-BHQ, diethyl maleate (DEM), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), diquat (DQ) and β-naphthoflavone (β-NF). Except for β-NF, these prooxidants showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity besides the most potent t-BHQ cytotoxicity. Only t-BHQ and DEM caused significant time-dependent expression of ferritin protein as an antioxidant, which segregates Fe(2+), causing the Fenton reaction. t-BHQ and DEM increased formation of lipid peroxidation, but DQ showed a tendency to decrease lipid peroxidation levels. In XTT assay, even when substantial cell death was observed in the CV assay, t-BHQ appeared to increase cell viability by enhancing XTT reduction, likely through the production of NADPH. Although curcumin, which induces cytoprotective phase II enzymes and chelates metal irons, decreased cell viability, it inhibited t-BHQ cytotoxicity. These results indicate that t-BHQ exhibits strong cytotoxicity against MDCK cells, an effect mitigated by curcumin, and that t-BHQ-induced oxidative stress activates the pentose phosphate pathway.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to examine the contributions of central and peripheral leptin to hyperphagia in lactation. Lactating rats were mated at 7-8 weeks of age and housed singly with their litters. In experiment 1, food intakes were significantly (P<0.01) greater (350% on average) in lactation than in non-lactation throughout a day. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leptin levels remained constant despite plasma leptin levels being significantly (P<0.05) greater in non-lactation than in lactation. In experiment 2, CSF leptin levels were not altered by i.v. injections of leptin (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg body weight) despite that plasma leptin levels were dose dependently (P<0.01) increased. Moreover, i.v. administration of leptin significantly (P<0.05) decreased food intake in non-lactating rats but not in lactating rats. In experiment 3, nocturnal food intakes were temporarily (P<0.05) reduced in non-lactating and lactating rats. I.c.v. administration of a leptin antagonist (15 μg) blocked the reductions of food intakes. I.c.v. administration of leptin (10 μg) significantly (P<0.05) decreased cumulative food intakes during 24 h in both the physiological states. In conclusion, this study has presented new evidence that the hyperphagia of lactating rats could be partly due to depressed sensitivity of neurons contacting blood leptin. In contrast, the responsiveness of leptin receptors contacting CSF leptin may not differ between non-lactating and lactating rats. Furthermore, the levels of CSF leptin remained constant independent of those of blood leptin. Therefore, the expression of hypothalamic leptin receptors contacting CSF could be involved in the difference in food intake between non-lactating and lactating rats.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Journal of Endocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: Tetrazolium salts such as XTT and MTT are widely used to produce formazan for cell proliferation and cytotoxicity assays through bioreductase activity. However, the XTT assay showed significant increase in MDBK cell viability when cells were treated with both 50 and 100 muM of the pro-oxidant, tert-butylhydroquinone (t-BHQ), although the crystal violet assay showed no cytotoxic effect with these concentrations, and the induction of lipid peroxidation was not observed. We investigated the mechanism of enhancement of XTT substrate reduction after treatment of MDBK cells with t-BHQ, leading to apparent increase in cell viability. t-BHQ caused an increase in absorbance at 340 nm in culture medium, suggesting that t-BHQ increases cellular production and release of NADH and/or NADPH. Although t-BHQ did not change the NADH concentration in cell culture medium, the addition of NADP(+)-dependent glutathione reductase decreased the XTT reduction to the control level, indicating cellular release of NADPH. t-BHQ also increased intracellular glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, producing NADPH. Taken together, our findings indicate that t-BHQ treatment activates NADPH generating enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase followed by release of NADPH in the cell culture medium, resulting in direct XTT reduction by NADPH.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate effects of glucagon intracerebroventricularly administered on feed intake and endocrine changes in sheep. Four male sheep (48-55 kg BW) were used. The animals were acclimatized to be fed alfalfa hay cubes at 12.00 hour. Human glucagon (40 and 80 microg/0.5 mL) was injected into the lateral ventricle at 12.00 hour. Blood samples were taken every 10 min from 30 min before to 180 min after the glucagon injection. Soon after the injection, the animals were given alfalfa hay cubes, and the amounts of the feed eaten within 2 h were measured. Feed intakes were significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed by 80 microg of glucagon. Plasma glucose levels in control animals were gradually decreased after the feeding, whilst those in glucagon-treated animals were temporarily elevated just after the feeding and then kept higher than control levels. Plasma insulin was abruptly elevated after the feeding and was maintained at higher levels than before the feeding in all treatments. Plasma NEFA concentrations were decreased after the feeding in all treatments. A tendency of increase in plasma cortisol levels occurred in glucagon-injected animals. The present study provides the first evidence that glucagon directly acts on the brain, then inhibiting feeding behavior and inducing endocrine responses in ruminants.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Animal Science Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to investigate roles of ghrelin in glucose-induced insulin secretion in fasting- and meal-fed state in sheep. Castrated Suffolk rams were fed a maintenance diet of alfalfa hay cubes once a day. Hyperglycemic clamp (HGC) was carried out to examine glucose-induced insulin response from 48 to 53 h (fasting state) and from 3 to 8 h (meal-fed state) after feeding in Experiment 1 and 2 respectively. Total dose of 70 nmol/kg body weight of D-Lys3-GHRP6, a GH secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) antagonist, was intravenously administered at 0, 60, and 120 min after the commencement of HGC. In the fasting state, the ghrelin antagonist significantly (P < 0.01) enhanced glucose-induced insulin secretion. In the meal-fed state, i.v. administration of synthetic ovine ghrelin (0.04 microg/kg body weight per min during HGC) significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced glucose-induced insulin secretion. d-Lys3-GHRP6 treatment suppressed ghrelin-induced enhancement of the insulin secretion. In conclusion, ghrelin has an inhibitory and stimulatory role in glucose-induced insulin secretion via GHS-R1a in fasting- and meal-fed state respectively.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2007 · Journal of Endocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: After injection with 0.1 mmol diquat/kg body weight, survival time was markedly shorter in Fischer-344 rats fed a purified diet than in rats fed a regular diet, and much more severe hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity were observed in the former than in the latter. The longer the feeding period on the purified diet, the shorter the survival time after diquat administration. These results indicate that the purified diet lacked components present in the regular diet that had protective effects against diquat toxicity. These two diets had nearly the same composition and content of vitamins and minerals. We tested the ingredients of the regular diet to determine which ones reduce diquat toxicity. We found that wheat bran had a protective effect, but that rice bran and bean-curd refuse (okara) did not.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2007 · Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry
  • Shigeki Kobayashi · Yoshiaki Terashima · Hiroshi Itoh
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    ABSTRACT: Chitosan, a polymer of glucosamine, decrease the absorption of dietary fat and then reduce the abdominal fat deposition in broiler chickens. Chitosan is digested by hens and broilers. Thus, chitosan may decrease lipogenesis and triglyceride (TG) synthesis in the liver. However, little research has been done to determine whether dietary chitosan regulate hepatic lipid metabolism in chickens. Administration of antithyroid agent such as propylthiouracil (PTU) induces excessive lipid deposition in livers of chickens. The present experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary chitosan on liver lipid concentrations in broiler chickens fed on PTU containing diets. Male broiler chickens at 14d old were fed on the basal diet based on corn and soybean meal or a PTU containing (0.03%) diets supplemented with or without 5% chitosan for 2 weeks. Administration of PTU increased (P<0.05) thyroid weight, liver weight and the contents of total lipid and TG in the liver. Dietary chitosan did not affect feed intake, body weight gain, feed efficiency, thyroid weight, liver weight and plasma TG concentration, but decreased (P<0.05) the contents of total lipid and TG in the liver regardless of dietary PTU treatment. These results suggest that dietary chitosan may not affect excessive lipid deposition in the liver induced by PTU, although a part of dietary chitosan may be absorbed and reduce lipogenesis and TG synthesis in the liver in broiler chickens.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2006 · The Journal of Poultry Science
  • Shigeki Kobayashi · Yoshiaki Terashima · Hiroshi Itoh

    No preview · Article · Jan 2006 · The Journal of Poultry Science